अनग्रदंत  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

agradnt (eedenteta), jaisa nam se hi spasht hai, ve jntu hain jinake agradnt nahin hote. hindi ka 'anagradnt' shabd angreji ke eedenteta ka samanarthak mana gaya hai. angreji ke 'eedenteta' shabd ka arth hai 'jntu jinako dant hote hi nahin'. angreji ka eedenteta nam kuviyar ne un jarayuj, stanadhari jntuon ke samuday ko diya tha jinake samane ke dant (kartanak dnt) athava jabade ke dant nahin hote. is samuday ke antargat dakshin amarika ke chintakhor (ainteetars), shakhanlabi (slaauth), varmi (armadiloz) aur purani duniya ke ardavark tatha vajrakit (paingolin) ate hain. inamen vajrakit tatha chintikhor bilakul dntavihin hote hain. anyon men keval samane ke kartanak dnt nahin hote, parntu shesh dant hras ki avastha men, bina dntavalk (inaimaln) tatha mool (root) ke, hote hain aur kisi kisi men danton ke patanashil poorvaj pae jate hain.

stanadhari praniyon ke vargikaran men pahale anagradnton ka ek varg (aaurdar) mana gaya tha aur isake tin upavarg the:
(k) jirnthra,
(kh) folindota tatha
(g) tayoobulidenteta,
kintu ab ye tinon upavarg svayn alag varg ban ge hain. is prakar eedenteta varg ka prithakh‌ astitv vilin hokar uparyukt tin vargo men samahit ho gaya hai.

jirnthra

yah pray: dakshin tatha madhy amariki praniyon ka samuday hai, yadyapi isake kuchh sadasy uttari amarika men bhi pravesh kar ge hain. praroopik (tipikal) amariki anagradnt athava jirnthra ki visheshata yah hai ki antim prishthiy tatha sabhi katikasherookaon men atirikt sndhimukhikaen (faiset) athava asamany sndhiyan paee jati hain. inamen dant ho bhi sakate hain aur nahin bhi. jab hote hain tab kabhi dant barabar hote hain athava ek sima tak vibhinn hote hai. sharir ka avaran mote balon athava asthil pattiyon ka roop le leta hai athava chhote ya bade balon ka snmishran hota hai.

yah varg tin kulon men vibhakt hai. inamen pahala hai braidipodidi, jisake udaharan triangulak shakhalnbi (slaauth) tatha dviangulak shakhalnbi hain. doosara hai miramekophejidi, jisake udaharan hain brihatkay chintikhor (jaent ainteetars) tatha triangulak chintikhor (thratod ainteetars). tisara hai desipodaidi, jisake udaharan hain: tessas ke varmi (armadiloz) tatha brihatkay varmi (jaent armadiloz).

shakhalnbi

shakhalnbi ka sir gol aur laghu, kan ka lor chhota, panv lnbe evn patale hote hain. stanapayi janavaron men any kisi bhi samuday ke ang vrikshavasi jivan ke itane anukool nahin hain jitane shakhalnbiyon men. inamen agrapad pashchapadon ki apeksha adhik bade hote hain. anguliyan lnbi, bhitar ki or mudi huee aur ankush sadrish hoti hain, jinase unako vrikshon par chadhane tatha unaki shakhaon ko pakadakar latake rahane men suvidha hoti hai. triangulak shakhalnbi ke agr tatha pashch donon hi padon men tin tin anguliyan hoti hain, kintu dviangulak shakhalnbi ke agrapad men do aur pashchapad men tin anguliyan hoti hain. inaki poonchh prathamik avastha men athava alpavikasit hoti hai. inaka sharir lnbe tatha mote balon se achchhadit rahata hai. ardr jalavayu ke karan inake balon par ek prakar ki hari kaee jaisi vastu 'ailji' utpann hoti hai jisase in janavaron ke rom hare pratit hote hain. isi se jab ye janavar hari hari daliyon par latake rahate hain tab aisa bhram hota hai ki ye us vriksh ki shakha hi hain. us samay dhyan se dekhane par hi in jntuon ka alag astitv gyan hota hai.

