अपील  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

apil 'apil' shabd moolat: angreji ka hai jisamen yadyapi usake kee arth hain tathapi hindi men usaka prayog avedanapatr ke ashay men hota hai jo kisi hetu ya vad ko niche ke nyayadhish ya nyayadhikaran se hatakar uchchatar nyayadhish ya nyayadhikaran ke samaksh, niche ke nyayadhish ya nyayadhikaran nirnay par punarvichar ke lie, prastut kiya jata hai. kisi hetu ya vad ke niche ke nyayadhish ya nyayadhikaran se hatakar uchchatar nayayadhish ya nyayadhish ke samaksh prastut karana char vibhijh pranaliyon dvara hota hai--
(1) apil dvara,
(2) punarikshan dvara,
(3) lekh dvara, tatha
(4) nirdesh ki karravaee dvara. punaravalokan ki karravaee dvara kisi nyayadhish ya nyayadhikaran ke nirnay ka punarvichar usi nyayadhish ya nyayadhish dvara bhi ho sakata hai.

apil aur punarikshan men antar yah hai ki punarikshan uchchatar nyayalay ke svavivek par sadaiv nirbhar rahata hai aur adhikar ya svatv ke roop men usaki mang nahin ki ja sakati. uchchatar nyayalay punarikshan isi adhar par viyukt kar sakata hai ki niche ke nyayalay dvara sar roop men nyay ho chuka hai chahe vah nirnay vidhi ke pratikool hi hua ho. parntu apil aise kisi adhar par viyukt nahin ki ja sakati kyonki apil ka, ek bar svikar ho jane par, nirnay vidhi ke anusar kiya jana tab tak anivary hai jab tak apil karaneka adhikar denevalie samavidhi men koee viparit upabndh n ho.

apil bharat ki lekhapranali se anek roopon men bhijh hai. lekh ki karravaee keval uchch nyayalayon tatha uchchatam nyayalay men ho sakati hai jab ki apil uchch nyayalayon tatha uchchatam nyayalay ke atirikt any nyayalayon ya nyayadhikaran men bhi ho sakati hai. lekh uchch nyayalay ki adhikaran shakti ke antargat is hetu nikala jata hai ki niche ke nyayalay, nyayadhikaran, shasan ya usake adhikarigan apane kshetradhikar ke bahar kam n karen ya sarvajanik prayojan ke lie die hue kshetradhikar ka prayog karana asvikar n karen, athava unake nirnay pratyaksh roop se desh ki vidhi ke pratikool n hone paven tatha ve apana kartavyapalan uchit riti se karen. apil is prakar simabaddh nahin hai. apil sabhi prashnon ko lekar ho sakati hai---prashn chahe tathy ka ho chahe vidhi ka. dvitiy apil keval vidhi ke prashnon tak hi simit rahati hai.

apil aur nirdesh men yah bhed hai ki nirdesh ki yachana niche ke nyayalay dvara uchchtar nyayalay se ki jati hai taki vidhi ya pratha ke kisi aise prashn ka, jisake snbndh men niche ke nyayalay ko yuktiyukt sndeh ho, uchchatar nyayalay dvara nirnay kara liya jae.

itihas

angreji samany vidhi men apil ke lie koee upabndh nahin tha. parntu samany vidhi nyayalayon ki galatiyan trutilekh ke madhyam se kings bench nyayalay dvara sudhari jae sakati thin. trutilekh keval vidhi ke prashn par hota tha, tathy ke prashn par nahin.

parntu roman vidhi men apil ke lie upabndh tha. inglaid men apil ki karravaee roman vidhi se li gee aur angreji vidhi men usaka samavesh un vadon men hua jinaka nirnay suniti kshetradhikar ke antargat lard chansalar dvara athava dharm ya naukadhikaran nyayalayon dvara hota tha. bad men, samavidhi ne apil ke adhikar ko, samany vidhi tatha any kshetradhikar ke antargat honevale donon prakar ke vadon men, niyamit roop diya.

prachin bharat men, jab vivad kam hote the, raja svayn prajae ke vivadon ka nipatara karata tha. us samay apil ka prashn nahin tha kyonki raja nyay ka srot tha. parntu raja ke nyayalay ke sath sath lokapriy nyayalay hua karate the, bad men raja ne svayn niche ke nyayalayon ki sthapana ki. lokapriy nyayalay ya niche ke nirnay ke viruddh apil raja ke samaksh ho sakati thi (dr. 'ivolyooshan aauv inglish laau', en.si.sen gupta, prishth 45).

