वेदों का रचना काल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

vedon ka rachanakal-nirdharan vaidik sahityetihas ki ek jatil samasya hai. vibhinn vidvanon ne bhasha, rachanashaili, dharm evn darshan, bhoomarbhashastr, jyotish, utkhanan men prapt samagri, abhilekh adi ke adhar par vedon ka rachanakal nirdharit karane ka prayas kiya hai, kintu inase abhi tak koee sarvamany rachanakal nirdharit nahin ho sakata hai. isaka karan yahi hai ki sabaka kisi n kisi manyata ke sath poorvagrah hai. 18vin shati ke ant tak bharatiy vidvanon ki yah dharana thi ki ved apaurushey hai, arthat kisi manushy ki rachana nahin hai. snhitaon, brahmanon, darshanik granthon, puranon tatha any paravarti sahity men anek uddharan milate hain jinamen ved ke apaurusheyatv ka kathan milata hai. ved-bhashyakaron ki bhi parampara ved ko apaurushey hi manati rahi. is prakar ved ke apaurusheyatv ki dharana usake kalanirdharan ki sambhavana ko hi asvikar kar deti hai. doosari taraph 19vin sadi ke prarambh se hi, jabaki pashchaty vidvanon ke dvara vedadhyayan ka mahattvapoorn prayas kiya gaya, yah dharana pratishthit hone lagi ki ved apaurushey nahin, manav rishiyon ki rachana hai; atev unake kalanirdharan ki sambhavana ko asvikar nahin kiya ja sakata. phalasvaroop, anek pashchaty vidvanon ke dvara is disha men prayas kiya gaya. vaidik kinva ary-snskriti vishv ki prachinatam snskriti hai, is tathy ko choonki pashchaty manasikata angikar n kar saki, isaliye vedon ka rachanakal eesa se sahastrabdiyon poorv manana unake liye sambhav nahin tha, kyonki vishv ki any snskritiyon ki satta itane sudoorakal tak pramanit nahin ho sakati thi, yadyapi unhonne itana avashy svikar kiya ki ved vishv ka prachinatam sahity hai. is prakar ved vishv ka prachinatam vadmay hai is vishay men bharatiy tatha pashchaty sabhi vidvanh ekamat hain, vaimaty keval is bat men hai ki isaki prachinata kalavadhi men kahan rakhi jay. ved ke rachanakal-nirdharan ki disha men ab tak vidvanon ne jo kary kiye hain tatha etadvishayak apane mat sthapit kiye hai unaka yahan snkshep men ullekh kiya jata hai.[1]

maiksamoolar ka mat

  • bauddh dharm ke avirbhavakal ko adhar banakar sarvapratham maiksamoolar ne ved ke rachanakal ko sunishchit karane ka prayas kiya. usane yah mana ki jis prakar krishchiyan varsh prarambh duniya ke itihas ko do bhagon men bantata hai, usi prakar buddh-yug bharat ke itihas ko do bhagon men bantata hai. buddh ke kalanirdharan men usane grik itihasakaron ko praman manakar buddh ka nirvanakal 477 ee.poo. mana jo chandragupt maury ke rajasinhasan par baithane se 162 varsh poorv ka hai.
  • grik itihasakaron ke anusar 325 ee.poo. men sikandar ne bharat par akraman kiya tha aur pashchimottar bharat ko apane adhin kar liya tha. sikandar ke uttaradhikariyon ki mrityu ke bad 317 ee.poo. men chandragupt ne pataliputr par adhikar kiya aur 315 ee.poo. men samrat ban gaya. grik itihasakaron dvara uddhrit saindrakotas (Sandracottus) ko maiksamoolar ne chandragupt maury samajha.