shakhalnbi

yah jntu vrikshon ki shakhaon par lataka hua chalata hai. mndagami hone ke karan ise angreji men slaauth kahate hain (slaauth=alasy). shakhalnbiyon ke sharir ki lnbaee 20 inch se 28 inch tak aur poonchh lagabhag do inch lnbi hoti hain. ye apana jivan vrikshon par bitate hain, bhoomi par utarate nahin; yadi kabhi utarate bhi hain to agrapad tatha pashchapadon ki lnbaee ki asamata ke karan badi kathinaee se chal pate hain. ye bndar ki bhanti uchhalakar ek ped se doosare ped par nahin jate, balki hava ke jhokon se jhuki daliyon ko pakadakar jate hain. ye apana jivan nirvah pattiyon, komal tahaniyon tatha phalon par karate hain. inake agrapad daliyon ko khinchakar mukh ki pahunch ke bhitar lane men sahayak hote hain, kintu pattiyon ko mukh men le jane ka kam nahin lete hain. ye nishichar, shant prakriti ke, anakramak evn ekantavasi hote hain. inaki mada ek bar men pray: ek hi bachcha janati hai.

chintikhor

(ainteetar) yah miramekophejidi kul ka sadasy hai. isaka thoothan nukila hota hai, jisake chhor par chhidr ke saman ek mukhadvar hota hai. ankhe chhoti tatha kan ka lor kisi men chhota aur kisi men bada hota hai. pratyek agrapad men panch anguliyan hoti hain. inamen tisari anguli men pray: bada, muda hua aur nukila nakh hota hai, jisase hath karyaksham tatha nipun khodanevala avayav siddh hota hai.

chintikhor

pashchapadon men char panch chhoti badi anguliyan hoti hain, jisamen sadharan akar ke nakh hote hain. agrapad ki anguliyan bhitar ki or mudi hoti hain, jisase chalate samay sharir ka bhar agrapad ki doosari, tisari tatha chauthi anguliyon ki oopari satah par tatha panchavin ki chhor ki ek gaddi par aur pashchapadon ke poore pnjon par padata hai. sabhi chintikhoron men poonchh bahut lnbi hoti hai. kisi kisi ki poonchh parigrahi hoti hai. sharir lnbe balon se achchhadit hota hai. dviangulak chintikhor (saikloturas) men thoothan chhota hota hai aur agrapad men char anguliyan hoti hain jinamen keval doosari tatha tisari men hi nakh hote hain. tisari ka nakh bada hota hain jo shakhalnbi ke pair ki bhanti ankush sadrinsh hoti hain.

chintikhor choohe ki nap se lekar do phut ki oonchaee tak ke hote hain aur dakshin tatha madhy amarika men nadi kinare tatha nam sthanon men pae jate hain. inaka mukhy bhojan dimak hai. ye varmi (armadiloz) ki bhanti mand banakar nahin rahate. ye svayn kisi par akraman nahin karate, kinntu akraman kie jane par apani raksha nakhon dvara karate hain. mada ek bar men ek hi bachcha deti hai.

varmi

(armadiloz)-yah desipodaidi kul ka sadasy hai. isaka sir chhota, chauda tatha daba hua hota hai. pratyek agrapad men tin se panch tak anguliyan hoti hain aur inamen pusht nakh hote hain, jo ek prakar ke khodane vale hathiyar ka kam dete hain. pashchapad men sada panch chhoti chhoti nakhayukt anguliyan hoti hain. poonchh pray: bhali bhanti vikasit hoti hai. varmi ka sara sharir haddi ki chhoti pattiyon se dhaka rahata hai. isi se ise varmi kahate hain (vam=kavach).

varmi (armadilo)

sharir asthil tvachiy pattiyon se dhaka rahata hai. ye pattiyan sharir ke lie kavach ka kam karati hai. varmi (armadiloz) men ansaphalakiy dhal (skainpular shild) ghani snyukt pattiyon ki bani hoti hai aur sharir ka agrabhag pattiyon se dhaka hota hai. isake bad anuprasth dhariyan hoti hain, jinake bich bich men romayukt tvacha hoti hai. pichhale bhag men ek pashchashroni dhal (pelvik shild) hoti hai. tolipyutas jinas men ye dhariyan chalayaman hoti hain, jisase yah janavar apane sharir ko lapetakar gend jaisa bana leta hai. poonchh bhi asthil pattiyon ke chhallon se dhaki hoti hai aur isi prakar ki pattiyan sir ki bhi raksha karati hain.

varmi lnbaee men chhah inch se lekar tin phut tak hote hain. ye sarvabhakshi hote hain. jad, mool, kide, patnge, chhipakaliyan tatha mrit pashuon ka mans ityadi sab kuchh inaka bhojy hai. yah jiv adhikatar nishichar hota hai. kabhi kabhi din men bhi dikhaee padata hai. yah anakramak hota hai aur any jntuon ko hani nahin pahunchata; yahan tak ki yadi pakad liya jay to svatntr hone ke lie prayatn bhi nahin karata. isaki raksha ka ekamatr sadhan bhoomi khodakar chhip jana hai. pair chhote hote hai, phir bhi yah badi teji se daudata hai. yah khule maidanon ya jngalon men rahata hai.

varg folidota-is varg ke antargat anevale praniyon ki pramukh visheshata yah hai ki unake sir, dhad tatha poonchh shringashalkon (sing jaisi pattiyon) se dhake hote hain. shalkon ke bich men yatr tatr bal pae jate hain. dant bilakul hi nahin hote. jagal chap (joogular arch) tatha akshak (klaivikal) bhi nahin hote. khopadi lnbi aur belanakar hoti hai. netraguhiy tatha shnkhak khaton (tenporal fosa) ke kuchh vibhajan nahin hota. jibh bahut lnbi hoti hai.

is varg ke udaharan eshiya tatha aphrika ke vajrakit athava paingolin hain. is varg men keval ek jati (jinas) menis hai. is jati ke antargat sat upajatiyan (spishiz) hain, jinamen se tin upajatiyan banarohoo ( menis pentadektaila), pahadi vajrakit athava lor dhari vajrakit (menis arita) tatha malayi vajrakit (menis javanika) bharat men pae jate hain.

banarohoo

himalay pradesh ko chhodakar shesh bharat tatha lnka men paya jata hai. bharat ke vibhinn pradashon men inake vibhinn nam hain: vajrakit, vajrakapata, salasaloo, kauli ma, banarohoo, khetamachh, ityadi. loradhari vajrakit (menis) sikkam aur nepal ke poorv himalay ki sadharan unchaee men, asam aur uttari bhagon ki pahadiyon se lekar karenni, dakshin chin, hainan tatha pharamosa men paya jata hai. malaya ka vajrakit malaya ke poorvavarti deshon se lekar silebiz tak, kochin chin, knbodiya ke dakshin, silahat aur tipara ke pashchim men paya jata hai.

sabhi vajrakit dntavihin hote hain aur any stanadhariyon se bhinn, badi chhipakali ki bhanti dikhaee dete hain. lagabhag ye sabhi bina kanavale tatha lnbi poonchhavale hote hain. poonchh jad men moti hoti hai. keval pet tatha shakhangon (hath, panv, kan nak ityadi) ke atirikt snpoorn sharir shalkon se achchhadit hota hai. shalkon ke bich bich men kuchh mote bal bhi hote hain. poonchh ka tal bhag bhi shalkon se dhaka hota hai. sir chhota aur nukila, thoothun snkirn tatha mukhavivar chhota hota hai. jihva lnbi, door tak bahar nikalanevali tatha krimi sadrish hoti hai. amashay chidiyon ke peshani (gizard) bhanti peshiy hota hai. shakhang chhote tatha pusht hote hain. pratyek pair men panch anguliyan hoti hain, jinamen pusht nakh lage hote hain. agrapadon ke nakh pashchapadon ki apeksha bade hote hain. sabhi padon ke madhy nakh bahut bade hote hain. agrapadon ke nakh vishesh roop se mitti khodane ke upayukt bane hote hain. chalane se unaki nok kunthit n ho jay, isalie ve bhitar ki or mude hote hain. unaki oopari satah hi dharatal ko sparsh karati he, kyonki ye jntu hatheli ke bal nahin chalate, balki chalate samay sharir ka bhar chauthi tatha panchavin anguliyon ki bahy tatha oopari satah par dalate hain. pashchapad sadharan: pnje ke bal chalanevale hote hain. chalate samay ye janavar talave ke bal pag rakhate hain aur us samay inaki pith dhanushakar ho jati hai.

vajrakit

jab kabhi vajrakit (paingolin) par kisi prakar ka akraman hota hai to vah apane sharir ko lapetakar gend ke akar ka ho jata hai aur sharir par lage, ek ke oopar ek chadhe shalkon ke kor akraman se raksha karane tatha svayn prahar karane ke kam ate hain. yah jiv mnd gati se kintu paripusht mand nirmit karata hai. chintiyon tatha dimakon ke gharon ko khodakar yah apani lar se tar, chikani, lasili aur badi jibh ki sahayata se un kshudr jntuon ko kha jata hai. vajrakit ke amashayon men pray: patthar ke tukade pae ge hain. ye patthar ya to chidiyon sharir ke oopar lage, ek ke oopar ek chadhe, kade shalakon ke karan yah vajrakit kahalata hai. yah bharat ke pray: sabhi sthanon men paya jata hai aur isake vividh sthaniy nam hain, yatha vajrakit, vajrakapata, salasaloo, kauli ma, banarohoo, khetamachh, ityadi ki bhanti pachan ke hetu nigale jate hain athava kitabhojan ke sath snyogavash nigal lie jate hain. niyamat: vajrakit nishichar hota hai aur din men ya to chattanon ki dararon men athava svaynnirmit mandon men chhipa rahata hai. yah ekapatnidhari hota hai. aur isaki mada ek bar men keval ek ya doe bachche hi paida karati hai. vajrakit ko karavas (bndi avastha) bhi pala ja sakata hai aur yah shighr palatoo bhi ho jata hai, kintu ise bhojan khilana kathin hota hai. isamen apane sharir ko jhuka rakhakar pichhale pairon par khade hone ki vichitr adat hoti hai. varg tayoobulidentata-is varg ke antargat dakshin aphrika ka bhooshookar (ardavark ya aauriktiropas) ata hai. bhooshookar ka sharir moti khal se dhaka hota hai, parantu sir aur thoothan is prakar mile hote hain ki pata nahin chalata, kahan sir ka ant aur thoothan ka anrabh hai. mukh chhota aur jibh lnbi hoti hai. mukh men khoonti ke saman char ya panch dant hote hain, jinaki banavat vichitr hoti hai. danton men dntavalak nahin hota, sovaidentin hota hai, jis par ek prakar ke siment ka avaran hota hai. baisodentin ki majjaguha (palp kaiviti) nalikaon dvara chhidrit hoti hai, jisake karan is varg ka nam nalidar dntadhari (tayoobulidentata) pada hai.[1]

bhooshookar

bhooshookar ke agrapad chhote tatha majaboot hote hain aur pratyek men char anguliyan hoti hain. chalate samay inaki hatheliyan aur pair ke talave prithvi ko sparsh karate hain. pashchapadon men panch anguliyan hoti hain. lnbaee men ye jiv chhah phut tak pahunch jate hain. bhooshookar ka jivananirvah dimakon se hota hai. aphrika men paya janevala jntu jo poonchh lekar panch phut tak lnba hota hai aur dimak khakar jivananirvah karata hai.[2]

bhooshookar (ardavark)


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sn.grn.-ar.e.starnadel: naichural histri aauv indiyan maimeliya (1884); phrainkaphin: starnadels maimeliya aauv indiya (1929);parkar aind haisavel: tekstabuk aauv zoolazi (1941);faikai vor lire: di naichooral histri aauv maimals (1955).
  2. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 110,111,112 |

snbndhit lekh

shabd sndarbh kosh
kashtakar antararashtriy antarrashtriy kalpasiddhi gatha upakhyan akhyan shatabdi suee nyagrodh mahapran vynjan antahsth vynjan oshthy vynjan danty vynjan moordhany vynjan talavy vynjan kanthy vynjan avyay vats kumar kimpurush saty vah snvarttak (hal) sthavar jara mohanastr aishik shastr rat sanatan anant adbhut varah dand vimukh kukur vrishadhvaj (bahuvikalpi) yayavar satr kulapati charu shoorp yoothanath dvarapal kalabattoo dhatta kadavak klib bhring patohoo attagattar attagam achal pravritti abohan ant-ayamh barabar kshetr hirany haraniparynt halli hallikar halik haiman shasy shrani svaviryopajivin sunu soona sthan sthan many sthal sthal vritti strot chaturth pnchabhagikam gunapatr khettasamik kripyagrih kumaragadiyanak kulyavap karmantik sima ekapurushikam utpadyamanavishti avat asihar ali aghat adhavay adanak skndhavar sity siddh seva setubndh senabhakt sarvamany sarv-abhyantar-siddhi sannidhata sngrahat snkrant snkar kul snkar gram sadhy ayanangal attapatibhag asvaynkrit krishi 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indr sabha indr varuni indr vadhoo indr vnsha indr yav indr mndal indr nil indr dhvaj indradhanushi indr jau indrajali indr jav indrachap indr gop eekar indr giri indr krisht eedh indrak eenta indriyavad eencha-tani indiralay indira-raman indira eenchana intaha intazar eestar intazam intaqal eesh manohari intaqam intakohara eesh-gaud intaee ingur eesh-giri ingudi eeth dravy kafan adrisht sadi grnth kalantar drishy tatavarti gntavy supachy paridrishy udagam talluq dar benami sauda apavah prayopavesh anushruti ang shabd sndarbh soochi alnkaran bhuv kinvadnti madhu vaikunth (bahuvikalpi) agni jin (bahuvikalpi) asndi mithak atma bhakt pradarsh pradar astik toran kanik kanika eshana ela upahasit unmatt unmukh udrek udot aja upashaman upasham eeti apoh anooru anuyog anuyojy nepathy nrimedh nirdisht nivritt nivritti nirvap nirvat nishkantak viplav nishk viplavi viplav chinty ajiv ajivak parapatr nikshepak nikshep dhrishtata dhrisht dhav akhilesh vitarkan vitark latta vitat kurng kunjar kalush dhatri vidya dhatriphal dhatri navami dhatri karni kapisha kanakhi karsh dript ark shamy sushravy dhriti sushrava ayut shishi dhrit sushthu sushrav apatr snvrit rnjan rnjak yoothika yoop yuti yashti lunchan lasy sasy samarchan sahik sukrit lalam binb banak bhasvar bhavy pranav achchhadit achchhadak achchhann janmandh vivart vivarn hapana hap vachy vak lav rochana rochan rechan rechak ruchira ruchir mukari (paheli) audichy aurvashey shala aurv sharika shari shakun amlan phurahari charvi agah chakanachoor shnku shaman sharabh shardool chokha chitra okha okh aindr phunagi agamy vahika vahik kshataj kshat ksharan kshar ghalana ghal bilalana bndhak jhilamila jhilam kshitij yatharthavad ookha yatharth ookh oogat khanak khan kanak laghavi laghavik laghavakari laghav kshiprahast chhak havi havy kanishthika sugat janant tush hriti hritadhikar drishti drishtarth drishtant drishtavad pratyakshavad pratyagatma kshiprakari kshipr hrit pratyakshar hrichchhool kheh pratyaksh drishtavat moolabhoot drishtaphal vayavi vayaviy kanishtha vayav kanishth maulik drisht dosh drishtakoot moolik drisht vishti nidagh harmy achyut punit tattv mukari anand yntr pad andhata sadhu yash snt diksha vidhu muramardan purushottam bhav pitambar har madhav chaturbhuj ugr upendr sthanu kratudhvnsin bharg nilalohit trilochan viroopaksh vamadev (shiv) shitakinth (shiv) shitakinth garudadhvaj girish govind suparn shrikanth kapardin pinaki mrityunjay mrid girish nagantak bhootesh shnkar sharv narayan maheshvar (shiv) vainatey shoolin pashupati tarkshy eesh muni vikat munindr vighnanashak sumukh lokajit garutmath marajit bhagavat tathagat dharmaraj sarvgy vinayak agadh ary arh alp ikshu ichchha asrav asy ahary akrand akarsh asooyak akshar oj prakarsh panth prakrit ekarth unnamr ujjrimbhan eeshan unnat ujjrimbh jayy jay nairujy jalp mand tej namaskar namrata namr prabhav arjav pratap akropolis antashchetana ant:karan agora atinootan yug anagami anal anagradnt ativriddhi adhihrishata (ailarji) anubndh anubhav anubhavavad anyathanupapatti anyathasiddhi apil abhiprerak albam arajakata amin ayam injil intar lingua

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