आयुर्वेद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

  • parampara ke anusar ayurved ek upaved hai tatha dharm aur darshan se isaka abhinn sambandh hai .
  • charanavyooh ke anusar yah rigved ka upaved hai parantu sushrutadi ayurved granthon ke anusar yah atharvaved ka upaved hai .
  • sushrut ke mat se 'jisamen ya jisake dvara ayu prapt ho, ayu jani jay usako ayurved kahate hain.'
  • bhavamishr ne bhi aisa hi likha hai .
  • charak men likha hai--'yadi koee poochhane vala prashn kare ki rik, sam, yaju, atharv in charon vedon men kis ved ka avalamb lekar ayurved ke vidvanh upadesh karate hain, to unase chikitsak charon men atharvaved ke prati adhik bhakti prakat karega . kyonki svastyayan, bali, magnl, hom, niyam, prayashchitt, upavas aur mantradi atharvaved se lekar hi ve chikitsa ka upadesh karate hain .
  • sushrut men likha hai ki brahma ne pahale-pahal ek lakh shlokon ka 'ayurved shasr' banaya , jisamen ek sahastr adhyay the . unase prajapati ne padha . prajapati se ashvinikumaron ne aur ashvinikumaron se indr ne, indradev se dhanvantari ne aur dhanvantari se sunakar sushrut muni ne ayurved ki rachana ki .
  • brahma ne ayurved ko ath bhagon men bantakar pratyek bhag ka nam tantr rakha . ye ath bhag nimnalikhit hain :
  1. shaly tantr,
  2. shalaky tantr,
  3. kay chikitsa tantr,
  4. bhoot vidya tantr,
  5. kaumarabhrity tantr,
  6. agad tantr,
  7. rasayan tantr aur
  8. vajikaran tantr .
  • is ashtagn ayurved ke antargat dehatattv, sharir vigyan, shastravidya, bheshaj aur dravy gun tattv, chikitsa tattv aur dhatri vidya bhi hai . isake atirikt usamen sadrish chikitsa (homyopaithi),

virodhi chikitsa (elopaithi) aur jalachikitsa (haidro paithi) adi ajakal ke abhinav chikitsa pranaliyon ke vidhan bhi paye jate hain .

ayurved aur ayurvigyan donon hi chikitsashastr hain, parntu vyavahar men prachin bharatiy dhng ko ayurved kahate hain aur ailopaithik (janata ki bhasha men 'daktari') pranali ko ayurvigyan ka nam diya jata hai. ayurved ka arth prachin acharyon ki vyakhya aur isamen ae hue 'ayu' aur 'ved' in do shabdon ke arthon ke anusar bahut vyapak hai. ayurved ke acharyon ne 'sharir, indriy, man tatha atma ke snyog' ko ayu kaha hai. arthath‌ jab tak in charon snpatti (sadguny) ya vipatti (vaiguny) ke anusar ayu ke anek bhed hote hain, kintu snkshep men prabhavabhed se ise char prakar ka mana gaya hai: (1) sukhayu: kisi prakar ke shiririk ya manasik vikas se rahit hote hue, gyan, vigyan, bal, paurush, dhanri dhany, yash, parijan adi sadhanon se samriddh vyakti ko 'sukhayu' kahate hain. (2) isake viparit samast sadhanon se yukt hote hue bhi, sharirik ya manasik rog se pidit athava nirog hote hue bhi sadhanahin ya svasthy aur sadhan donon se hin vyakti ko 'du:khayu' kahate hain. (3) hitayu: svasthy aur sadhanon se snpann hote hue ya unamen kuchh kami hone par bhi jo vyakti vivek, sadachar, sushilata, udarata, saty, ahinsa, shanti, paropakar adi adi gunon se yukt hote hain aur samaj tatha lok ke kalyan men nirat rahate hain unhen hitayu kahate hain. (4) isake viparit jo vyakti avivek, durachar, kroorata, svarth, dnbh, atyachar adi durgunon se yukt aur samaj tatha lok ke lie abhishap hote hain unhen ahitayu kahate hain. is prakar hit, ahit, sukh aur du:kh, ayu ke ye char bhed hain. isi prakar kalapraman ke anusar bhi dirghayu, madhyayu aur alpayu, snkshep men ye tin bhed hote hain. vaise in tinon men bhi anek bhedon ki kalpana ki ja sakati hai.

'ved' shabd ke bhi satta, labh, gati, vichar, prapti aur gyan ke sadhan, ye arth hote hain, aur ayu ke ved ko ayurved (naaulej aauv sayans aauv laif) kahate hain. arthath‌ jis shastr men ayu ke svaroop, ayu ke vividh bhed, ayu ke lie hitakarak aur apraman tatha unake gyan ke sadhanon ka evn ayu ke upadanabhoot sharir, indriy, man, aur atma, inamen sabhi ya kisi ek ke vikas ke sath hit, sukh aur dirgh ayu ki prapti ke sadhanon ka tatha inake badhak vishayon ke nirakaran ke upayon ka vivachen ho use ayurved kahate hain. kintu ajakal ayurved 'prachin bharatiy chikitsapaddhati' is snkuchit arth men prayukt hota hai.

prayojan ya uddeshy-ayurved ke do uddeshy hote hain:

(1) svasth vyaktiyon ke svasthy ki raksha karana. isake lie apane sharir aur prakriti ke anukool desh, kal adi ka vichar karana niyamit ahar-vihar, cheshta, vyayam, shauch, snan, shayan, jagaran adi grihasth jivan ke lie upayogi shastrokt dinacharya, ratricharya evn ritucharya ka palan karana, snkatamay karyon se bachana, pratyek kary vivekapoorvak karana, man aur indriy ko niyntrit rakhana, desh, kal adi paristhitiyon ke anusar apane apane sharir adi ki shakti aur ashakti ka vichar kar koee kary karana, mal, mootr adi ke upasthit vegon ko n rokana, eershya, dvesh, lobh, ahnkar adi se bachana, samay-samay par sharir men snchit doshon ko nikalane ke lie vaman, virechan adi ke prayogon se sharir ki shuddhi karana, sadachar ka palan karana aur dooshit vayu, jal, desh aur kal ke prabhav se utpann mahamariyon (janapadoddhvnsaniy vyadhiyon, epidemik dizizez) men vigy chikitsakon ke upadeshon ka samuchit roop se palan karana, svachchh aur vishodhit jal, vayu, ahar adi ka sevan karana aur doosaron ko bhi isake lie prerit karana, ye svasthyaraksha ke sadhan hain.