  • katyayan, jo sootr-sahity ke pramukh lekhak hain, chandragupt maury se poorvavarti tatha buddh se paravarti hain. donon ke madhy unaki sthiti manakar maiksamoolar ne katyayan ka samay chaturth shatabdi ka uttarardh nirdharit kiya. katyayan sootrakal ke pratham lekhak nahin, shaunak adi achary unase poorv ke hain. panini ne bhi shaunak ka ullekh kiya hai, isaliye shaunak panini se bhi poorv ke hain. katyayan se bad ke bhi kee sootrakar hain. isaliye shaunak se bhi poorvavarti tatha katyayan se bhi paravarti sootrakaron ka vichar karate hue maiksamoolar ne sootrakal ko 600 ee.poo. se lekar 200 ee.poo. tak mana.[2] char sau varshon ka yah sootrakal hai. inhin char sau varshon men samast sootr-sahity racha gaya.
  • sampoorn sootr-sahity jisake adhar par likha gaya tha, vah hai brahman-sahity. isaka abhipray yah hai ki sootrakal tak sampoorn brahman sahity ki rachana ho chuki thi. jis prakar sootrakal aur paravarti laukik snskrit ke bich ki kadi parishisht-sahity hai usi prakar brahmanakal aur sootrakal ke bich ki kadi aranyak aur upanishad hain. kee aranyakon ke rachayita to nishchit roop se sootrakar hi hain. shaunak ke shishy ashvalayan aitarey aranyak ke pncham adhyay ke rachayita mane jate hain. is prakar aranyak aur upanishaden brahmanakal ke antim bhag ki upaj hain. brahman sahity ki vishalata, prachin brahmanon ki kee shakhaon, charanon, prachin evn arvachin charanon ke matabhedon, brahman-lekhakon ki vnshavaliyon tatha unaki gadyatmak rachanashaili ko dekhate hue maiksamoolar ne inaki rachana ke liye 200 varshon ka samay paryapt manakar sampoorn brahmanasahity ka rachanakal 800 ee.poo. se lekar 600 ee.poo. tak mana.[3] maiksamoolar ne yah bhi mana ki yajurved-snhita tatha samaved-snhita isi brahmanakal ki rachanayen hain. atharvaved-snhita in donon se arvachin hai.
  • brahmanakal vaidik vadmay ka adikal nahin hai. inaki rachana se poorv vaidik sahity men ek aisi pravritti dikhaee padati hai jo maulik, svatantr tatha srijanatmak nahin, apitu kisi poorvayug ki parampara par ashrit hai. isamen keval poorvayug ki rachanaon ka snkalan, vargikaran tatha anukaran hi dikhaee padata hai. brahmanapoorv-yug ki in pravrittiyon ko parilakshit karane vali ek hi rachana rigved-snhita upalabdh hai.
  • maiksamoolar ne is kal ko mantrakal ki sngya di. is mantrakal ki mukhy pravritti yadyapi poorvayug ki rachanaon ko snkalit karana tha, kintu jahan ve prachin rishi-kaviyon ki rachanaon ko logon ke mukh se sunakar snkalit karate the, vahan unamen snshodhan bhi karate the. adhik snkhya men mantron ko snkalit aur snshodhit karate samay adhikansh vyakti apani kavy-pratibha ka pradarshan karane ki ichchha bhi karate honge aur unhin mantron ki anukriti par katipay naye mantron ki rachana bhi karane lage honge. is prakar ke mantr khil ke nam se milate hain. in khil-mantron ke atirikt rigved ke dash mandalon ke andar bhi kuchh aise kaviyon ke mantr snkalit hain jo poorvavarti kal ke kaviyon ke anukarta hain. ye kavi rigved ke antim snkalan ke samay ke hain. is prakar in do prakar ke mantron ki rachana is mantrakal men huee. maiksamoolar ka kahana hai ki prachin rishiyon ki rachanaon ko snkalit karane, unaka vargikaran karane tatha unake anukaran par naye mantron ki rachana ke liye 200 varshon ka samay adhik nahin kaha ja sakata. rigved men arvachin kaviyon ki vnshavaliyon tatha snkalanakartaon ke bhi do vargon ko dekhate hue maiksamoolar ne mantr kal ko 1000 ee. poo. se 800 ee. poo. tak mana.[4]
  • vaidik kavyadhara ke itihas men maiksamoolar ne mantrakal se poorv ek chhand:kal ki satta svikar ki. mantr rachana ka yah vah yug tha jisamen maulik, srijanatmak, svachchhand evn svabhavik kavy-rachana huee jisaka anusaran mantr kal men dikhaee padata hai. is chhand:kal ki bhi rachanayen rigved-snhita men snkalit hain. maiksamoolar ne is chhand:kal ke liye bhi 200 varshon ka samay svikar kar isaki avadhi 1200 ee.poo. se 1000 ee.poo. tak mani.[5] is prakar maiksamoolar ke anusar sampoorn vaidik sahity-sootr-sahity se lekar prachinatam ridh-mantr tak- ek sahastr varshon arthat 200 ee.poo. 1200 ee.poo. men racha gaya.

