अनुवाद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

anuvad shabd ka arth samanyat: vyakhya ya vishleshan hai. isaka arth poorvakathit bat ka vishleshan ya ullekh ya ek bhasha se doosari bhasha men roopantaran karana mana jata hai. snskrit sahity men vishesh roop se brahman grnthon ka vah bhag anuvad mana jata hai jisamen poorvokt nirdensh ya vidhi vyakhya, chitran ya tika nihit hoti thi aur jo svayn koee vidhi ya nidesh nahin hota tha. kisi kathan ke pashchath‌ kiya gaya 'vad' hi anuvad tha. kabhi achary anuvad karate the, kabhi koee daksh shishy.

prachin kal men anuvad

adhunik sahity men anuvad shabd ke arth ka vikas ya parivartnn ho jane ke karan prachin arth many nahin rah gaya hain. ab ek bhasha men likhe ya kahe hue vishay ko doosari bhasha men roopanrit karana anuvad kaha jata hai. yah kala sirph likhit bhasha ke saman hi prachin nahin hai, balki manav bhasha ke saman atiprachin kal se isaka astitv snbhav mana ja sakata hai; tab se kisi chatur dubhashie ne uchcharit bhasha ya snket bhasha ki sahayata se ek bhashabhashi ke kathy ko doosare bhashabhashi tak pahunchana hoga. pashchimi jagath‌ men prachinatam likhit sahity ke anuvad roop men sumeriyan gilgamish namak prachin kavy ke anshon ka ee.poo. doosari shati ki char panch eshiyaee bhashaon men anuvad upalabdh hota hai. pashchimi jagath‌ men sarvadhik mahatvapoorn anuvad saptuajint (Septuagint) grnth ka hai, jo yahoodiyon ke arshagrnth ka grik bhasha men anuvad hai. sikndar ke samay men yoonan aur bharat ka sanskritik snbndh sthapit hone se (ee.poo. 327 ee.) anek bharatiy grnthon evn vigyanon ki grik bhasha men anuvad hua. isi samay se bharatiy ganit ka shoony yoorop men lokapriy hua. isase bhi poorv bauddh sahity ka pali men pranayan hone se snskrit pali men paraspar anuvad kriya ka arnbh hua. bauddhon ke prabhav evn prayas se anek bharatiy grnthon ka anuvadakary chini, tibbati bhashaon men snpann hua. arabon ke sindh men agaman se ganit aur ayurved ke katipay anshon ka arabi bhasha men anuvad hua. jab arabon ne yoorop vijay kiya to arabi se purtagij, italiyan, laitin, grik adi men anek likhit sahity ki upayogi baton ka anuvadakary prarnbh hua aur isamen vriddhi huee. madhyakal men jab samnton aur shasakon ne pandulipiyon ko kharidana shuru kiya to anuvadakary ko protsahan mila. isase shaikshanik kary ko bhi arthik protsahan mila.

adhunik kal men anuvad

anuvad ki drishti se adhunik kal atynt upayogi raha hai. yooropiy samrajyavad ke vistar ne anek sabhyataon aur sahityon ko ek doosare se jod diya, jisake phalasvaroop anek bhashaon ke grnthon ka anuvad angrezi, phrench, speni, purtagij aur jarman men tatha inase any bhashaon men hua. roos aur chin ki samyavadi kranti ne marks, engels, lenin, stalin aur mao tse tung ke anek grnthon ka anuvad vishv ki pray: sabhi pramukh bhashaon men upalabdh kara diya hai. vigyan ki achchhi aur upayogi pustakon ka anuvad bhi rashtriy madhyam bhashaon men hone lag gaya hai. ajakal vigyan ki sahayata se anuvad ki knpyootar jaisi mashinon ka avishkar ho gaya hai. bahubhashi deshon ki snsadon, snyukt rashtrasngh tatha any antarashtriy sammelanon men mashinon dvara ek bhasha se doosari bhasha men anuvadakary avilnb snpann hone lag gaya hai. mashinen ab ek bhasha se doosari bhasha men pustakon ka bhi anuvad karane lagi hain.