(2) rogi vyaktiyon ke vikaron ko door kar unhen svasth banana. isake lie pratyek rog ke hetu (karan), ling-rogaparichayak vishay, jaise poorvaroop, roop (sains aind sinptams), snprapti (paithojenisis) tatha upashayanupashay (thirapyutikatests)-aur aushadh ka gyan paramavashyak hai. ye tinon ayurved ke 'triskndh' (tin pradhan shakhaen) kahalati hain. isaka vistrit vivechan ayurved grnthon men kiya gaya hai. yahan keval snkshipt parichay matr diya jaega. kintu isake poorv ayu ke pratyek snghatak ka snkshipt parichay avashyak hai, kyonki snghatakon ke gyan ke bina unamen honevale vikaron ko janana snbhav n hoga.

sharir-samast cheshtaon, indriyon, man or atma ke adharabhoot panchabhautik pind ki sharir kahate hain. manav sharir ke sthool roop men chhah ang hain; do hath, do pair, shir aur griva ek tatha antaradhi (madhyasharir) ek. in angon ke avayavon ko pratyng kahate hain,-moordha (hed), lalat, bhroo, nasika, akshikoot (aaurbit), akshigolak (aibaaul), varts (palak), pakshm (baruni), karn (kan), karnaputrak (traigas), shashkuli aur pali (pinn aind lob aauv iyars), shnkh (mathe ke parshv, tenpuls), gnd (gal), oshth (honth), srikkani (mukh ke kone), chibuk (thuddi), dntavesht (masoode), jihva (jibh), talu, upajihkai (tansils), galashundika (yuvula), gojihvika (epiglaautis), griva (garadan), avatuka (lairingz), kndhara (kndha), kaksha (eksila), jatru (hnsuli, kalar), vaksh (thoreks), stan, parshv (bagal), udar (beli), nabhi, kukshi (kokh), bastishir (graauyan), prishth (pith), kati (kamar), shroni (pelvis), nitnb, guda, shishn ya bhag, vrishan (testiz), bhuj, koorpar (kehuni), bahupindika ya aratni (forarm), manibndh (kalaee), hast (hatheli), anguliyan aur angushth, ooru (jangh), janu (ghutana), jngha (tang, leg), gulph (takhana), prapad (phut), padanguli, angushth aur padatal (talava),. inake atirikt hriday, phuphphus (lngs), yakrit (livar), pliha (splin), amashay (stamak), pittashay (gal blaidar), vrikk (gurda, kidani), vasti (yoorinari blaidar), kshudrant (smaaul intestin), sthoolantr (larj intestin), vapavahan (mesenteri), purishadhar, uttar aur adharagud (rektam), ye koshthang hain aur sir men sabhi indriyon aur pranon ke kendron ka ashray mastishk (bren)hai.

ayurved ke anusar sare sharir men 300 asthiyan hain, jinhen ajakal keval ganana-kram-bhed ke karan do sau chhah (206) manate hain tatha sndhiyan (jvaints) 200, snayu (lingaments) 900, shiraen (blad vesels, lifaitiks aind narbz) 700, dhamaniyan (kreniyal narbz) 24 aur unaki shakhaen 200, peshiyan (masals) 500 (striyon men 20 adhik) tatha sookshm strot 30,956 hain.

ayurved ke anusar sharir men ras (bail aind plajma), rakt, mans, med (fait), asthi, majja (bon mairo) aur shukr (simen), ye sat dhatuen hain. nityaprati svabhavat: vividh karyon men upayog hone se inaka kshay bhi hota rahata hai, kintu bhojan aur pan ke roop men ham jo vividh padarth lete rahate hain unase n keval is kshati ki poorti hoti hai, varanh‌ dhatuon ki pushti bhi hoti rahati hai. ahararoop men liya hua padarth pachakagni, bhootagni aur vibhinn dhatvanignayon dvara paripakv hokar anek parivartanon ke bad poorvokt dhatuon ke roop men parinat hokar in dhatuon ka poshan karata hai. is pachanakriya men ahar ka jo sar bhag hota hai usase ras dhatu ka poshan hota hai aur jo kitt bhag bachata hai usase mal (vishtha) aur mootr banata hai. yah ras hriday se hota hua shiraon dvara sare sharir men pahunchakar pratyek dhatu aur ang ko poshan pradan karata hai. dhatvagniyon se pachan hone par ras adi dhatu ke sar bhag se rakt adi dhatuon evn sharir ka bhi poshan hota hai tatha kitt bhag se malon ki utpatti hoti hai, jaise ras se kaph; rakt pitt; mans se nak, kan aur netr adi ke dvara bahar anevale mal; med se sved (pasina); asthi se kesh tatha lom (sir ke aur dadhi, moonchh adi ke bal) aur majja se ankh ka kichad malaroop men banate hain. shukr men koee mal nahin hota, usake sare bhag se oj (bal) ki utpatti hoti hai.

inhin rasadi dhatuon se anek upadhatuon ki bhi utpatti hoti hai, yatha ras se doodh, rakt se kndaraen (tendns) aur shiraen, mans se vasa (fait), tvacha aur usake chhah ya sat star (parat), med se snayu (lingaments), asthi se dant, majja se kesh aur shukr se oj namak upadhatuon ki utpatti hoti hai.

ye dhatuen aur upadhatuen vibhinn avayavon men vibhinn roopon men sthit hokar sharir ki vibhinn kriyaon men upayogi hoti hain. jab tak ye uchit pariman aur svaroop men rahati hain aur inaki kriya svabhavik rahati hai tab tak sharir svasth rahata hai aur jab ye nyoon ya adhik matra men tatha vikrit svaroop men hoti hain to sharir men rog ki utpatti hoti hai.

prachin darshanik sinddhant ke anusar snsar ke sabhi sthool padarth prithvi, jal, tej, vayu aur akash in panch mahabhooton ke snyukt hone se banate hain. inake anupat men bhed hone se hi unake bhinn-bhinn roop hote hain. isi prakar sharir ke samast dhatu, upadhatu aur mal panchabhautik hain. parinamat: sharir ke samast avayav aur atat: sara sharir panchabhautik hai. ye sabhi achetan hain. jab inamen atma ka snyog hota hai tab usaki chetanata men inamen bhi chetana ati hai.

uchit paristhiti men shuddh raj aur shuddh viry ka snyog hone aur usamen atma ka snchar hone se mata ke garbhashay men sharir ka arnbh hota hai. ise hi garbh kahate hain. mata ke aharajanit rakt se apara (plaisenta) aur garbhanadi ke dvara, jo nabhi se lagi rahati hai, garbh poshan prapt karata hai. yah garbhodak men nimagn rahakar upasnehan dvara bhi poshan prapt karata hai tatha pratham mas men kalal (jeli) aur dvitiy men ghan hota hai? tisare mas men ang pratyng ka vikas arnbh hota hai. chauthe mas men usamen adhik sthirata a jati hai tatha garbh ke lakshan mata men spasht roop se dikhaee padane lagate hain. is prakar yah mata ki kukshi men uttarottar vikasit hota hua jab snpoorn ang, pratyng aur avayavon se yukt ho jata hai, tab pray: naven mas men kukshi se bahar akar navin prani ke roop men janm grahan karata hai.

indriy-sharir men pratyek ang ya kisi bhi avayav ka nirman uddeshyavishesh se hi hota hai, arthath‌ pratyek avayav ke dvara vishisht karyon ki siddhi hoti hai, jaise hath se pakadana, pair se chalana, mukh se khana, dant se chabana adi. kuchh avayav aise bhi hain jinase kee kary hote hain aur kuchh aise hain jinase ek vishesh kary hi hota hai. jinase karyavishesh hi hota hai unamen us kary ke lie shaktisnpann ek vishisht sookshm rachana hoti hai. isi ko indriy kahate hain. shabd, sparsh, roop, ras aur gndh in bahy vishayon ka gyan prapt karane ke lie kramanusar kan, tvacha, netr, jihva aur nasika ye avayav indriyashray avayav (vishesh indriyon ke ang) kahalate hain aur inamen sthit vishisht shaktisnpann sookshm vastu ko indriy kahate hain. ye kramash: panch hain-shrotr, tvakh‌, chakshu, rasana aur hghraan. in sookshm avayavon men pnchamahabhooton men se us mahabhoot ki visheshata rahati hai jisake shabd (dhvani) adi vishisht gun hain; jaise shabd ke lie shrotr indriy men akash, sparsh ke lie tvakh‌ indriy men vayu, roop ke lie chakshu indriy men tej, ras ke lie rasanendriy men jal aur gndh ke lie hghraanendriy men prithvi tatv. in panchon indriyon ko gyanendriy kahate hain. inake atirikt vishisht karyasnpadan ke lie panch kamendriyan bhi hoti hain, jaise gaman ke lie pair, grahan ke lie hath, bolane ke lie jihva (gojihva), malatyag ke lie guda aur mootratyag tatha sntanotpadan ke lie shishn (striyon men bhag). ayurved darshanikon ki bhanti indriyon ko ahnkarik nahin, apitu bhautik manata hai. in indriyon ki apane karyon man ki prerana se hi pravritti hoti hai. man se snpark n hone par ye nishkriy rahati hai.