maiksamoolar ke mat ki samiksha

  • vaidik vadmay ke nishchit-kalanirdharan ki disha men choonki maiksamoolar ne sarvapratham prayas kiya tha, isaliye yah svabhavik tha ki vidvanon ka dhyan us or akrisht ho. prarambh men adhikansh vidvanon ne usake is mat ko pramanik mana. bad men kuchh hi aise vidvan the jo maiksamoolar ke samarthak bane rahe. adhikansh ne apani dharana badal li aur usake mat ki kafi alochana ki. jis buddh ke nirvanakal, sikandar ke akraman, chandragupt ke rajyakal tatha grik itihasakaron ke ullekhon ko maiksamoolar ne vaidik vadamay ke kalanirdharan ka adhar banaya, usako vidvanon ne mahattvahin ghoshit kar diya. vaidik vadmay ko char bhagon men vibhajit kar pratyek ke liye usane jo 200 varshon ki avadhi nirdharit ki, usaki vidvanon ne kadi alochana ki.
  • maiksamoolar ke alochakon men pramukh the vilsan, martin hag, byoolar, hitani, bloomaphild, yakovi adi. vilsan ne 200 varshon ki jagah par 400 ya 500 varshon ki pratyek kal ki avadhi manakar brahmanon ka rachanakal 1000 ee. poo. ya 1100 ee.poo. mana.[6] age usane yah bhi sambhavana vyakt ki ki vaidik vadmay ke pratyek kal ka yah antaral ek sahastr varshon se bhi adhik ka hoga.[7]
  • martin hag ne maiksamoolar ke kal nirdharan ke viruddh vishal brahman-sahity ke 1400-1200 ee.poo. men rache jane ka ullekh kiya. usane likha hai ki snhitaon ki rachana men kam-se-kam 500-600 varshon ka samay laga hoga aur snhitaon ke ant aur brahmanon ke prarambh hone men bhi kam-se-kam 200 varshon ka samay laga hoga. is prakar hag ke anusar 2000-1400 ee.poo. snhitakal hai. rigved ke prachin sookton ki rachana isase bhi kuchh sau varsh ki ho sakati hai, aisa manakar usane vaidik vadmay ka adikal 2400-2000 ee.poo. nirdharit kiya.[8]
  • vyoolar ne bharat ki tatkalin rajanitik, samajik tatha bhaugolik paristhitiyon ko dekhate hue maiksamoolar dvara nirdharit samay ko atyalp, atev tyajy bataya. usaka kahana tha ki keval yahi tathy ki brahmanasahity ka dakshin men prasar eesa se kee shatabdiyon poorv ho chuka tha, is bat ko siddh karane ke liye paryapt hai ki aryon ki dakshin-vijay 7vin ya 8vin sadi ee. poorv men sampann ho chuki thi. taittiriy, baudhayan, apastamb, bharadvaj, hiranyakeshi adi anek shakhayen dakshin men phail chuki thin. aisi sthiti men yah kalpana ki bharatiy ary 1200 ee.poo. ya 1500 ee.poo. men bharat ki uttari sima tatha afaganistan ki poorvi sima par sthit the, poornataya asambhav siddh ho jati hai.[9] byoolar ne bauddh sahity men upalabdh pramanon ke adhar par bhi maiksamoolar ke mat ka prativad kiya. usaka kahana tha ki bauddhon ke dharmik sahity se is bat ka pata chalata hai ki 500 ee.poo. tak brahman-sambandhi vividh vigyan aur sahity vikas ki us sima tak pahunch chuka tha jo bahut prachinakal se jana jata hai. byoolar ne jain parampara ke adhar par bhi maiksamoolar ke vaidik kalanirdharan ko galat siddh kiya. usaka kahana tha ki jaini parampara ke anusar unake ek tirthnkar ka nirvanakal 776 ee.poo. hai. is prakar jab ek brahman karmakand-virodhi sampraday, jisake upadesh gyanamarg ke siddhant par adharit hai, ee.poo. athavin shatabdi men pradurbhoot hua to yah manana ki usake 50 varsh poorv brahmanakal prarambh hua asngat kinva asambhav pratit hota hai aur isase bhi adhik asambhav yah svikar hua asngat kinva asambhav pratit hota hai aur isase bhi adhik asambhav yah svikar karana hai ki 1200 ya 1500 ee.poo. se bharatiy aryo ki sahityik gatividhiyon ka prarambh hua hoga.[10]
  • vilsan, hag, byoolar adi vidvanon dvara ki gee alochana ka parinam yah hua ki svayn maiksamoolar apane mat ki apramanikata ka anubhav karane laga aur antatogatva usane apana mat badal diya. sanh 1862 men rigved-snhita ke chaturth bhag ki prastavana men usako svikar karana pada ki vaidik vadmay ke pratham tin kalon ke tithinirdharan men jo usane mat vyakt kiya hai vah poornaroopen kalpanik hai. 1890 men 'jiphord vyakhyanamala, men usane spasht roop se svikar kiya ki vaidik mantron ki rachana 1000 ee. poo. men ya 1500 ee.poo. ya 2000 ee. poo. men ya 3000 ee. poo. men huee isako duniya ki koee shakti nirdharit nahin kar sakati.[11]

yakobi ka mat

  • maiksamoolar ke mat ki pratikriya men jarman vidvan yakovi ne jyotish-sambandhi tathyon ke adhar par vedon ka rachanakal nirdharit karane ka prayas kiya. usane vaidik sahity ke kal nirdharan ke liye vibhinn rituon tatha nakshatron men varsharambh ki sthiti tatha grihyasootron men prachalit dhruv darshan ki pratha ko adhar banaya. usane dekha ki vaidik granthon men vibhinn rituon tatha nakshatron se varsh ke prarambh hone ka ullekh milata hai. varsha, sharad, tatha him rituon se varsh ke prarambh hone ka ullekh anek sthalon par milata hai. varsh, varsha-ritu arthat praushthapad se shuroo hota tha., sharad-varsh margashirsh se tatha him-varsh phalgun se. chaturmasy yag ke prasng men varsharambh ke vishay men ek doosare ke virodhi kathan brahman tatha shraut sootron men milate hain. yakobi ka kahana tha ki vibhinn rituon tatha nakshatron se varsharambh ke vishay men jo virodh dikhaee padata hai. vah tab samapt ho jayega jab ham yah man lenge ki rigved ke samay men prachalit ye tinon varsh bad men keval yajik karyo men hi surakshit rahe, vastavik roop men prachalit nahin the. ye varsh keval rigved-kal men vastavik roop men prachalit rahe. uttar-vaidikakal men un mahinon se jinase varsh ke shuroo hone ka ullekh kiya gaya tha nakshatron ki sthiti-parivartan ke karan us mahine men rituyen sharu hoti nahin dekhi gee, inamen avashyak snshodhan kar diya gaya. yakovi ka kahana tha ki yah sthiti hi nishchit tithi ka gyan karane men sahayak hai. brahmanasahity men krittika ko nakshatron men prathamasthaniya mana gaya hai. jis samay krittika prathamasthaniya thi us samay vasantasampat (Vernal equirnox) ki sthiti krittika men thi, grishm-snkranti (Summer Solstice) magha men thi. yakobi ke anusar yah samay 2500 ee. poo. ka hai jisamen brahmanon ki rachana huee.[12]