mugal kal men vyavaharavadon ki apil sadar divani adalat men tatha dndavadi ki apil nizam--e--adalat men hoti thi. parntu sanh‌ 1857 ee. ke asaphal svatntray yuddh ke pashchath‌ jab british rajy ne bharat ka shasan eest indiya knpani se apane hath men liya, sadar divani adalat tatha nizam-e-adalat ka unmoolan ho gaya aur unaka kshetradhikar kalakatta, bnbee tatha madras sthit mahanagar-uchch-nyayalayon ko de diya gaya. bad men bharat ke vibhinn pranton men uchch nyayalayon ki sthapana huee.

apil ke prakar

apil samanyat: do prakar ki hoti hai---
pratham apil ya dvitiy. katipay vadon men tritiy apil bhi ho sakati hai. pratham apil arnbhik nyayalay ke nirnay ke snbndh men uchchatar nyayalay men hoti hai.
dvitiy apil--apil nyayalay ke nirnay ke snbndh men shreshthatam adhikari ke samaksh hoti hai.

vyavahar apil

vyavahar vadon men nyayalay ke samast adesh do bhagon men vibhajit hote hain--'agypti' tatha adesh'. agypti se tatpary us abhinirnayan se hai jisake dvara, jahan tak abhinirnayan denevale nyayalay ka snbndh hai, vad ya vadanuroop any arnbhik karravaee men nihit vivadagrast sab ya kisi ek vishay ke snbndh men, vibhijh pakshon ke adhikaron ka antim roop se nivaran hota hai (dhara 2 (2) vyavahar-prakriya-snhita). adesh se tatpary vyavahar nyayalay ke aise pratyek vinishchay se hai jae agypti ki shreni men nahin ata (dhara 2 (14), vyavahar-prakriya-snhita). adesh ke virooddh keval ek apil ho sakati hai.

pratham apil vyavahar

prakriyasnhita ki dhara 96 ke antargat kisi agypti ke viruddh bad ke moolyanusar uchch nyayalay ya jila nyayadhish ke samaksh hoti hai. pratham apil men tathy tatha vidhi ke sabhi prashnon par vichar ho sakata hai. pratham apil nyayalay ko parikshan nyayalay ki samast shaktiyan prapt hain. dvitiy apil, vyavahar--prakriya--snhita ki jara 100 ke antargat vyavaharavadon men agypti ke viruddh keval vidhi snbndhi prashnon par, n ki tathy ke prashn par, uchch nyayalay men hoti hai. jab dvitiy apil ki sunavaee uchch nyayalay ke ek nyayadhish dvara hoti hai tab yah nyayadhish 'letars petent' ya uchch nyayalay vidhaniy adhiniyam ke antargat, usi nyayalay ke do nyayadhishon ke khnd ke samaksh ek aur apil ki anumati de sakata hai. == dnd apil == dnd apil snbadhi vidhi dnd--prakriya--snhita ki dhara 404 se lekar 431 tak men di huee hai. dnd snbndhi vadon men keval ek apil ho sakati hai. isaka ek hi apavad hai. jab apil nyayalay abhiyukt ko nimukt kar deta hai tab dnd-prakriya-snhita ki dhara 417 ke antargat vimukti adesh ke viruddh dvitiy apil uchch nyayalay men ho sakati hai.

jab jiladhish ke atirikt koee any dndanayak dnd--prakriya--snhita ki dhara 122 ke antargat kisi vad ko svikar ya vimukt karana asvikar kar de tab usake adesh ke viruddh apil jiladhish ke samaksh ho sakati hai (dhara 406 (a) dnd-prakriya-snhita). uttar pradesh rajy ne jiladhish ke samaksh honevali is apil ka bhi unmoolan kar diya hai aur apil jiladhish ke samaksh n hokar satranyayalay men hoti hai.

aise mamalon ko chhodakar, jinamen parikshan nyayalay dvara hota hai, dnd apil tathy tatha vidhi, donon prashnon par ho sakati hai. mrityu-dnd-prapt vyakti ke sath parikshit vyakti ki or se ki janevali apilon ko chhodakar, nyayasabhy dvara parikshit samast vadon ki apil keval vidhi vishayak prashnon ken snbndh men hi ho sakati hai. apil-nyayalay parikshan-nyayalay dvara die ge dndadesh ki pushti kar sakata hai athava usako ulat sakata hai, abhiyukt ko vimukt kar sakata hai, siddhadosh thahara sakata hai ya us abhiyog se mukt kar sakata hai jisake lie usaka parikshan hua tha athava dndadesh yathasthit rakhate hue snmati badal sakata hai, parntu dndadesh ki vriddhi nahin kar sakata. vah pun: parikshan athava parikshanarth samarpan ka adesh bhi de sakata hai. (dhara 423, dnd-prakriya-snhita).