man-pratyek prani ke sharir men atynt sookshm aur keval ek man hota hai. yah atynt drutagati vala aur pratyek indriy ka niyntrak hota hai. kintu yah svayn bhi atma ke snpark ke bina achetan hone se nishkriy rahata hai. pratyek vyakti ke man men satv, raj aur tam, ye tinon prakritik gun hote hue bhi inamen se kisi ek ki samanyat: prabalata rahati hai aur usi ke anusar vyakti satvik, rajas ya tamas hota hai, kintu samay-samay par ahar, achar evn paristhitiyon ke prabhav se dasare gunon ka bhi prabaly ho jata hai. isaka gyan pravrittiyon ke lakshanon dvara hota hai, yatha rag-dvesh-shoony yatharthadrashta man satvik, ragayukt, sachesht aur chnchal man rajas aur alasy, dirghasootrata evn nishkriyata adi yukt man tamas hota hai. isilie satvik man ko shuddh, satv ya prakritik mana jata hai aur raj tatha tam usake dosh kahe ge hain. atma se chetanata prapt kar prakritik ya sadosh man apane gunon ke anusar indriyon ko apane-apane vishayon men pravritt karata hai aur usi ke anuroop sharirik kary hote hain. atma man ke dvara hi indriyon aur shariravayavon ko pravritt karata hai, kyonki man hi usaka karan (instrument) hai. isilie man ka snpark jis indriy ke sath hota hai usi ke dvara gyan hota hai, doosare ke dvara nahin. kyonki man ek or sookshm hota hai, at: ek sath usaka anek indriyon ke sath snpark sabhav nahin hai. phir bhi usaki gati itani tivr hai ki vah ek ke bad doosari indriy ke snpark men shighrata se parivartit hota hai, jisase hamen yahi gyat hota hai ki sabhi ke sath usaka snpark hai aur sab kary ek sath ho rahe hain, kintu vastav men aisa nahin hota.

atma-atma pnchamahabhoot aur man se bhinn, chetanavanh‌, nirvikar aur nity hai tatha sakshi svaroop hai, kyonki svayn nirvikar tatha nishkriyashh hai. isake snpark se sakriy kintu achetan man, indriyon aur sharir men chetana ka snchar hotashh hai aur ve sachesht hote hain. atma men roop, rng, akriti adi koee chihn nahin hai, kintu usake bina sharir achetan hone ke karan nishchesht pada rahata hai aur mrit kahalata hai tatha usake snpark se hi usamen chetana ati hai tab use jivit kaha jata hai aur usamen anek svabhavik kriyaen hone lagati hain; jaise shvasochchhh‌vas, chhote se bada hona aur kate hue ghav bharana adi, palakon ka khulana aur bnd hona, jivan ke lakshan, man ki gati, ek indriy se hue gyan ka doosari indriy par prabhav hona (jaise ankh se kisi sundar, madhur phal ko dekhakar munnh men pani ana), vibhinn indriyon aur avayavon ko vibhann karyon men pravritt karana, vishayon ka grahan aur dharan karana, svapn men ek sthan se doosare sthan tak pahunchana, ek ankh se dekhi vastu ka doosari ankh se bhi anubhav karana. ichchha, dvesh, sukh, du:kh, prayatn, dhairy, buddhi, smaran shakti, ahnkar adi sharir men atma ke hone par hi hote hain; atmarahit mrit sharir men nahin hote. at: ye atma ke lakshan kahe jate hain, arthath‌ atma ka poorvokt lakshanon se anuman matr kiya ja sakata hai. manasik kalpana ke atirikt kisi doosari indriy se usaka pratyaksh karana snbhav nahin hai.

yah atma nity, nirvikar aur vyapak hote hue bhi poorvakrit shubh ya ashubh karm ke parinamasvaroop jaisi yoni men ya sharir men, jis prakar ke man aur indriyon tatha vishayon ke snpark men ati hai vaise hi kary hote hain. uttarottar ashubh karyon ke karane se uttarottar adhogati hoti hai tatha shubh karmon ke dvara uttarottar unnati hone se, man ke rag-dvesh-hin hone par, moksh ki prapti hoti hai.

is vivaran se spasht ho jata hai ki atma to nirvikar hai, kintu man, indriy aur sharir men vikriti ho sakati hai aur in tinon ke paraspar sapekshy hone ke karan ek ka vikar doosare ko prabhavit kar sakata hai. at: inhen prakritisth rakhana ya vikrit hone par prakriti men lana ya svasth karana paramavashyak hai. isase dirgh sukh aur hitayu ki prapti hoti hai, jisase kramash: atma ko bhi usake ekamatr, kintu bhishan, janm mrityu aur bhavabndhanaroop rog se mukti pane men sahayata milati hai, jo ayurved men naitishthaki chikitsa kahi gee hai.

rog aur svasthy-charak ne snkshep men rog aur arogy ka lakshan yah likha hai ki vat, pitt aur kaph in tinon doshon ka sam matra (uchit praman) men hona hi arogy aur inamen vishamata hona hi rog hai. sushrut ne svasth vyakti ka lakshan vistar se diya hai: jisase sabhi dosh sam matra men hon, agni sam ho, dhatu, mal aur unaki kriyaen bhi sam (uchit roop men) hon tatha jisaki atma, indriy aur man prasann (shuddh) hon use svasth samajhana chahie. isake viparit lakshan hon to asvasth samajhana chahie. rog ko vikriti ya vikar bhi kahate hain. at: sharir, indriy aur man ke prakritik (svabhavik) roop ya kriya men vikriti hona rog hai.

rogon ke hetu ya karan (itiyaauloji)-snsar ki sabhi vastuen sakshath‌ ya parnpara se sharir, indriyon aur man par kisi n kisi prakar ka nishchit prabhav dalati hain aur anuchit ya pratikool prabhav se inamen vikar utpann kar rogon ka karan hoti hain. in sabaka vistrit vivechan kathin hai, at: snkshep men inhen tin vargon men bant diya gaya hai: (1) prgyaparadh: avivek (dhibhrnsh), adhirata (dhritibhrnsh) tatha poorv anubhav aur vastavikata ki upeksha (smritibhrnsh) ke karan labh hani ka vichar kie bina hi kisi vishay ka sevan ya janate hue bhi anuchit vastu ka sevan karana. isi ko doosare aur spasht shabdon men karm (sharirik, vachik aur manasik cheshtaen) ka hin, mithya aur ati yog bhi kahate hain. (2) asatmyendriyarthasnyog: chakshu adi indriyon ka apane-apane roop adi vishayon ke sath asatmy (pratikool, hin, mithya aur ati) snyog indriyon, sharir aur man ke vikar ka karan hota hai; yatha ankh se bilakul n dekhana (ayog), ati tejasvi vastuon ka dekhana aur bahut adhik dekhana (atiyog) tatha atisookshm, snkirn, ati door men sthit tatha bhayanak, bibhats, evn vikritaroop vastuon ko dekhana (mithyarog). ye chakshurindriy aur usake ashray netron ke sath man aur sharir men bhi vikar utpann karate hain. isi ko doosare shabdon men arth ka duryog bhi kahate hain. grishm, varsha, shit adi rituon tatha baly, yuva aur vriddhavasthaon ka bhi sharir adi par prabhav padata hi hai, kintu inake hin, mithya aur atiyog ka prabhav vishesh roop se hanikar hota hai.

poorvokt karanon ke prakarantar se any bhed bhi hote hain; yatha (1) viprakrisht karan (rimot kaauz), jo sharir men doshon ka snchay karata rahata hai aur anukool samay par rog ko utpann karata hai, (2) snnikrisht karan (immidiet kaauz), jo rog ka tatkalik karan hota hai, (3) vyabhichari karan (abaaurtiv kaauz) jo paristhitivash rog ko utpann karata hai aur nahin bhi karata tatha (4) pradhanik karan (spesifik kaauz), jo tatkal kisi dhatu ya avayavavishesh par prabhav dalakar nishchit lakshanonvale vikar ko utpann karata hai, jaise vibhinn sthavar aur jantav vish.

prakarantar se inake any do bhed hote hain-(1) utpadak (pridispozing), jo sharir men rogavishesh ki utpatti ke anukool parivartan kar deta hai; (2) vynjak (eksaiting), jo pahale se roganukool sharir men tatkal vikaron ko vyakt karata hai.

sharir par in sabhi karanon ke tin prakar ke prabhav hote hain:

(1) doshaprakop-anek karanon se sharir ke upadanabhoot akash adi panch tatvon men se kisi ek ya anek men parivartan hokar unake svabhavik anupat men antar a jana anivary hai. isi ko dhyan men rakhakar ayurvedacharyonshh ne in vikaron ko vat, pitt aur kaph in vargon men vibhakt kiya hai. pnchamahabhoot evn tridosh ka alag se vivechan hi uchit hai, kintu snkshep men yah samajhana chahie ki snsarashh ke jitane bhi moort (maitirayal) padarth hain ve sab akash, vayu, tej, jal aur prithvi in panch tatvon se bane hain.

ye prithvi adi ve hi nahin hai jo hamen nityaprati sthool jagath‌ men dekhane ko milate hain. ye pichhale sab to poorvokt panchon tatvon ke snyog se utpann panchabhautik hain. vastuon men jin tatvon ki bahulata hoti hai ve unhin namon se varnit ki jati hain. usi prakar hamare sharir ki dhatuon men ya unake snghatakon men jis tatv ki bahulata rahati hai ve usi shreni ke gine jate hain. in panchon men akash to nirvikar hai tatha prithvi sabase sthool aur sabhi ka ashray hai. jo kuchh bhi vikas ya parivartan hote hain unaka prabhav isi par spasht roop se padata hai. shesh tin (vayu, tej aur jal) sab prakar ke parivartan ya vikar utpann karane men samarth hote hain. at: tinon ki prachurata ke adhar par, vibhinn dhatuon evn unake snghatakon ko vat, pitt aur kaph ki sngya di gee hai. samany roop se ye tinon dhatuen sharir ki poshak hone ke karan vikrit hone par any dhatuon ko bhi dooshit karati hain. at: dosh tatha mal roop hone se mal kahalati hain. rog men kisi bhi karan se inhin tinon ki nyoonata ya adhikata hoti hai, jise doshaprakop kahate hain.

(2) dhatudooshan-kuchh padarth ya karan aise hote hain jo kisi vishisht dhatu ya avayav men hi vikar karate hain. inaka prabhav sare sharir par nahin hota. inhen dhatupradooshak kahate hain.

(3) ubhayahetu-ve padarth jo sare sharir men vat adi doshon ko kupit karate hue bhi kisi dhatu ya ang vishesh men hi vishesh vikar utpann karate hain, ubhayahetu kahalate hain. kintu in tinon men jo parivartan hote hain ve vat, pitt ya kaph in tinon men se kisi ek, do ya tinon men hi vikar utpann karate hain. at: ye hi tinon dosh pradhan shariragat karan hote hain, kyonki inake svabhavik anupat men parivartan hone se sharir ki dhatuon adi men bhi vikriti hoti hai. rachana men vikar hone se kriya men bhi vikar hona svabhavik hai. is asvabhavik rachana aur kriya ke parinamasvaroop atisar, kas adi lakshan utpann hote hain aur in lakshanon ke samooh ko hi rog kahate hain.

is prakar jin padarthon ke prabhav se vat adi doshon men vikritiyan hoti hain tatha ve vatadi dosh, jo sharirik dhatuon ko vikrit karate hain, donon hi hetu (karan) ya nidan (adikaran) kahalate hain. antat: inake do any mahatvapoorn bhedon ka vichar apekshit hai: (1) nij (idiyopaithik)-jab poorvokt karanon se kramash: shariragat vatadi dosh men, aur unake dvara dhatuon men, vikar utpann hote hain to unako nij hetu ya nij rog kahate hain. (2) agntuk (aiksidental)-chot lagana, ag se jalana, vidyutprabhav, sanp adi vishaile jivon ke katane ya vishaprayog se jab ekaek vikar utpann hote hain to unamen bhi vatadi doshon ka vikar hote hue bhi, karan ki bhinnata aur prabalata se, ve karan aur unase utpann rog agntuk kahalate hain.

ling (jizns)-poorvokt karanon se utpann vikaron ki pahachan jin sadhanon dvara hoti hai unhen ling kahate hain. isake char bhed hain: poorvaroop, roop, snprapti aur upashay.

poorvaroop-kisi rog ke vyakt hone ke poorv sharir ke bhitar huee atyalp ya arnbhik vikriti ke karan jo lakshan utpann hokar kisi rogavishesh ki utpatti ki snbhavana prakat karate hain unhen poorvaroop (prodameta) kahate hain.

roop (sains aind sinptams)-jin lakshanon se rog ya vikriti ka spasht parichay milata hai unhen roop kahate hain.

snprapti (paithojenesis): kis karan se kaun sa dosh svatntr roop men ya paratntr roop men, akele ya doosare ke sath, kitane ansh men aur kitani matra men prakupit hokar, kis dhatu ya kis ang men, kis-kis svaroopashh ka vikar utpann karata hai, isake nirdharan ko snprapti kahate hain. chikitsa men isi ki mahatvapoorn upayogita hai. vastut: in parivartanon se hi jvaradi roop men rog utpann hote hain, at: inhen hi vastav men rog bhi kaha ja sakata hai aur inhin parivartanon ko dhyan men rakhakar ki gee chikitsa bhi saphal hoti hai.

