घोषणापत्र  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ghoshanapatr (angrezi: Manifesto) pray: ek vyakti ya samooh dvara un siddhanton aur nitiyon ki ghoshana hai jisamen am janata ka hit nihit ho. samasamayik jivan se snbndhit ghoshana ka sadharanatam roop vah hai jise rajanitik dal, visheshakar chunav ke avasar par, prasarit karate hain. aise dalon se yah apeksha ki jati hai ki ve janata ko apane chunav men samarthan ki mang ka karan batate hue un nitiyon tatha yojanaon ko bhi spasht karen, jinhen ve apani sarakar banane par karyanvit karenge.

dharmik ghoshanapatr

gnbhir arth men manav ki kuchh udatt vaniyan (Pronouncements) ghoshanapatr ki prakriti men upasthit samajhi ja sakati hain. vastut: vah aisi adhyatmik anubhooti ka sakshatkar hai jisase usaka labh adhik se adhik log utha saken. jab hamare bharatiy rishiyon ne 'soahamh‌' (vah main hoon) aur 'tatvamasi' (vah too hai) ki ghoshana ki to mahanh‌ ghoshanapatron ki bhanti yah charam saty ki abhivyakti thi. jab hamare ashramon se yah sundar shabd dhvanit hua-

'shrinvntu vishve amritasy putra: a yedhamani divyani tasthu:, janamyahn tn purushn mahantamadity varnamh‌ tamas: parastath‌'

to yah ghoshanapatr ka ek shalinatam udaharan ban gaya.

baibil men varnan hai ki jab prabhu eesa pitar ki bhanti shishy banane ko utsuk machhuon se mile, unhonne snkshep men unase kaha- 'mera anusaran karo'. tatpashchath‌ parvat shikhar se unhonne ek mahatvapoorn upadesh diya jo dharm ka mahanh‌ ghoshanapatr hai. romanon ke liye sent pal ke tatha eesaee karinthiyanon aur doosaron ke liye likhe ge any dharmapatr pray: ghoshanapatron ki shaili men hain kintu ye atynt hridayasparshi hain. islam ka prachar ashcharyajanak roop se 'quran sharif' ke nare se hua. vah utkrisht ghoshanapatr ke roop men samajha ja sakata hai-

'eeshvar ke atirikt aur kuchh bhi saty nahin hai, aur mohammad usaka paignbar hai.'

darshan snbndhi ghoshanapatr

jab pleto ne apane 'ripablik' men yah vichar pratipadit kiya ki 'rajy ke adhyaksh darshanik hon, aur darshanik adhyaksh hon' tab usane ek arth men snsar ke sammukh chirasthayi shakti aur akarshan ka ghoshanapatr prastut kiya. tamas mor (16vin shatabdi) ne manav jati ko apane 'yootopiya' grnth dvara doosara ghoshanapatr diya. rooso ka 'soshal kantraikt' (18vin shatabdi) jo 'manushy svatntr utpann hua tha, kintu sarvatr bndhan men hai', adi avismaraniy shabdon se anrabh hota hai, manaviy chetana ka mahanh‌ ghoshanapatr hai. isi shreni men samyavadi ghoshanapatr (1848) ata hai jise marks ne enjels ke sahayog se likha.

aitihasik ghoshanapatr

angreji kranti (1641-60) ne bahut badi snkhya men patr patrikaon ko janm diya. ve sabhi tatkalin vicharon ko vyakt karane vale bahut prabhavashali ghoshanapatr the. 'levelars', 'digars' aur visheshat: miltan ne 'kamanavelth' ke utthan ke liye bahut likha. miltan ne samrath ke mrityudnd ko nyayapoorn siddh karate hue kuchh pustaken laitin men likhin taki unaka antararashtriy paimane par prachar ho. ve sabhi sachche arthon men angreji kranti ke ghoshanapatr the. briten ke viruddh amariki upaniveshon men vidroh ne svatntrata ke elana (Declaration) ke roop men ek bahut gnbhir ghoshanapatr prastut kiya. isaka anusaran phransisi kranti ke lekhapatr ne, jo snsar ke liy ghoshanapatr tha, manushy ke adhikaron ko ghoshit karake kiya (1991). yah kathan, ki sabhi manushy saman utpann hue hain, aur unhen jivanayapan, svatntrata aur sukhabhog ke saman adhikar hain, snsar ki snpatti ho gaya hai.