snvidhan ke anuchchhed 132 se 136 tak ke upabndhon ke anusar kisi uchch nyayalay ya antim kshetradhikaravale kisi nyayadhikaran ke nirnay ke viruddh, uchchatam nyayalay men apil ho sakati hai. anuchchhed 132 ke antargat kisi bhi nirnay, agypti athava dndadesh ke viruddh apil uchchatam nyayalay men ho sakati hai, yadi uchch nyayalay pramanit kar de ki us mamale men snvidhan ke nirvachan ka koee saravan vidhiprashn antargrast hai. yadi uchch nyayalay aisa pramanapatr dena svikar kar de to uchchatam nyayalay apil ke lie vishesh ijajat de sakata hai. jahan uchch nyayalay aisa pramanapatr de deta hai athava uchchatam nyayalay vishesh ijajat de deta hai vahan uchchatam nyayalay ki anugya se snvidhan ke nirvachan snbndhi prashn ke atirikt any prashn bhi uthae jae sakate hain.

uchch nyayalay ke kisi antim nirnay, agypti ya adesh apil uchchatam nyayalay men ho sakati hai, yadi uchch nyayalay yah pramanit kar de ki (k) vivadavishay ki rashi ya mooly pratham bar ke nyayalay men bis hajar rupe ya kisi aisi any rashi se, jo is bare men ullikhit ki jae, kam nahin hai, athava (kh) usamen utani rashi ya mooly ki snpatti se snbaddh koee vad ya prashn pratyaksh ya paroksh roop men antagrast hai, athava (g) mamala uchchatam nyayalay men apil ke yogy hai. yadi uchch nyayalay ka nirnay poorvavath‌ niche ke nyayalay ke nishchay ki pushti karata hai tab uchch nyayalay ko yah aur pramanit karana hota hai ki apil men koee saravanh‌ vidhiprashn antargrast hai (anuchchhed 133).

uchch nyayalay ki kisi dnd karravaee men die hue nirnay ya antim adesh ki apil uchchatam nyayalay men hoti hai, yadi uchch nyayalay ne apil men abhiyukt vyakti ko mrityudndadesh diya hai; athava uchch nyayalay pramanit karata hai ki mamala uchchatam nyayalay men apil karane yogy hai.

anuchchhed 136 ke antargat uchchatam nyayalay ki vishesh anumati se apil ho sakati hai.

prati--apatti

jab vyavaharavad men kisi paksh ki or se apil hoti hai tab uttaravadi ko agypti ke us bhag ke viruddh, jo usake viparit hai, prati-apati prastut karane ka adhikar hota hai. vah apani niji apil bhi kar sakata hai parntu prati-apil tatha prati-apatti men yah antar hota hai ki prati-apil to apil ke lie nirdharat avadhi ke bhitar honi chahie tatha snbndhi samasat niyamon ka palan avashyak hain, kintu prati-apatti, vyavahar-prakriya-snhita ki kramasnkha 41, niyam 23 ke antargat, apil ki sunavaee ki soochana uttaravadi dvara prapt ki jane ki tithi se 30 din ke andar prastut ki ja sakati hai. uchchatam nyayalay men honevali athava dndavishayak apilon men koee prati-apatti nahin hoti.

avadhi kalakatta, madras tatha bnbee ke uchch nayayalayon dvara, arnbhik kshetradhikar ke prayog ke antargat di gee agypti ya adesh men apil karane ki avadhi 20 din hai.

vyavaharavadon men apil jila nyayadhish ke samaksh agypti ya adesh men tithi se 30 din ke andar ki ja sakati hai. uchch nyayalay men apil karane ki avadhi 30 din hai aur ek nyayadhish ki agyapti ya adesh se do nyayadhishon ke samaksh apil karane ki avadhi 90 din hai.

mrityudndadesh ke viruddh uchch nyayalay men apil karane ki avadhi mrityudndadesh ki tithi se sat din hai.

uchch nyayalay ke atirikt any kisi nyayalay men apil karane ki avadhi 30 din hai. vimukti ke adesh ke viruddh uchch nyayalay men apil karane ki avadhi tin mas hai. shesh mamalon men apil karane ki avadhi 60 din hai.

uchchatam nyayalay men apil karane ki anumati ke lie avedanapatr uchch nyayalay men prastut karane ki avadhi 90 din hai. yadi uchch nyayalay vah pramanapatr dena asvikar kar de jisake lie prarthana ki gee hai, to asvikar kie jane ki tithi se 60 din ke andar, uchch nyayalay men bharatiy snvidhan ke anuchchhed 132 ya 136 ke antargat pramanapatr ke lie avedan diya ja sakata hai.