anuvad kala

anuvad kala ki kuchh kathinaiyan bhi hoti hain. vigyan, arthashastr, itihas jaise vishayon ka anuvad apekshakrit sugam hai kyonki isamen shabd ki abhidhashakti ki aur vachyarth ki hi avashyakata padati hai; snketarth, guhmarth athava shailigat vishishtata ki kathinaee nahin rahati. kintu darshan evn sahity ke grnthon ka anuvadakary utana sugam nahin hota. inamen shabd ki vynjanashakti, rachanakar ki manasik sthiti, arthagat snket evn sndarbh ki jatilata bahut badi badhaen hoti hain. keval shabdarth ya shabdakosh ki sahayata se in grnthon ka do bhashaon men paraspar anuvad kathin hota hai. mashin bhi in samasyaon ka sahi samadhan nahin de pati.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. anuvad (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 10 disambar, 2013.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

shabd sndarbh kosh
kashtakar antararashtriy antarrashtriy kalpasiddhi gatha upakhyan akhyan shatabdi suee nyagrodh mahapran vynjan antahsth vynjan oshthy vynjan danty vynjan moordhany vynjan talavy vynjan kanthy vynjan avyay vats kumar kimpurush saty vah snvarttak (hal) sthavar jara mohanastr aishik shastr rat sanatan anant adbhut varah dand vimukh kukur vrishadhvaj (bahuvikalpi) yayavar satr kulapati charu shoorp yoothanath dvarapal kalabattoo dhatta kadavak klib bhring patohoo attagattar attagam achal pravritti abohan ant-ayamh barabar kshetr hirany haraniparynt halli hallikar halik haiman shasy shrani svaviryopajivin sunu soona sthan sthan many sthal sthal vritti strot chaturth pnchabhagikam gunapatr khettasamik kripyagrih kumaragadiyanak kulyavap karmantik sima ekapurushikam utpadyamanavishti avat asihar ali aghat adhavay adanak skndhavar sity siddh seva setubndh senabhakt sarvamany sarv-abhyantar-siddhi sannidhata sngrahat snkrant snkar kul snkar gram sadhy ayanangal attapatibhag asvaynkrit krishi ardhasitika akshayanivi akshapataladhyaksh akshapatal akrit akrisht akaradayin akarad agrahar agraharik adevamatrik adhyiy-manussanam niyog samaharta sali sakarukar sadbhag sachitt sabha-madhyam shulk shaulkik shasan roodhamarodhi ropan rajju rajakiy kshetr yogakshem yav mey masu moolavap mndapika mahatran bhootavatapratyay bhoomichchhidranyay bhoomask bhukti bhujyaman bhogayak bhogapati bhogagam bhog bhikshu hal bhikhkhuhalaparihar bhandagarik brahmadey bittuvatt bhadrabhog bhagadudh bhaikshak bijagan baraj phenaghat pustapal poorvavap pur pratikar pradesh pathak patit pindak pautavamh pattala parshv parru patak pallika pariharik parihar padonalaksh panyasnstha paribhog pnchakul nyay karnik nivartan vyamishr-bhoomi brihi vivita vittolakar vishamatta vilop vatthupati vatak vaset-kutambik varta varshikashasy varatra varaj viparyast viparyay vapi vapatiriktamh vap gatya langul roopajiva roopadarshak shastriy kala shastr astr shastr shastriy thana sootr svabhav savyasachi puny tithi jaynti sair rngashala tarani tarani jatak ghoshanapatr godhooli mahamaya vitan meharab sharkara gaz yatana shivir samanvayavad goshthi kachahari anamika (ungali) madhyama tarjani angootha nuqta kootasth smart kandara khana khanabadosh koshn upabhog upabhokta utpadan utpadak akhetak naugamy avasthit aur upasthit abhigy aur anabhigy afavah aur kinvadnti adhikansh aur adhikatar antarrashtriy aur antararashtriy anuvad adhyas sahodara sahodar dashalakshan dharm snyam janashruti paras rajamahal sudarshan anushthan kathauti kathauta baragir baragi bijana jugad kharal nal kashkol sadaqa chhinnak arani ap: valay tarng avashesh sakhi abhng abir shrring raka lokakatha akhada angahin bavali khndahar safar sarika antardhan daity vidhi yam (snyam) nivesh nam puchhattar bakhar tattho-thnbho bela goru asarait muda alagyojha dvij ambu pravrajya eehit eehamrig eeha eehag eesari eesar eesan ees eeshm eeshu eeshika eesha eeshana eeshad eeshath‌sprisht eeshat eeshvaropasana eeshvariy eeshvari eeshvaradhin eeshvaravadi eeshvar-vad eeshvar-pranidhan eeshitv eeshita eesha eeshata eeli eeli eel eershyalu eershya eershyak eershy eershu eershit eershalu