upashay aur anupashay (therapyootik test)-jab alpata ya snkirnata adi ke karan rogon ke vastavik karanon ya svaroopon ka nirnay karane men sndeh hota hai, tab us sndeh ke nirakaran ke lie snbhavit doshon ya vikaron men se kisi ek ke vikar se upayukt ahar vihar aur aushadh ka prayog karane par jisase labh hota hai use upachay ke vivechan men ayurvedacharyo ne chhah prakar se ahar vihar aur aushadh ke prayogon ka sootr batalate hue upashay ke 18 bhedon ka varnan kiya hai. ye sootr itane mahatv ke hain ki inamen se ek-ek ke adhar par ek-ek chikitsapaddhati ka uday ho gaya hai; jaise, (1) hetu ke viparit ahar vihar ya aushadh ka prayog karana. (2) vyadhi, vedana ya lakshanon ke viparit ahar vihar ya aushadh ka prayog karana. svayn ailopaithi ki sthapana isi paddhati par huee thi (ailoz (viparit)apaithoz (vedana) u ailopaithi). (3) hetu aur vyadhi, donon ke viparit ahar vihar aur aushadh ka prayog karana. (4) hetuviparitarthakari, arthath‌ rog ke karan ke saman hote hue bhi us karan ke viparit kary karanevale ahar adi ka prayog; jaise, ag se jalane par senkane ya garam vastuon ka lep karane se us sthan par raktasnchar badhakar doshon ka sthanantaran hota hai tatha rakt ka jamana rukane, pak ke rukane par shanti milati hai. (5) vyadhiviparitarthakari, arthath‌ rog ya vedana ko badhanevala pratit hote hue bhi vyadhi ke viparit kary karanevale ahar adi ka prayog (homiyapaithi se tulana karen: homiyo (saman)apaithoz (vedana) u homiyopaithi). (6) ubhayaviritarthakari, arthath‌ karan aur vedana donon ke saman pratit hote hue bhi donon ke viparit kary karanevale ahar vihar aur aushadh ka prayog.

upashay aur anupashay se bhi rog ki pahachan men sahayata milati hai. at: inako bhi prachinon ne 'ling' men hi gina hai. hetu aur ling ke dvara rog ka gyan prapt karane par hi usaki uchit aur saphal chikitsa (aushadh) snbhav hai. hetu aur lingon se rog ki pariksha hoti hai, kintu inake samuchit gyan ke lie rogi ki pariksha karani chahie. rogi pariksha ke sadhan char hain-aptopadesh, pratyaksh, anuman aur yukti.

aptopadesh-yogy adhikari, tap aur gyan se snpann hone ke karan, shastratatvon ko rag-dvesh-shoony buddhi se asndigdh aur yatharth roop se janate aur kahate hain. aise vidvanh‌, anusndhanashil, anubhavi, pakshapatahin aur yatharth vakta mahapurushon ko apt (athaauriti) aur unake vachanon ya lekhon ko aptopadesh kahate hain. aptajanon ne poorn pariksha ke bad shastron ka nirman kar unamen ek-ek ke snbndh men likha hai ki amuk karan se, is dosh ke prakupit hone aur is dhatu ke dooshit hone tatha is ang men ashrit hone se, amuk lakshanonvala amuk rog utpann hota hai, usamen amuk-amuk parivartan hote hain tatha usaki chikitsa ke lie in ahar vihar aur amuk aushadhiyon ke is prakar upayog karane se tatha chikitsa karane se shanti hoti hai. isalie pratham yogy aur anubhavi gurujanon se shastr ka adhyayan karane par rog ke hetu, ling aur aushadhgyan men pravritti hoti hai. shastravachanon ke anusar hi lakshanon ki pariksha pratyaksh, anuman aur yukti se ki jati hai.

pratyaksh-manoyogapoorvak indriyon dvara vishayon ka anubhav prapt karane ko pratyaksh kahate hain. isake dvara rogi ke sharir ke ang pratyng men honevale vibhinn shabdon (dhvaniyon) ki pariksha kar unake svabhavik ya asvabhavik hone ka gyan shrotrendriy dvara karana chahie. varn, akriti, lnbaee, chaudaee adi praman tatha chhaya adi ka gyan netron dvara, gndhon ka gyan hghraanendriy tatha shit, ushn, rooksh, snigdh evn nadi adi ke spndan adi bhavon ka gyan sparshendriy dvara prapt karana chahie. rogi ke shariragat ras ki pariksha svayn apani jibh se karana uchit n hone ke karan, usake sharir ya usase nikale sved, mootr, rakt, pooy adi men chinti lagana ya n lagana, makkhiyon ka ana aur n ana, kaue ya kutte adi dvara khana ya n khana, pratyaksh dekhakar unake svaroop ka anuman kiya ja sakata hai.

anuman-yuktipoorvak tark (oohapah) ke dvara prapt gyan anuman (inafarens) hai. jin vishayon ka pratyaksh nahin ho sakata ya pratyaksh hone par bhi unake snbndh men sndeh hota hai vahan anuman dvara pariksha karani chahie; yatha, pachanashakti ke adhar par agnibal ka, vyayam ki shakti ke adhar par sharirik bal ka, apane vishayon ko grahan karane ya n karane se indriyon ki prakriti ya vikriti ka tatha isi prakar bhojan men ruchi, aruchi tatha pyas evn bhay, shok, krodh, ichchha, dvesh adi manasik bhavon ke dvara vibhinn sharirik aur manasik vishayon ka anuman karana chahie. poorvokt upashayanupashay bhi anuman ka hi vishay hai.

yukti-isaka arth hai yojana. anek karanon ke samudayik prabhav se kisi vishisht kary ki utpatti ko dekhakar, tadanukool vicharon se jo kalpana ki jati hai use yukti kahate hain. jaise khet, jal, jutaee, bij aur ritu ke snyog se hi paudha ugata hai. dhuen ka ag ke sath sadaiv snbndh rahata hai, arthath‌ jahan dhuan hoga vahan ag bhi hogi. isi ko vyaptigyan bhi kahate hain aur isi ke adhar par tark kar anuman kiya jata hai. is prakar nidan, poorvaroop, roop, snprapti aur upashay in sabhi ke samudayik vichar se rog ka nirnay yuktiyukt hota hai. yojana ka doosari drishti se bhi rogi ki pariksha men prayog kar sakate hain. jaise kisi indriy men yadi koee vishay saralata se grahy n ho to any yntradi upakaranon ki sahayata se us vishay ka grahan karana bhi yukti men hi antarbhoot hai.

parikshy vishay-poorvokt lingon ke gyan ke lie tatha roganirnay ke sath sadhyata ya asadhyata ke bhi gyan ke lie aptopadesh ke anusar pratyaksh adi parikshaon dvara rogi ke sar, tatv (disapozishan), sahanan (upachay), praman (sharir aur ang pratyng ki lnbaee, chaudaee, bhar adi), satmy (abhyas adi, haibits), aharashakti, vyayamashakti tatha ayu ke atirikt varn, svar, gndh, ras aur sparsh ye vishay, shrotr, chakshu, hghraan, rasan aur spashendriy, satv, bhakti (ruchi), shaich, shil, achar, smriti, akriti, bal, glani, tndra, arnbh (cheshta), guruta, laghuta, shitalata, ushnata, mriduta, kathiny adi gun, ahar ke gun, pachan aur matra, upay (sadhan), rog aur usake poorvaroop adi ka praman, upadrav (kanplikeshns), chhaya (lastar), pratichchhaya, svapn (drims), rogi ko dekhane ko bulane ke lie ae doot tatha raste aur rogi ke ghar men pravesh ke samay ke shakun aur apashakun, grahayog adi sabhi vishayon ka prakriti (svabhavikata) tatha vikriti (asvabhavikata) ki drishti se vichar karate hue pariksha karani chahie. visheshat: nadi, mal, mootr, jihva, shabd (dhvani), sparsh, netr aur akriti ki savadhani se pariksha karani chahie. ayurved men nadi ki pariksha ati mahatv ka vishay hai. keval nadipariksha se doshon evn dooshyon ke sath rogon ke svaroop adi ka gyan anubhavi vaidy prapt kar leta hai.

aushadh-jin sadhanon ke dvara rogon ke karanabhoot doshon evn sharirik vikritiyon ka shaman kiya jata hai unhen aushadh kahate hain. ye pradhanat: do prakar ki hoti hai: apadravyabhoot aur dravyabhoot.

adravyabhoot aushadh vah hai jisamen kisi dravy ka upayog nahin hota, jaise upavas, vishram, sona, jagana, tahalana, vyayam adi. bahy ya abhyntar prayogon dvara sharir men jin bahy dravyon (drags) ka prayog hota hai. ve dravyabhoot aushadh hain. ye dravy snkshep men tin prakar ke hote hain: (1) jangam (ainimal draks), jo vibhinn praniyon ke sharir se prapt hote hain, jaise madhu, doodh, dahi, ghi, makkhan, mathh‌tha, pitt, vasa, majja, rakt, mans, purish, mootr, shukr, charm, asthi, shrring, khur, nakh, lom adi; (2) audbhid (harbal drags), ped paudhe adi se prapt hote hain, jaise vividh ann, phal, phool, patte, jade, chhalen, gond, dnthal, svaras, doodh, bhasm, kshar, tail, kntak, koyale aur knd adi; (3) parthiv (khanij, minaral drags), jaise sona, chandi, sisa, ranga, tanba, loha, choona, khadiya, abhrak, snkhiya, haratal, mainasil, anjan (entimani), geroo, namak adi.

sharir ki bhanti ye sabhi dravy bhi panchabhautik hote hain, inake bhi ve hi snghatak hote hain jo sharir ke hain. at: snsar men koee bhi dravy aisa nahin hai jisaka kisi n kisi roop men kisi n kisi rog ke kisi n kisi avasthavishesh men aushadharoop men prayog n kiya ja sake. kintu inake prayog ke poorv inake svabhavik gunadharm, snskarajany gunadharm, prayogavidhi tatha prayogamarg ka gyan avashyak hai. inamen kuchh dravy doshon ka shaman karate hain, kuchh dosh aur dhatu ko dooshit karate hain aur kuchh svasthvrit men, arthath‌ dhatusamy ko sthir rakhane men upayogi hote hain, inaki upayogita ke samuchit gyan ke lie dravyon ke panchabhautik snghatakon men taratamy ke anusar svaroop (knpozishan), guruta, laghuta, rookshata, snigdhata adi gun, ras (test aind lokal aikshan), vapak (metabolik chenjez), viry (phiziolaaujikal aikshan), prabhav (spesifik aikshan) tatha matra (doz) ka gyan avashyak hota hai.

bheshajyakalpana-sabhi dravy sadaiv apane prakritik roopon men sharir men upayogi nahin hote. rog aur rogi ki avashyakata ke vichar se sharir ki dhatuon ke lie upayogi evn satmyakaran ke anukool banane ke lie; in dravyon ke svabhavik svaroop aur gunon men parivartan ke lie, vibhinn bhautik evn rasayanik snskaron dvara jo upay kie jate hain unhen 'kalpana' (farmesi ya farmasyutikal proses) kahate hain. jaise-svaras (joos), kalk ya choorn (pest ya paudar), shit kvath (inafyoozan), kvath (dikaaukshan), asav tatha arisht (tinkchars), tail, ghrit, avaleh adi tatha khanij dravyon ke shodhan, jaran, maran, amritikaran, satvapatan adi.

chikitsashh (tritament): chikitsak, parichayak, aushadh aur rogi, ye charon milakar sharirik dhatuon ki samata ke uddeshy se jo kuchh bhi upay ya kary karate hain use chikitsa kahate hain. yah do prakar ki hoti hai: (1) nirodhak (priventiv) tatha (2) pratishedhak (kyoretiv); jaise sharir ke prakritisth doshon aur dhatuon men vaishamy (vikar) n ho tatha samy ki parnpara nirntar bani rahe, is uddeshy se ki gee chikitsa nirodhak hai tatha jin kriyaon ya upacharon se visham huee sharirik dhatuon men samata utpann ki jati hai unhen pratishedhak chikitsa kahate hain.

pun: chikitsa tin prakar ki hoti hai: (1) satvavajay (saikolaaujikal): isamen man ko ahit vishayon se rokana tatha harshan, ashvasan adi upay hain. (2) daivavyapashray (divain): isamen grah adi doshon ke shamanarth tatha poorvakrit ashubh karm ke prayashchittasvaroop devaradhan, jap, havan, pooja, path, hvrat, tatha mani, mntr, yntr, ratn aur aushadhi adi ka dharan, ye upay hote hain. (3) yuktivyapashray (medisinal arthath‌ sistamik tritament): rog aur rogi ke bal, svaroop, avastha, svasthy, satv, prakriti adi ke anusar upayukat aushadh ki uchit matra, anukool kalpana (banane ki riti) adi ka vichar kar prayukt karana. isake bhi mukhyat: tin prakar hain: ant:parimarjan, bahi:parimarjan aur shastrakarm.

ant:parimarjanashh (aushadhiyon ka abhyntar prayog): isake bhi do mukhy prakar hain: (1) apatarpan ya shodhan ya lnghan; (2) sntarpan ya shaman ya brinhan (khilana). sharirik doshon ko bahar nikalane ke upayon ko shodhan kahate hain, usake vaman, virechan (pargetiv), vasti (niroohan), anuvasan aur uttaravasti (enimaita tatha kaithetars ka prayog), shirovirechan (snafs adi) tatha raktamokshanashh (venisekshan ya blad leting), ye panch upay hain.

shaman-lakshanik chikitsa (sinptomaitik tritament): vibhinn lakshanon ke anusar doshon aur vikaron ke shamanarth vishesh gunavali aushadhi ka prayog, jaise jvaranashak, chhardighn (vaman rokanevala), atisarahar (stnbhak), uddipak, pachak, hridy, kushthaghn, baly, vishaghn, kasahar, shvasahar, dahaprashamak, shitaprashamak, mootral, mootravishodhak, shukrajanak, shukravishodhak, stanyajanak, svedal, raktasthapak, vedanahar, sngyasthapak, vay:sthapak, jivaniy, brinhaniy, lekhaniy, medaniy, rookshaniy, snaheniy adi dravyon ka avashyakatanusar uchit kalpana aur matra men prayog karana.

in aushadhiyon ka prayog karate samay nimnalikhit baton ka dhyan rakhana chahie: yah aushadhi is svabhav ki hone ke karan tatha amuk tatvon ki pradhanata ke karan, amuk gunavali hone se, amuk prakar ke desh men utpann aur amuk ritu men sngrah kar, amuk prakar surakshit rahakar, amuk kalpana se, amuk matra se, is rog ki, is-is avastha men tatha amuk prakar ke rogi ko itani matra men dene par amuk dosh ko nikalegi ya shant karegi. isake prabhav men isi ke saman gunavali amuk aushadhi ka prayog kiya ja sakata hai. isamen yah yah upadrav ho sakate hain aur usake shamanarth ye upay karane chahie.

bahi:parimarjan (ekstarnal medikeshan)-jaise abhyng, snan, lep, dhoopan, svedan adi.

shastrakarm-vibhinn avasthaon men nimnalikhit ath prakar ke shastrakarmon men se koee ek ya anek karane padate hain: 1. chhedan-katakar do phank karana ya sharir se alag karana (eksizan), 2. bhedan-chirana (insizan), 3. lekhan-khurachana (skreping ya skairifikeshan), 4. vedhan-nukile shastr se chhedana (pnkcharing), 5. eshan (probing), 6. aharan-khinchakar bahar nikalana (ekstraikshan), 7. visravan-rakt, pooy adi ko chuvana (drenej), 8. sivan-sina (syoocharing ya stiching). inake atirikt utpatan (ukhadana), kuttan (kuchakuchana, priking),shh mnthan (mathana, driling), dahan (jalana, kaautaraizeshan) adi upashastrakarm bhi hote hain, shastrakarm (aaupareshan) ke poorv ki taiyari ko poorvakarm kahate hain, jaise rogi ka shodhan, yntr (blnt instruments), shastr (sharp instruments) tatha shastrakarm ke samay evn bad men avashyak ruee, vastr, patti, ghrit, tel, kvath, lep adi ki taiyari aur shuddhi. vastavik shastrakarm ko pradhan karm kahate hain. shastrakarm ke bad shodhan, rohan, ropan, tvaksthapan, savarnikaran, romajanan adi upay pashchatkarm hain.

shastrasadhy tatha any anek rogon men kshar ya agniprayog ke dvara bhi chikitsa ki ja sakati hai. rakt nikalane ke lie jonk, singi, tunbi, prachchhan tatha shiravedh ka prayog hota hai.

is prakar ayurved ki tin sthool shakhaon (hetu, ling aur aushadh) ka snkshipt varnan kiya gaya hai.

manas rog (mental dizizez)-man bhi ayu ka upadan hai. man ke poorvokt raj aur tam in do doshon se dooshit hone par manasik sntulan bigadane ka indriyon aur sharir par bhi prabhav padata hai. sharir aur indriyon ke svasth hone par bhi manodosh se manushy ke jivan men astavyastata ane se ayu ka hhras hota hai. usaki chikitsa ke lie man ke sharirashrit hone se sharirik shuddhi adi ke sath gyan, vigyan, snyam, man:samadhi, harshan, ashvasan adi manas upachar karana chahie, man ko kshobhak ahar vihar adi se bachana chahie tatha manas-rog-visheshgyon se upachar karana chahie.

indriyan-ye ayurved men bhautik mani gee hain. ye sharirashrit tatha manoniyntrit hoti hain. at: sharir aur man ke adhar par hi inake rogon ki chikitsa ki jati hai.

atma ko pahale hi nirvikar bataya gaya hai. usake sadhanon (man aur indriyon) tatha adhar (sharir) men vikar hone par in sabaki snchalak atma men vikar ka hamen abhas matr hota hai. kintu poorvakrit ashubh karmon parinamasvaroop atma ko bhi vividh yoniyon men janmagrahan adi bhavabndhanaroopi rog se bachane ke lie, isake pradhan upakaran man ko shuddh karane ke lie, satsngati, gyan, vairagy, dharmashastrachintan, hvrat, upavas adi karana chahie. inase tatha yam niyam adi yogabhyas dvara smriti (tatvgyan) ki utpatti hone se karmasnnyas dvara moksh ki prapti hoti hai. ise naishthiki chikitsa kahate hain. kyonki snsar dvndvamay hai, jahan sukh hai vahan du:kh bhi hai, at: atyntik (satat) sukh to dvndvamukt hone par hi milata hai aur usi ko kahate hain moksh.shshshshshshh (y.u.)

vistrit vivechan, vishesh chikitsa tatha sugamata adi ke lie ayurved ko ath bhagon (ashtang vaidyak) men vibhakt kiya gaya hai:

(1) karyachikitsa-isamen samany roop se aushadhiprayog dvara chikitsa ki jati hai. pradhanat: jvar, raktapitt, shosh, unmad, apasmar, kushth, prameh, atisar adi rogon ki chikitsa isake antargat ati hai. shastrakar ne isaki paribhasha is prakar ki hai-

kayachikitsanam sarvangasnshritananvyadhinan jvararaktapitt-

shoshonmadapasmarakushthamehatisaradinamupashamanarthamh‌. (su.soo. 1.3)

(2) shalyayntr-vividh prakar ke shalyon ko nikalane ki vidhi evn agni, kshar, yntr, shastr adi ke prayog dvara snpadit chikitsa ko shaly chikitsa kahate hain. kisi hvran men se trin ke hisse, lakadi ke tukade, patthar ke tukade, dhool, lohe ke khnd, haddi, bal, nakhoon, shaly, ashuddh rakt, pooy, mritabhroon adi ko nikalana tatha yntron evn shastron ke prayog evn hvranon ke nidan, tatha usaki chikitsa adi ka samavesh shalyayntr ke antargat kiya gaya hai.

shalynnam vividhatrinakashthapashanapanshulohaloshthasthivalanakhapooyasravadrashtvrana- ntargarbhashalyodvaranarth yntrashastraksharagnipranidhanvran vinishchayarthach. (su.soo. 1.1).

(3) shalakyayntr-gale ke oopar ke angon ki chikitsa men bahudha shalaka sadrish yntron evn shastron ka prayog hone se ise shalakyayntr kahate hain. isake antargat pradhanat: mukh, nasika, netr, karn adi angon men utpann vyadhiyon ki chikitsa ati hai.

shalakyn namoordhvajantugatanan shravan nayan vadan hghraanadi snshritanan vyadhinamupashamanarthamh‌. (su.soo. 1.2).

(4) kaumarabhrity-bachchon, striyon visheshat: garbhini striyon aur vishesh strirog ke sath garbhavigyan ka varnan is tntr men hai.

kaumarabhrityn nam kumarabharan dhatrikshiradoshashh snshodhanarthn

dushtastanyagrahasamutthanan ch vyadhinamupashamanarthamh‌ .. (su.soo. 1.5).

(5) agadatntr-isamen vibhinn sthavar, jngam aur kritrim vishon evn unake lakshanon tatha chikitsa ka varnan hai.

agadatntrn nam sarpakitalatamashikadidashtavish vynjanarthn

vividhavishasnyogopashamanarthn ch .. (su.soo. 1.6).

(6) bhootavidya-isamen devadhi grahon dvara utpann hue vikaron aur usaki chikitsa ka varnan hai.

bhootavidyanam devasuragndharvayaksharaksh: pitripishachanagagrahamupasrisht

chetasanshantikarm valiharanadigrahopashamanarthamh‌. (su.soo. 1.4).

(7) rasayanatntr-chirakal tak vriddhavastha ke lakshanon se bachate hue uttam svasthy, bal, paurush evn dirghayu ki prapti evn vriddhavastha ke karan utpann hue vikaron ko door karane ke upay is tntr men varnit hain.

rasayanatntr nam vay: sthapanamayumedhavalakarn rogapaharanasamarthn ch.shshshshshh (su.soo. 1.7).

(8) vajikaran-shukradhatu ki utpatti, pushtata evn usamen utpann doshon evn usake kshay, vriddhi adi karanon se utpann lakshanon ki chikitsa adi vishayon ke sath uttam svasth sntonotpatti snbndhi gyan ka varnan isake antargat ate hain.

vajikaranatntrn nam alpadusht kshinavishushkaretasamapyayan

prasadopachay janananimittn praharshn jananarthnch. (su.soo. 1.8).

ayurved snbndhi shodh-svatntrata prapti ke bad bharat sarakar ka dhyan ayurvedik siddhant evn chikitsa snbndhi shodh ki or akarshit hua. phalasvaroop is disha men kuchh mahatvapoorn kadam uthae ge hain aur ekadhik shodhaparishadon evn snsthanon ki sthapana ki gee hai jinamen se pramukh ye hai:

(a) bharatiy chikitsapaddhati evn homyopaithi ki kendriy anusndhan parishadh‌shh (sentral kaunsil phaaur risarch in indiyan medisin aind homyopaithi) is svayattashasi kendriy anusndhan parishadh ki sthapana ka bil bharat sarakar ne 22 mee, 1969 ki lokasabha men parit kiya tha. isaka mukhy uddeshy ayurvedik chikitsa ke saiddhantik evn prayogik pahaluon ke vibhinn pakshon par anusndhan ke sootrapat ko nideshit, pronnat, snvardhit tatha vikasit karana hai. is snstha ke pradhan kary evn uddeshy nimnalikhit hain:

(1) bharatiy chikitsa (ayurved, siddh, yoonani, yog evn homyopaithi) paddhati se snbndhit anusndhan ko vaigyanik dhng se prastut karana.

(2) roganivarak evn rogotpadak hetuon se snbndhit tathyon ka anushilan evn tatsnbndhi anusndhan men sahayog pradan karana, gyanasnvardhan evn prayogik vidhi men vriddhi karana.

3. bharatiy chikitsapranali, homyopaithi tatha yog ke vibhinn saiddhantik evn vyavaharik pahaluon men vaigyanik anusndhan ka sootrapat, snvardhan evn samnjasy sthapit karana.

(4) kendriy parishadh ke saman uddeshy rakhanevali any snsthaon, mndaliyon evn parishadon ke sath visheshakar poorvanchal pradeshiy vyadhiyon aur khasakar bharat men utpann honevali vyadhiyon se snbndhit vishisht adhyayan evn paryavekshan snbndhi vicharon ka adan pradan karana.

5. kendriy parishadh evn ayurvediy vanamay ke utkarsh patron ad ka mudran, prakashan evn pradarshan karana.

6. kendriy parishadh ke uddeshyon ke utkarsh nimitt puraskar pradan karana tatha chhatravritti svikrit karana. chhatron ko yatra hetu dhanarashi ki svikriti dena bhi isamen sammilit hai.

(a) kendriy anusndhan snsthan (sentral risarch instityoot) aturalayon, prayogashalaon, ayurvigyan ke adharabhoot siddhanton evn prayogik samasyaon par brihadh roop se shodh kar raha hai. isake pradhan uddeshy nimnalikhit hain:

1. roganivaran evn unmoolan hetu achchhi, sasti tatha prabhavakari aushadhiyon ka pata lagana.

2. vibhinn kendron (kendriy parishadh ke) men snlagn karyakartaon ko prashikshan snbndhi suvidhaen pradan karana.

3. vibhinn vyaktiyon athava snsthaon dvara 'roganivaran' ke davon ka moolyankan karana.

4. ayurvediyavigyan ke siddhanton ka snvardhan karana.

5. adhunik chikitsavigyan ke drishtikon se ayurvediy siddhanton ki punarvyakhya karana.

6. vibhinn naidanik pahaluon par anusndhan karana.

uparyukt snsthan ke sath (1) aushadhiy vanaspati sarvekshan ikaiyan (sarve aph medisinal plants yoonits), (2) tathyanishkasan chal naidanik anusndhan ikaiyan

isake atirikt kendriy snsthan nimn sthanon par kary kar rahe hain:

ayurvedashshh: kendriy anusndhan snsthan, cherootharuthi.

kendriy anusndhan snsthan, patiyala.

siddhashshshshh: kendriy anusndhan snsthan, madras.

yoonanishshshh: kendriy anusndhan snsthan, haidarabad.

homyopaithishh: kendriy anusndhan snsthan, kalakatta.

(i) kshetriy anusndhan snsthanashh (rijanal risarch instityoot) is snsthan ka kary bhi pray: kendriy annsadhan snsthan ke saman hi hai. aise snsthanon ke sath 25 shayyavale aturalay bhi snbaddh hain. bhuvaneshvar, jayapur, yogendranagar tatha kalakatta men kshetriy anusndhan kendr sthapit kie ge hain. in snsthanon ke sath bhishh (1) aushadhiy vanaspati sarvekshan ikaiyan, (2) tathyanishkasan chal naidanik anusndhan ikaiyan tatha (3) naidanik anusndhan ikaiyan snbaddh hain.

aushadhiy vanaspati sarvekshan ikaee ke uddeshy nimnalikhit hain:

1. ayurvediy vanaspatiyon ke (jinaka vibhinn ayurvediy snhitaon men ullekh hai) kshetr ka vistar evn pariman ka anuman.

2. vibhinn aushadhiyon ka sngrah karana.

3. vibhinn ikaiyon (anasndhan) men janch hetu hare paudhon, bij evn any aushadhiyon men prayukt honevale bhag ka prachur pariman men sngrah karana adi.

4. isake atirikt ayurvedik aushadhi udyog men prayukt honevale dravy, any sundar tatha akarshak paudhe, vibhinn jngali dravyon evn alabhy paudhon aur dravyon ke snbndh men chhanabin karana.

(ee) mishrit bheshaj anusndhan yojana shh(knpozit drag risarch skim) is yojana ke antargat kuchh adhunik prayog men aee navin aushadhiyon ka adhyayan prathamik roos se kiya ja raha hai. vibhinn drishtikonon ko lekar arthath‌ naidanik, kriyashilata snbndhi, rasayanik tatha snghatanatmak adhyayan isake kshetr men sammilit kie ge hain.

(u) vanamay anusndhan ikaee shh(litareri risarch yoonit) ayurved ke bikhare evn nashtapray vanamay ko vibhinn niji evn sarvajanik pustakalayon ke sarvekshan dvara snkalit karana is ikaee ka kam hai. prachin kal men talapatr, bhojapatr adi par likhe ayurved ke amooly ratnon ka snkalan evn snvardhan bhi isake pramukh uddeshy men se ek hain.

(oo) chikitsashastr ke itihas ka snsthanashh (instityoot aauv histari aauv medisin) yah snsthan haidarabad men sthit hai. isaka mukhy uddeshy yuganuroop ayurved ke itihas ka praroop taiyar karana hai. pragaitihasik yug se adhunik yug parynt ayurved ki pragati evn hhras ka adhyayan hi isaka kary hai.

sndhaniy shaly vigyan: ayurved men sndhaniy shaly vigyan ka vikas charam sima par tha. sushrut snhita men sndhanak shalyakriya ke pradhanat: do paksh varnit hain. pratham paksh ka sndhanakarm evn dvitiy ko vaikritapattam ki sngya di gee hai.

1. sndhan karmashh punarnirman snbndhi shalyakriya hai aur sndhanak shalayavigyan ka adharastnbh bhi. isake antargat (k) karnasndhan, (kh) nasasndhan tatha (g) oshthasndhan ityadi shalyakriyaon ka samavesh kiya gaya hai.[1] 2. vaikritapattamashh men hvranaropan se prakritik lavany parynt anek avasthaon ka samavesh kiya gaya hai. vaikritapattam kriya ka mukhy uddeshy hvranavastu (hvranachihnon) ko yathasnbhav prakritik avastha (akar, roop, prakriti) men lana hai jinamen nimnankit ath pradhan karm snpadit kie jate hain:

(a) utsadan kamarh-niche dabi huee hvranavastu ko oopar uthana.
(a) avasadakamarh-oopar uthi huee hvranavastu ko niche lana.
(i) mridukamarh-kathin hvranavastu ko mridu karana.
(ee) darunakamarh-mridu hvranavastu ko varn pradan karana.
(u) krishnakamarh-varnarahit hvranavastu ko varn pradan karana.
(oo) pandukamarh-atirnjit hvranavastu ko nyanavarn athava varnavihin karana.
(e) romasnjanan-hvranavastu ke oopar pun: prakritik rom utpann karana.
(ai) lopaharan-hvranavastu ke oopar utpann atyadhik balon ko nasht karana.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 413-19 |

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