aise mamalon men jinamen uchch nyayalay ko uchchatam nyayalay men apil karane ki anumati ya pramanapatr dene ki shakti hai, uchchatam nyayalay men apil karane ki ijajat ke lie kisi aise avedanapatr ko angikar nahin karata jo uchch nyayalay men n diya jakar sidhe usako diya jata hai. apavad roop kuchh mamalon ko chhod etadarth keval kuchh aise mamale hi apavad samajhe jate hain jinamen is adhar par avedanapatr ko asvikar karane se ghor anyay hone ki ashnka rahati hai. jahan uchch nyayalay men avedanapatr dene ka koee upabndh vidhi men hanin hai vahan snvidhan ke anuchchhed 136 ke antargat avedanapatr dene ki avadhi snbaddh adesh (jisake viruddh apil honi hai) ki tithi se 80 din hai.

sadharan siddhant---apil men prayukt honevale sadharan siddhant is prakar hain:
(1) apil ki karravaee samavidhi se utpann huee hai at: jab tak vidhi men koee upabndh n ho, apil nahin ho sakati.
(2) apil vad ya any karravaee ki shrrinkhala hai aur apil nyayalay ka nirnay prathamik roop se unhin paristhition par adharit hota hai jo niche ke nyayalay ke vinishchay ki tithi par vartaman thin. kintu apil-nyayalay bad ki ghatanaon par bhi dhyan de sakata hai aur niche ke nyayalay ki agypti ya adesh men vadavishay ke anusar nyayochit snshodhan kar sakata ya use hata sakata hai.
(3) apil prakriya ka vishay n hokar maulik adhikar ka vishay samajhi jati hai aur yah man liya jata hai ki apil ke adhikar ka apaharan karanevali kisi vidhi ka prayog chaloo apil ya vad men tab tak nahin hoga jab tak avashyak roop se usako anudarshi prabhav n diya gaya ho. yadi aisa koee anudarshi prabhav nahin diya gaya hai to chahe niche ke nyayalay ke nirnay ke poorv hi vah vidhi lagoo ho chuki ho, apil ka nirnay us vidhi ke anusar hoga jo vad ya any karravaee ke arnbh ki tithi par lagoo tha.
(4) sadharanataya apil ka nirnay niche ke nyayalay men prastut kie ge sakshy ke adhar par kiya jata hai. keval vahi naya sakshy apil nyayalay dvara svikar kiya jae sakata hai jae kisi paksh ko samuchit khoj tatha prayatn karane par bhi us samay prapt nahin ho saka tha jis samay arnbh ke nyayalay men vad ka parikshan chal raha tha.
(5) niche ke nyayalay ki agypti ka apil-nyayalay ki agypti ya adesh men samavesh tabhi hota hai jab vah agypti ya adesh apil ke sabhi mamalon ki poori sunavaee ke bad diya jata hai, parntu jab apil kisi dosh ke karan athava kisi prarnbhik apatti ke adhar par, jaise nyayalay shulk n dene par ya avadhi samapti ke karan, vimukt kar di jati hai tab aisa nahin kiya ja sakata. kintu apil-nyayalay ki agypti men parikshan nyayalay ki agypti ka samavesh ho jane se vad ya any karravaee upasthit karane ke avadhikal ki gati nahin rukati jab tak ki vadahetu niche ke nyayalay ke vinishchay se utpann hua hai.
(6) dnd snbndhi un mamalon ko chhodakar jinamen apil nyayalay dndadesh men vriddhi nahin kar sakata, apil nyayalay ko aisa koee bhi adesh dene ki shakti rahati hai jo arnbh ke nyayalay dvara diya ja sakata hai.[1]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sn.grn.---karapas jooris sekndam ka 'apil' shirshak lekh; vyavahar-prakriya-snhita; dnd-prakriya-snhita.
  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 141,142,143 |

snbndhit lekh

shabd sndarbh kosh
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eeshvaravadi eeshvar-vad eeshvar-pranidhan eeshitv eeshita eesha eeshata eeli eeli eel eershyalu eershya eershyak eershy eershu eershit eershalu eersha eershana eerit eeran eeramad eerakha eer eemanadari eemanadar eeman-kalyan eeman eepsu eepsit eepsa eeda trignbhir trigndhak trigng trikhi trikha trikh trikshur trikshar trikon-miti trikon-bhavan trikon-phal tri-koorchak trikoota trikoot gadh trikuti trikuta trikut trikaladarshi trikaladarshita trikal-darshak trikalgyta trikalgy trikal trikarshik trikay trika trikandiy eedrish eedi eetar eedh trikand eedy trik-shool eedit trikal eedan eethi trikarma trikarman trikatray eethana trikatuk trikatu trikat eejad trikakum eeja trikakud eechha tri-knt gyanad gyanachakshu gyanagochar gyanagamy gyan krit gyatrivy gyati putr gyati gyata gyatavy gyat yauvana gyat-nndan gyat gypti gyapit gyapan gypt gypan eechhan eekharaj trishansh tri eekh eekshit trinshatpatr eeksha eekshika trishat eekshan trishah eekshanik eekshak eekarant trahi indr savarni indr sabha indr varuni indr vadhoo indr vnsha indr yav indr mndal indr nil indr dhvaj indradhanushi indr jau indrajali indr jav indrachap indr gop eekar indr giri indr krisht eedh indrak eenta indriyavad eencha-tani indiralay indira-raman indira eenchana intaha intazar eestar intazam intaqal eesh manohari intaqam intakohara eesh-gaud intaee ingur eesh-giri ingudi eeth dravy kafan adrisht sadi grnth kalantar drishy tatavarti gntavy supachy paridrishy udagam talluq dar benami sauda apavah prayopavesh anushruti ang shabd sndarbh soochi alnkaran bhuv kinvadnti madhu vaikunth (bahuvikalpi) agni jin (bahuvikalpi) asndi mithak atma bhakt pradarsh pradar astik toran kanik kanika eshana ela upahasit unmatt unmukh udrek udot aja upashaman upasham eeti apoh anooru anuyog anuyojy nepathy nrimedh nirdisht nivritt nivritti nirvap nirvat nishkantak viplav nishk viplavi viplav chinty ajiv ajivak parapatr nikshepak nikshep dhrishtata dhrisht dhav akhilesh vitarkan vitark latta vitat kurng kunjar kalush dhatri vidya dhatriphal dhatri navami dhatri karni kapisha kanakhi karsh dript ark shamy sushravy dhriti sushrava ayut shishi dhrit sushthu sushrav apatr snvrit rnjan rnjak yoothika yoop yuti yashti lunchan lasy sasy samarchan sahik sukrit lalam binb banak bhasvar bhavy pranav achchhadit achchhadak achchhann janmandh vivart vivarn hapana hap vachy vak lav rochana rochan rechan rechak ruchira ruchir mukari (paheli) audichy aurvashey shala aurv sharika shari shakun amlan phurahari charvi agah chakanachoor shnku shaman sharabh shardool chokha chitra okha okh aindr phunagi agamy vahika vahik kshataj kshat ksharan kshar ghalana ghal bilalana bndhak jhilamila jhilam kshitij yatharthavad ookha yatharth ookh oogat khanak khan kanak laghavi laghavik laghavakari laghav kshiprahast chhak havi havy kanishthika sugat janant tush hriti hritadhikar drishti drishtarth drishtant drishtavad pratyakshavad pratyagatma kshiprakari kshipr hrit pratyakshar hrichchhool kheh pratyaksh drishtavat moolabhoot drishtaphal vayavi vayaviy kanishtha vayav kanishth maulik drisht dosh drishtakoot moolik drisht vishti nidagh harmy achyut punit tattv mukari anand yntr pad andhata sadhu yash snt diksha vidhu muramardan purushottam bhav pitambar har madhav chaturbhuj ugr upendr sthanu kratudhvnsin bharg nilalohit trilochan viroopaksh vamadev (shiv) shitakinth (shiv) shitakinth garudadhvaj girish govind suparn shrikanth kapardin pinaki mrityunjay mrid girish nagantak bhootesh shnkar sharv narayan maheshvar (shiv) vainatey shoolin pashupati tarkshy eesh muni vikat munindr vighnanashak sumukh lokajit garutmath marajit bhagavat tathagat dharmaraj sarvgy vinayak agadh ary arh alp ikshu ichchha asrav asy ahary akrand akarsh asooyak akshar oj prakarsh panth prakrit ekarth unnamr ujjrimbhan eeshan unnat ujjrimbh jayy jay nairujy jalp mand tej namaskar namrata namr prabhav arjav pratap akropolis antashchetana ant:karan agora atinootan yug anagami anal anagradnt ativriddhi adhihrishata (ailarji) anubndh anubhav anubhavavad anyathanupapatti anyathasiddhi apil abhiprerak albam arajakata amin ayam injil intar lingua

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