eersha eershana eerit eeran eeramad eerakha eer eemanadari eemanadar eeman-kalyan eeman eepsu eepsit eepsa eeda trignbhir trigndhak trigng trikhi trikha trikh trikshur trikshar trikon-miti trikon-bhavan trikon-phal tri-koorchak trikoota trikoot gadh trikuti trikuta trikut trikaladarshi trikaladarshita trikal-darshak trikalgyta trikalgy trikal trikarshik trikay trika trikandiy eedrish eedi eetar eedh trikand eedy trik-shool eedit trikal eedan eethi trikarma trikarman trikatray eethana trikatuk trikatu trikat eejad trikakum eeja trikakud eechha tri-knt gyanad gyanachakshu gyanagochar gyanagamy gyan krit gyatrivy gyati putr gyati gyata gyatavy gyat yauvana gyat-nndan gyat gypti gyapit gyapan gypt gypan eechhan eekharaj trishansh tri eekh eekshit trinshatpatr eeksha eekshika trishat eekshan trishah eekshanik eekshak eekarant trahi indr savarni indr sabha indr varuni indr vadhoo indr vnsha indr yav indr mndal indr nil indr dhvaj indradhanushi indr jau indrajali indr jav indrachap indr gop eekar indr giri indr krisht eedh indrak eenta indriyavad eencha-tani indiralay indira-raman indira eenchana intaha intazar eestar intazam intaqal eesh manohari intaqam intakohara eesh-gaud intaee ingur eesh-giri ingudi eeth dravy kafan adrisht sadi grnth kalantar drishy tatavarti gntavy supachy paridrishy udagam talluq dar benami sauda apavah prayopavesh anushruti ang shabd sndarbh soochi alnkaran bhuv kinvadnti madhu vaikunth (bahuvikalpi) agni jin (bahuvikalpi) asndi mithak atma bhakt pradarsh pradar astik toran kanik kanika eshana ela upahasit unmatt unmukh udrek udot aja upashaman upasham eeti apoh anooru anuyog anuyojy nepathy nrimedh nirdisht nivritt nivritti nirvap nirvat nishkantak viplav nishk viplavi viplav chinty ajiv ajivak parapatr nikshepak nikshep dhrishtata dhrisht dhav akhilesh vitarkan vitark latta vitat kurng kunjar kalush dhatri vidya dhatriphal dhatri navami dhatri karni kapisha kanakhi karsh dript ark shamy sushravy dhriti sushrava ayut shishi dhrit sushthu sushrav apatr snvrit rnjan rnjak yoothika yoop yuti yashti lunchan lasy sasy samarchan sahik sukrit lalam binb banak bhasvar bhavy pranav achchhadit achchhadak achchhann janmandh vivart vivarn hapana hap vachy vak lav rochana rochan rechan rechak ruchira ruchir mukari (paheli) audichy aurvashey shala aurv sharika shari shakun amlan phurahari charvi agah chakanachoor shnku shaman sharabh shardool chokha chitra okha okh aindr phunagi agamy vahika vahik kshataj kshat ksharan kshar ghalana ghal bilalana bndhak jhilamila jhilam kshitij yatharthavad ookha yatharth ookh oogat khanak khan kanak laghavi laghavik laghavakari laghav kshiprahast chhak havi havy kanishthika sugat janant tush hriti hritadhikar drishti drishtarth drishtant drishtavad pratyakshavad pratyagatma kshiprakari kshipr hrit pratyakshar hrichchhool kheh pratyaksh drishtavat moolabhoot drishtaphal vayavi vayaviy kanishtha vayav kanishth maulik drisht dosh drishtakoot moolik drisht vishti nidagh harmy achyut punit tattv mukari anand yntr pad andhata sadhu yash snt diksha vidhu muramardan purushottam bhav pitambar har madhav chaturbhuj ugr upendr sthanu kratudhvnsin bharg nilalohit trilochan viroopaksh vamadev (shiv) shitakinth (shiv) shitakinth garudadhvaj girish govind suparn shrikanth kapardin pinaki mrityunjay mrid girish nagantak bhootesh shnkar sharv narayan maheshvar (shiv) vainatey shoolin pashupati tarkshy eesh muni vikat munindr vighnanashak sumukh lokajit garutmath marajit bhagavat tathagat dharmaraj sarvgy vinayak agadh ary arh alp ikshu ichchha asrav asy ahary akrand akarsh asooyak akshar oj prakarsh panth prakrit ekarth unnamr ujjrimbhan eeshan unnat ujjrimbh jayy jay nairujy jalp mand tej namaskar namrata namr prabhav arjav pratap akropolis antashchetana ant:karan agora atinootan yug anagami anal anagradnt ativriddhi adhihrishata (ailarji) anubndh anubhav anubhavavad anyathanupapatti anyathasiddhi apil abhiprerak albam arajakata amin ayam injil intar lingua

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah