अराजकता  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

arajakata, arajakatavad arajakata ek adarsh hai jisaka siddhant arajakatavad hai. arajakatavad rajy ko samapt kar vyaktiyon, samoohon aur rashtron ke bich svatntr aur sahaj sahayog dvara samast manaviy snbndhon men nyay sthapit karane ke prayatnon ka siddhant hai. arajakatavad ke anusar karyasvatnty jivan ka gatyatmak niyam hai, aur isilie usaka mntavy hai ki samajik sngathan vyaktiyon ke kary svatntry ke lie adhikatam avasar pradan kare. manaviy prakriti men atmaniyaman ki aisi shakti hai jo bahy niyntran se mukt rahane par sahaj hi suvyavastha sthapit kar sakati hai. manushy par anushasan ka aropan hi samajik aur naitik buraiyon ka janak hai. isalie hinsa par ashrit rajy tatha usaki any snsthaen in buraiyon ko door nahin kar sakatin. manushy svabhavat: achchha hai, kintu ye snsthaen manushy ko bhrasht kar deti hain. bahy niyntran se mukt, vastavik svatntrata ka sahayogi samoohik jivan pramukh riti se chhote samoohon se snbhav hai; isalie samajik sngathan ka adarsh snghavadi hai.

suvyavasthit roop men arajakatavad ke siddhant ko sarvapratham pratipadit karane ka shrey stoik vicharadhara ke pravarttak zeno ko hai. usane rajyarahit aise samaj ki sthapana par jor diya jahan nirapeksh samanata evn svatntrata manaviy prakriti ki satpravrittiyon ko suvikasit kar sarvabhaum samnjasy sathapit kar sake. doosari shatabdi ke madhy men arajakatavad ke samyavadi svaroop ke pravarttak karpokretiz ne rajy ke atirikt niji snpatti ke bhi unmoolan ki bat kahi. madhyayug ke uttarardh men eesaee darshanikon tatha samudayon ke vicharon aur sngathan men kuchh spasht arajakatavadi pravrittiyan vyakt hueen jinaka mukhy adhar yah dava tha ki vyakti eeshvar se sidha rahasyatmak snbndh sthapit kar papamukt ho sakata hai.

adhunik arth men vyavasthit dhng se arajakatavadi siddhant ka pratipadan viliyam gaaudavin ne kiya jisake anusar sarakar aur niji snpatti ve do buraiyan hain jo manav jati ki prakritik poornata ki prapti men badhak hain. doosaron ko adhinasth karane ka sadhan hone ke karan sarakar nirnkushata ka svaroop hai, aur shoshan ka sadhan hone ke karan niji snpatti kroor anyay. parntu gaaudavin ne sabhi snpatti ko nahin, keval usi snpatti ko bura bataya jo shoshan men sahayak hoti hai. adarsh samajik sngathan ki sthapana ke lie usane hinsatmak krantikari sadhanon ko anuchit thaharaya. nyay ke adarsh ke prachar se hi vyakti men vah chetana laee ja sakati hai jisase vah chhoti sthaniy ikaiyon ki adarsh arajakatavadi prasnvidatmak vyavastha sthapit karane men sahayog de sake.

isake bad do vicharadharaon ne vishesh roop se arajakatavadi siddhant ke vikas men yog diya. ek thi charam vyaktivad ki vicharadhara, jisaka pratinidhitv harbart spensar karate hain. in vicharakon ke anusar svatntrata aur satta men virodh hai aur rajy ashubh hi nahin, anavashyak bhi hai. kintu ye vicharak nishchit roop se niji snpatti ke unmoolan ke paksh men nahin the aur n sngathit dharm ke hi viruddh the.

doosari vicharadhara fuarabakh (Feuerbach) ke darshan se snbndhit thi jisane sngathit dharm tatha rajy ke parabhautik adhar ka virodh kiya. fuarabakh ke krantikari vicharon ke anukool maiks starnar ne samaj ko keval ek marichika bataya tatha dridhata se kaha ki manushy ka apana vyaktitv hi ek aisi vastavikata hai jise jana ja sakata hai. vaiyaktikata par simaen nirdharit karanevale sabhi niyam ahn ke svasth vikas men badhak hain. rajy ke sthan par 'ahnvadiyon ka sngh' (aisosieshan aauv igoists) ho to adarsh vyavastha men arthik shoshan ka unmoolan ho jaega, kyonki samaj ka pramukh utpadan svatntr sahayog ka pratiphal hoga. kranti ke snbndh men usaka yah mat tha ki hinsa par ashrit rajy ka unmoolan hinsa dvara hi ho sakata hai.

arajakatavad ko jagarook jan andolan banane ka shrey proodhon (Proudhon) ko hai. usane snpatti ke ekadhikar tatha usake anuchit svamitv ka virodh kiya. adarsh samajik sngathan vah hai jo 'vyavastha men svatntrata tatha ekata men svadhinata' pradan kare. is lakshy ki prapti ke lie do maulik krantiyan avashyak hain : ek ka snchalan vartaman arthik vyavastha ke viruddh tatha doosare ka vartaman rajy ke viruddh ho. parntu kisi bhi sthiti men kranti hinsatmak n ho, varanh‌ vyakti ki arthik svatntrata tatha usake naitik vikas par jor diya jae. antat: proodhon ne svikar kiya ki rajy ko poornaroopen samapt nahin kiya ja sakata, isalie arajakatavad ka mukhy uddeshy rajy ke karyon ko vikendrit karana tatha svatntr samoohik jivan dvara use jahan tak snbhav ho, kam karana chahie.

bakoonin ne adhunik arajakatavad men keval kuchh nee pravrittiyan hi nahin jodin, varanh‌ use samashtivadi svaroop bhi pradan kiya. usane bhoomi tatha utpadan ke any sadhanon ke samoohik svamitv par jor dene ke sath-sath upabhog ki vastuon ke niji svamitv ko bhi svikar kiya. usake vichar ke tin mooladhar hain : arajakatavad, anishvaravad tatha svatntr vargon ke bich svechchha par adharit sahayogita ka siddhant. phalat: vah rajy, charch aur niji snpatti, in tinon snsthaon ka virodhi hai. usake anusar vartaman samaj do vargon men vibhajit hai : snpann varg jisake hath men rajasatta rahati hai, tatha vipajh varg jo bhoomi, poonji aur shiksha se vnchit rahakar pahale varg ki nirnkushata ke adhin rahata hai, isalie svatntrata se bhi vnchit rahata hai. samaj men pratyek ke lie svatntrata-prapti anivary hai. isake lie doosaron ko adhin rakhanevali har prakar ki satta ka bahishkar karana hoga. eeshvar aur rajy aisi hi do sattaen hain. ek paralaukik jagath‌ men tatha doosari laukik jagath‌ men uchchatam satta ke siddhant par adharit hai. charch pahale siddhant ka martt roop hai. isalie rajyavirodhi kranti charchavirodhi bhi ho. sath hi, rajy sadaiv niji snpatti ka poshak hai, isalie yah kranti niji snpattivirodhi bhi ho. kranti ke snbndh men bakoonin ne hinsatmak sadhanon par apana vishvas prakat kiya. kranti ka pramukh uddeshy in tinon snsthaon ka vinash bataya gaya hai, parntu ne samaj ki rachana ke vishay men kuchh nahin kaha gaya. manushy ki sahayogita ki pravritti men asim vishvas hone ke karan bakoonin ka yah vichar tha ki manav samaj eeshvar ke andhavishvas, rajy ke bhrashtachar tatha niji snpatti ke shoshan se mukt hokar apana svasth sngathan svayn kar lega. kranti ke snbndh men usaka vichar tha ki use janasadharan ki sahaj kriyaon ka pratiphal hona chahie. sath hi, hinsa par atyadhik bal dekar usane arajakatavad men atnkavadi siddhant joda.[1]

pichhali shatabdi ke uttarardh men arajakatavad ne adhik se adhik samyavadi roop apanaya hai. is andolan ke neta kropatkin ne poorn samyavad par bal diya. parntu sath hi usane janakranti dvara rajy ko vinisht karane ki bat kahakar sattaroodh samyavad ko amany thaharaya. kranti ke lie usane bhi hinsatmak sadhanon ka prayog uchit bataya. adarsh samaj men koee rajanitik sngathan n hoga, vyakti aur samaj ki kriyaon par janamat ka niyntran hoga. janamat abadi ki chhoti-chhoti ikaiyon men prabhavotpadak hota hai, isalie adarsh samaj gramon ka samaj hoga. aropit sngathan ki koee avashyakata n hogi kyonki aisa samaj poornaroopen naitik vidhan ke anuroop hoga. hinsa par ashrit rajy ko snstha ke sthan par adarsh samaj ke adhar aichchhik sngh aur samuday honge aur unaka sngathan niche se vikasit hoga. sabase niche svatntr vyaktiyan ke samuday, kamyoon honge, kamyoon ke sngh prant, aur prant ke sngh rashtr honge. rashtron ke sngh yooropiy snyukt rashtr ki aur antat: vishv snyukt rashtr ki sthapana hogi.[2]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 232-33 |
  2. sn.grn.-kokar, eph. dablyoo. : risent politikal thaaut, nyooyaaurk, 1934; kropaautkin, pi. : enakrijm- its filasafi aind aidiyal, 1904; gre, elekjaindar di soshalist traidishan, lndan, 1946; rid, harbart : di filasafi aauv enarkijm, 1947; lohh‌r phredadik : enarkijm; vilsan, si. enarkijm.

snbndhit lekh

shabd sndarbh kosh
kashtakar antararashtriy antarrashtriy kalpasiddhi gatha upakhyan akhyan shatabdi suee nyagrodh mahapran vynjan antahsth vynjan oshthy vynjan danty vynjan moordhany vynjan talavy vynjan kanthy vynjan avyay vats kumar kimpurush saty vah snvarttak (hal) sthavar jara mohanastr aishik shastr rat sanatan anant adbhut varah dand vimukh kukur vrishadhvaj (bahuvikalpi) yayavar satr kulapati charu shoorp yoothanath dvarapal kalabattoo dhatta kadavak klib bhring patohoo attagattar attagam achal pravritti abohan ant-ayamh barabar kshetr hirany haraniparynt halli hallikar halik haiman shasy shrani svaviryopajivin sunu soona sthan sthan many sthal sthal vritti strot chaturth pnchabhagikam gunapatr khettasamik kripyagrih kumaragadiyanak kulyavap karmantik sima ekapurushikam utpadyamanavishti avat asihar ali aghat adhavay adanak skndhavar sity siddh seva setubndh senabhakt sarvamany sarv-abhyantar-siddhi sannidhata sngrahat snkrant snkar kul snkar gram sadhy ayanangal attapatibhag asvaynkrit krishi ardhasitika akshayanivi akshapataladhyaksh akshapatal akrit akrisht akaradayin akarad agrahar agraharik adevamatrik adhyiy-manussanam niyog samaharta sali sakarukar sadbhag sachitt sabha-madhyam shulk shaulkik shasan roodhamarodhi ropan rajju rajakiy kshetr yogakshem yav mey masu moolavap mndapika mahatran bhootavatapratyay bhoomichchhidranyay bhoomask bhukti bhujyaman bhogayak bhogapati bhogagam bhog bhikshu hal bhikhkhuhalaparihar bhandagarik brahmadey bittuvatt bhadrabhog bhagadudh bhaikshak bijagan baraj phenaghat pustapal poorvavap pur pratikar pradesh pathak patit pindak pautavamh pattala parshv parru patak pallika pariharik parihar padonalaksh panyasnstha paribhog pnchakul nyay karnik nivartan vyamishr-bhoomi brihi vivita vittolakar vishamatta vilop vatthupati vatak vaset-kutambik varta varshikashasy varatra varaj viparyast viparyay vapi vapatiriktamh vap gatya langul roopajiva roopadarshak shastriy kala shastr astr shastr shastriy thana sootr svabhav savyasachi puny tithi jaynti sair rngashala tarani tarani jatak ghoshanapatr godhooli mahamaya vitan meharab sharkara gaz yatana shivir samanvayavad goshthi kachahari anamika (ungali) madhyama tarjani angootha nuqta kootasth smart kandara khana khanabadosh koshn upabhog upabhokta utpadan utpadak akhetak naugamy avasthit aur upasthit abhigy aur anabhigy afavah aur kinvadnti adhikansh aur adhikatar antarrashtriy aur antararashtriy anuvad adhyas sahodara sahodar dashalakshan dharm snyam janashruti paras rajamahal sudarshan anushthan kathauti kathauta baragir baragi bijana jugad kharal nal kashkol sadaqa chhinnak arani ap: valay tarng avashesh sakhi abhng abir shrring raka lokakatha akhada angahin bavali khndahar safar sarika antardhan daity vidhi yam (snyam) nivesh nam puchhattar bakhar tattho-thnbho bela goru asarait muda alagyojha dvij ambu pravrajya eehit eehamrig eeha eehag eesari eesar eesan ees eeshm eeshu eeshika eesha eeshana eeshad eeshath‌sprisht eeshat eeshvaropasana eeshvariy eeshvari eeshvaradhin eeshvaravadi eeshvar-vad eeshvar-pranidhan eeshitv eeshita eesha eeshata eeli eeli eel eershyalu eershya eershyak eershy eershu eershit eershalu eersha eershana eerit eeran eeramad eerakha eer eemanadari eemanadar eeman-kalyan eeman eepsu eepsit eepsa eeda trignbhir trigndhak trigng trikhi trikha trikh trikshur trikshar trikon-miti trikon-bhavan trikon-phal tri-koorchak trikoota trikoot gadh trikuti trikuta trikut trikaladarshi trikaladarshita trikal-darshak trikalgyta trikalgy trikal trikarshik trikay trika trikandiy eedrish eedi eetar eedh trikand eedy trik-shool eedit trikal eedan eethi trikarma trikarman trikatray eethana trikatuk trikatu trikat eejad trikakum eeja trikakud eechha tri-knt gyanad gyanachakshu gyanagochar gyanagamy gyan krit gyatrivy gyati putr gyati gyata gyatavy gyat yauvana gyat-nndan gyat gypti gyapit gyapan gypt gypan eechhan eekharaj trishansh tri eekh eekshit trinshatpatr eeksha eekshika trishat eekshan trishah eekshanik eekshak eekarant trahi indr savarni indr sabha indr varuni indr vadhoo indr vnsha indr yav indr mndal indr nil indr dhvaj indradhanushi indr jau indrajali indr jav indrachap indr gop eekar indr giri indr krisht eedh indrak eenta indriyavad eencha-tani indiralay indira-raman indira eenchana intaha intazar eestar intazam intaqal eesh manohari intaqam intakohara eesh-gaud intaee ingur eesh-giri ingudi eeth dravy kafan adrisht sadi grnth kalantar drishy tatavarti gntavy supachy paridrishy udagam talluq dar benami sauda apavah prayopavesh anushruti ang shabd sndarbh soochi alnkaran bhuv kinvadnti madhu vaikunth (bahuvikalpi) agni jin (bahuvikalpi) asndi mithak atma bhakt pradarsh pradar astik toran kanik kanika eshana ela upahasit unmatt unmukh udrek udot aja upashaman upasham eeti apoh anooru anuyog anuyojy nepathy nrimedh nirdisht nivritt nivritti nirvap nirvat nishkantak viplav nishk viplavi viplav chinty ajiv ajivak parapatr nikshepak nikshep dhrishtata dhrisht dhav akhilesh vitarkan vitark latta vitat kurng kunjar kalush dhatri vidya dhatriphal dhatri navami dhatri karni kapisha kanakhi karsh dript ark shamy sushravy dhriti sushrava ayut shishi dhrit sushthu sushrav apatr snvrit rnjan rnjak yoothika yoop yuti yashti lunchan lasy sasy samarchan sahik sukrit lalam binb banak bhasvar bhavy pranav achchhadit achchhadak achchhann janmandh vivart vivarn hapana hap vachy vak lav rochana rochan rechan rechak ruchira ruchir mukari (paheli) audichy aurvashey shala aurv sharika shari shakun amlan phurahari charvi agah chakanachoor shnku shaman sharabh shardool chokha chitra okha okh aindr phunagi agamy vahika vahik kshataj kshat ksharan kshar ghalana ghal bilalana bndhak jhilamila jhilam kshitij yatharthavad ookha yatharth ookh oogat khanak khan kanak laghavi laghavik laghavakari laghav kshiprahast chhak havi havy kanishthika sugat janant tush hriti hritadhikar drishti drishtarth drishtant drishtavad pratyakshavad pratyagatma kshiprakari kshipr hrit pratyakshar hrichchhool kheh pratyaksh drishtavat moolabhoot drishtaphal vayavi vayaviy kanishtha vayav kanishth maulik drisht dosh drishtakoot moolik drisht vishti nidagh harmy achyut punit tattv mukari anand yntr pad andhata sadhu yash snt diksha vidhu muramardan purushottam bhav pitambar har madhav chaturbhuj ugr upendr sthanu kratudhvnsin bharg nilalohit trilochan viroopaksh vamadev (shiv) shitakinth (shiv) shitakinth garudadhvaj girish govind suparn shrikanth kapardin pinaki mrityunjay mrid girish nagantak bhootesh shnkar sharv narayan maheshvar (shiv) vainatey shoolin pashupati tarkshy eesh muni vikat munindr vighnanashak sumukh lokajit garutmath marajit bhagavat tathagat dharmaraj sarvgy vinayak agadh ary arh alp ikshu ichchha asrav asy ahary akrand akarsh asooyak akshar oj prakarsh panth prakrit ekarth unnamr ujjrimbhan eeshan unnat ujjrimbh jayy jay nairujy jalp mand tej namaskar namrata namr prabhav arjav pratap akropolis antashchetana ant:karan agora atinootan yug anagami anal anagradnt ativriddhi adhihrishata (ailarji) anubndh anubhav anubhavavad anyathanupapatti anyathasiddhi apil abhiprerak albam arajakata amin ayam injil intar lingua

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