sahityik ghoshanapatr

angrej kavi sheli (1792-1822) ne kaviyon ko 'agyapit vidhayak' kaha hai. usaki kuchh kavitaen ghoshanapatron ke saman hain. jaise-

o pavan, is supt jag ke liye
mere hothon dvara (ghoshit)
divy sndesh ka toory ban ja
yadi shit ritu ati hai
kya vasnt door rah sakata hai?

rajanaitik ghoshanapatr

1848 men 'samyavadi ghoshanapatr' prakashit hua jo samajik parivartan ke andolan ka adharabhoot saiddhantik vivaran prastut karata hai, jisaki chunauti samasamayik itihas ka bahut bada tathy hai. rashtrasngh ka pratigyapatr (1919) aur snyukt rashtr (1945) ka shasanapatr jaise pralekh bhi sachche arthon men ghoshanapatr kahe ja sakate hain, jo snsar ki mahatvakanksha vyakt karate hain. rajanitik dalon ke ghoshanapatr, jinamen nirvachan ke avasar par unake siddhant, nitiyan aur yojana snbndhi prastav janata ke snmukh spasht kie jate hain, adhik prachalit hain kintu is vastusthiti ko smaran rakhana bahut hitakar hai ki ghoshanapatr itihas men prabhavashali dhng se mahatvapoorn rahe hain. ghoshanapatr, samyavadi (kamyoonist mainiphasto) : navnbar, 1847 ke ant men lndan men samyavadi sngh ki doosari kangres huee. isamen us kalpanik samajavad ki bhartsana ki gee jisaka vishvas tatkalin samajavadiyon men pray: samany roop se jam gaya tha. us adhiveshan men shadyntrakari nitiyon ka vahishkarakar sngathan ko naya roop diya gaya aur ek nee yojana ki ghoshana ki gee. navanirmit krantikari mnch (pletapharm) ke samyavadi siddhanton ko angikrit kar ghoshanapatr ka praroop prastut karane ka kary karl marks aur phredrik enjels ko saunpa gaya.

samyavadi ghoshanapatr

is prakar samyavadi ghoshanapatr (1848 ) ka pradurbhav hua jo pray: sarvash: marks ka kary tha aur jisapar us tejasvi vicharak ki asadharan pratibha ki gahari chhap thi. yah ghoshanapatr apani vishayavastu aur vicharadhara men poornat: maulik tha. isake sath hi yah patr ek aitihasik tarkamimansa, yuktiyukt vishleshan, karyakram tatha bhavishyavani tha. mitr shatru donon vargon ne ise moordhany kriti mana hai. samyavadi ghoshanapatr men itani spashtata aur shakti hai jitani marks ko abatak prapt n huee thi, aur jitani, ekadh chamatkaron ekadh chamatkaron ko chhod, pichhe bhi kabhi snbhav n ho saki. isake antargat unhonne us poonjivad ka aitihasik uddeshy gnbhiratapoorvak pramanit kiya jisamen utpadan ke sadhanon ka to prabal vikas hua tha kintu unaka upayog samajik avashyakataon ki poorti ke liye nahin ho raha tha. isamen unhonne sarvahara aur madhyamavarg ke bich ke tivr virodh, utpadan ki arajakata ke roop men prakat poonjivad ke antardvndv, vitaran ki asamata aur snkaton (kraisison) pratyaksh kiya hai. poonjivad ki qabr khodanevale ne samajavadi samaj ke vidhata ke shramik prolatariyat (sarvahara varg) ki aitihasik vishvavyapi bhoomika marks ne apani mahanh pratibha dvara pratishthit ki hai. marks ke anusar sanmati samaj ke bhagnavashesh se utha vartaman madhyavargiy samaj varg bair ko mita nahin paya. usane keval purane vargon ke sthan par ne varg khade kar die, atyachar ke ne avasar, sngharsh ke ne roop prastut kar die. vartaman rajyashakti samooche madhyavarg ke sngathit karyon ke prashasan ke liye matr samiti ke atirikt doosara kuchh nahin hai. upaj aur usake yatayat ki madhyavargiy dashaon, madhyavargiy sanpattik snbndh aur samagr roop se adhunik madhyavargiy samaj ne upaj ke shaktimay sadhanon ko maya dvara svayatt kar liya hai- ye paristhitiyan us vivash jadoogar ki si ho gee hain jo apane jad se patal se atmaon ko bula lene ke bad phir unhen niyntrit karane men asamarth ho jata hai. madhyavargiy samaj jaise jaise vikasit hota hai, usaka patan bhi vaise hi vaise samip ata jata hai, kyonki vah samaj svayn anivaryat: adhunik shramikon, vijayi sarvaharaon jaisi un shaktiyon ko janm deta hai jo use todakar vighatit kar dengi.

marks apane ghoshanapatr men nirbhikatapoorvak likhate hain: sabhi poorvavarti andolan alpasnkhyakon ke andolan the. sarvahara andolan bahumat dvara bahusnkhyakon ke hit men chalaya gaya svatntr andolan hai. ant men vah bahut prabhavashali dhng se kahate hain : samyavadi apane vichar aur lakshy chhipane se inakar karate hain. ve spasht ghoshit karate hain, ki unake uddeshyon ki siddhi vartaman samajik vyavastha ko balapoorvak ukhad phenkane se hi ho sakati hai. samyavadi kranti ki snbhavana se shasak varg kanp uthe lekin sarvaharaon ko siva apani bediyon ke kuchh khona nahin. isake viruddh unhen ek samoochi duniya ki snprapti hogi. sare deshon ke sarvaharaon, milakar ek ho jao.

ghoshanapatr ka ek bhag marks se bhinn siddhanton aur tatkalin samajavadiyon men prachalit any andolanon ka vivechan kar unhen amany siddh karata hai. marks men apane vastavik vatavaran ki snkirn simaon se apane ko oopar utha lene ki adbhut kshamata thi; goya vah choti par khade hokar ghatit hoti us vikas ki dhara ko dekh rahe hon jisen atit vartaman men samakar door bhavishy men udit ho raha hai. choonki vah ghoshanapatr karakhanon ke mazadooron ke mahanh‌ aur nirntar badhate hue andolan sen snbndhit tha, nissndeh vah vidvattapoorn siddhanton ka matr chartar nahin hai. varanh‌ samajik kranti ke jin aghriny, akaty niyamon men marks vishvas karata tha, yah ghoshanapatr unhin ki prabal abhivyakti hai aur isaki shaili men vah jadoo hai jisase itihas ka hriday spndit ho uthata hai.

stalin ne is ghoshanapatr ko marksavad ke giton ka git ghoshit kiya tha. samyavad athava marks ke snbndh men chahe koee jo soche, ni:sndeh yah avismaraniy ghoshana hai, jisane itihas ke ek samooche yug ko achchha ya bura, bharapoor prabhavit kiya hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. ghoshanapatr (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 24 aktoobar, 2014.

snbndhit lekh

shabd sndarbh kosh
kashtakar antararashtriy antarrashtriy kalpasiddhi gatha upakhyan akhyan shatabdi suee nyagrodh mahapran vynjan antahsth vynjan oshthy vynjan danty vynjan moordhany vynjan talavy vynjan kanthy vynjan avyay vats kumar kimpurush saty vah snvarttak (hal) sthavar jara mohanastr aishik shastr rat sanatan anant adbhut varah dand vimukh kukur vrishadhvaj (bahuvikalpi) yayavar satr kulapati charu shoorp yoothanath dvarapal kalabattoo dhatta kadavak klib bhring patohoo attagattar attagam achal pravritti abohan ant-ayamh barabar kshetr hirany haraniparynt halli hallikar halik haiman shasy shrani svaviryopajivin sunu soona sthan sthan many sthal sthal vritti strot chaturth pnchabhagikam gunapatr khettasamik kripyagrih kumaragadiyanak kulyavap karmantik sima ekapurushikam utpadyamanavishti avat asihar ali aghat adhavay adanak skndhavar sity siddh seva setubndh senabhakt sarvamany sarv-abhyantar-siddhi sannidhata sngrahat snkrant snkar kul snkar gram sadhy ayanangal attapatibhag asvaynkrit krishi ardhasitika akshayanivi akshapataladhyaksh akshapatal akrit akrisht akaradayin akarad agrahar agraharik adevamatrik adhyiy-manussanam niyog samaharta sali sakarukar sadbhag sachitt sabha-madhyam shulk shaulkik shasan roodhamarodhi ropan rajju rajakiy kshetr yogakshem yav mey masu moolavap mndapika mahatran bhootavatapratyay bhoomichchhidranyay bhoomask bhukti bhujyaman bhogayak bhogapati bhogagam bhog bhikshu hal bhikhkhuhalaparihar bhandagarik brahmadey bittuvatt bhadrabhog bhagadudh bhaikshak bijagan baraj phenaghat pustapal poorvavap pur pratikar pradesh pathak patit pindak pautavamh pattala parshv parru patak pallika pariharik parihar padonalaksh panyasnstha paribhog pnchakul nyay karnik nivartan vyamishr-bhoomi brihi vivita vittolakar vishamatta vilop vatthupati vatak vaset-kutambik varta varshikashasy varatra varaj viparyast viparyay vapi vapatiriktamh vap gatya langul roopajiva roopadarshak shastriy kala shastr astr shastr shastriy thana sootr svabhav savyasachi puny tithi jaynti sair rngashala tarani tarani jatak ghoshanapatr godhooli mahamaya vitan meharab sharkara gaz yatana shivir samanvayavad goshthi kachahari anamika (ungali) madhyama tarjani angootha nuqta kootasth smart kandara khana khanabadosh koshn upabhog upabhokta utpadan utpadak akhetak naugamy avasthit aur upasthit abhigy aur anabhigy afavah aur kinvadnti adhikansh aur adhikatar antarrashtriy aur antararashtriy anuvad adhyas sahodara sahodar dashalakshan dharm snyam janashruti paras rajamahal sudarshan anushthan kathauti kathauta baragir baragi bijana jugad kharal nal kashkol sadaqa chhinnak arani ap: valay tarng avashesh sakhi abhng abir shrring raka lokakatha akhada angahin bavali khndahar safar sarika antardhan daity vidhi yam (snyam) nivesh nam puchhattar bakhar tattho-thnbho bela goru asarait muda alagyojha dvij ambu pravrajya eehit eehamrig eeha eehag eesari eesar eesan ees eeshm eeshu eeshika eesha eeshana eeshad eeshath‌sprisht eeshat eeshvaropasana eeshvariy eeshvari eeshvaradhin eeshvaravadi eeshvar-vad eeshvar-pranidhan eeshitv eeshita eesha eeshata eeli eeli eel eershyalu eershya eershyak eershy eershu eershit eershalu eersha eershana eerit eeran eeramad eerakha eer eemanadari eemanadar eeman-kalyan eeman eepsu eepsit eepsa eeda trignbhir trigndhak trigng trikhi trikha trikh trikshur trikshar trikon-miti trikon-bhavan trikon-phal tri-koorchak trikoota trikoot gadh trikuti trikuta trikut trikaladarshi trikaladarshita trikal-darshak trikalgyta trikalgy trikal trikarshik trikay trika trikandiy eedrish eedi eetar eedh trikand eedy trik-shool eedit trikal eedan eethi trikarma trikarman trikatray eethana trikatuk trikatu trikat eejad trikakum eeja trikakud eechha tri-knt gyanad gyanachakshu gyanagochar gyanagamy gyan krit gyatrivy gyati putr gyati gyata gyatavy gyat yauvana gyat-nndan gyat gypti gyapit gyapan gypt gypan eechhan eekharaj trishansh tri eekh eekshit trinshatpatr eeksha eekshika trishat eekshan trishah eekshanik eekshak eekarant trahi indr savarni indr sabha indr varuni indr vadhoo indr vnsha indr yav indr mndal indr nil indr dhvaj indradhanushi indr jau indrajali indr jav indrachap indr gop eekar indr giri indr krisht eedh indrak eenta indriyavad eencha-tani indiralay indira-raman indira eenchana intaha intazar eestar intazam intaqal eesh manohari intaqam intakohara eesh-gaud intaee ingur eesh-giri ingudi eeth dravy kafan adrisht sadi grnth kalantar drishy tatavarti gntavy supachy paridrishy udagam talluq dar benami sauda apavah prayopavesh anushruti ang shabd sndarbh soochi alnkaran bhuv kinvadnti madhu vaikunth (bahuvikalpi) agni jin (bahuvikalpi) asndi mithak atma bhakt pradarsh pradar astik toran kanik kanika eshana ela upahasit unmatt unmukh udrek udot aja upashaman upasham eeti apoh anooru anuyog anuyojy nepathy nrimedh nirdisht nivritt nivritti nirvap nirvat nishkantak viplav nishk viplavi viplav chinty ajiv ajivak parapatr nikshepak nikshep dhrishtata dhrisht dhav akhilesh vitarkan vitark latta vitat kurng kunjar kalush dhatri vidya dhatriphal dhatri navami dhatri karni kapisha kanakhi karsh dript ark shamy sushravy dhriti sushrava ayut shishi dhrit sushthu sushrav apatr snvrit rnjan rnjak yoothika yoop yuti yashti lunchan lasy sasy samarchan sahik sukrit lalam binb banak bhasvar bhavy pranav achchhadit achchhadak achchhann janmandh vivart vivarn hapana hap vachy vak lav rochana rochan rechan rechak ruchira ruchir mukari (paheli) audichy aurvashey shala aurv sharika shari shakun amlan phurahari charvi agah chakanachoor shnku shaman sharabh shardool chokha chitra okha okh aindr phunagi agamy vahika vahik kshataj kshat ksharan kshar ghalana ghal bilalana bndhak jhilamila jhilam kshitij yatharthavad ookha yatharth ookh oogat khanak khan kanak laghavi laghavik laghavakari laghav kshiprahast chhak havi havy kanishthika sugat janant tush hriti hritadhikar drishti drishtarth drishtant drishtavad pratyakshavad pratyagatma kshiprakari kshipr hrit pratyakshar hrichchhool kheh pratyaksh drishtavat moolabhoot drishtaphal vayavi vayaviy kanishtha vayav kanishth maulik drisht dosh drishtakoot moolik drisht vishti nidagh harmy achyut punit tattv mukari anand yntr pad andhata sadhu yash snt diksha vidhu muramardan purushottam bhav pitambar har madhav chaturbhuj ugr upendr sthanu kratudhvnsin bharg nilalohit trilochan viroopaksh vamadev (shiv) shitakinth (shiv) shitakinth garudadhvaj girish govind suparn shrikanth kapardin pinaki mrityunjay mrid girish nagantak bhootesh shnkar sharv narayan maheshvar (shiv) vainatey shoolin pashupati tarkshy eesh muni vikat munindr vighnanashak sumukh lokajit garutmath marajit bhagavat tathagat dharmaraj sarvgy vinayak agadh ary arh alp ikshu ichchha asrav asy ahary akrand akarsh asooyak akshar oj prakarsh panth prakrit ekarth unnamr ujjrimbhan eeshan unnat ujjrimbh jayy jay nairujy jalp mand tej namaskar namrata namr prabhav arjav pratap akropolis antashchetana ant:karan agora atinootan yug anagami anal anagradnt ativriddhi adhihrishata (ailarji) anubndh anubhav anubhavavad anyathanupapatti anyathasiddhi apil abhiprerak albam arajakata amin ayam injil intar lingua

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