  • kaushitaki-brahman[13] men jo yah kaha gaya hai ki uttaraphalguni varsh ka mukh hai aur poorvaphalguni poonchh hai, tatha taitariy brahman[14] men jo yah kaha gaya hai ki poorvaphalguni varsh ki antim rat hai aur uttaraphalguni varsh ki pratham rat hai, isase yakovi ne yah nishkarsh nikala ki uttaraphalguni se hi kisi samay varsh ka prarambh hota tha. varsha ritu se shuroo hone vala varsh grishm-sakrannti se shuroo hota tha jisaki sthiti uttaraphalguni men thi. jis samay grishmasnkranti uttaraphalguni men thi him snkranti poorv bhadrapad men thi, sharat-sampat mool men tha aur vasant-sampat mrigashira men tha. mrigashira men vasant-sampat ki sthiti krittika men vasant-sampat ki sthiti se prachin hai. mrigashira krittika se do nakshatr pichhe padati hai. sampat ko ek nakshatr pichhe sarakane men lagabhag ek hazar varsh ka samay lag jata hai. do nakshatr pichhe sarakane men 2000 varsh ka samay lagata hai. is prakar mrigashira men vasant-sampat ki sthiti krittika men vasant-sampat ki sthiti se 2000 varsh poorv ki hai. arthat 4500 ee.poo. men vasant-sampat ki sthiti mrigashira men thi. yakobi ke anusar yahi samay rigved ke mantron ka rachanakal hai. usaka kahana hai ki rigved ki rachana bhale us samay n huee ho, kintu us samay ki ek uchchakoti ki vikasit sabhyata ka parinam to use avashy kaha jayega. us sabhyata ka samay 4500-2500 ee.poo. ka hai aur isi ke uttarardh ka samay rigved-snhita ka hai.[15]
  • yakobi ne grihyasootron men prachalit dhruvadarshan ki pratha ke adhar par bhi vedon ke rachana kal ko nirdharit karane ka prayas kiya jo poorv-sthapit mat ke samarthan men hi tha. usaka kahana hai ki yadyapi uttari tara (North Star) aur pol-star (Pole Star) donon ko paryay samajha jata hai, kintu inamen antar hai. uttari tara vah prakashaman tara hai. jo uttari dhruv ke atyadhik samip hota hai. vah tara jisaki doori uttari dhruv se itani kam hoti hai ki usako vyavahar men dhruv kahane lagate hain pol star kahalata hai. yakobi ke anusar draikonis (Draconis) namak tara ki pol star se 0°. 6' par tatha ursi mainoris (Ursae Minoris) ki 0°.28' par doori sabase kam hai. in dooriyon par in donon taron ko dhruv mana ja sakata hai. grihyasootron men vivah ke prasng men jis dhruvadarshan ki bat kahi gee hai vah vastavik polastar tha. usake bad keval draikonis hi polastar ho sakata hai. yah samay taron ki gati ki ganana ke anusar 2780 ee.poo. siddh hota hai. bahut dinon tak vah mool dhrub ke pas raha, isaliye yah svabhavik tha ki hindoo usako apane riti rivajon men sambandhit karen. is prakar yakobi ke anusar dhruv ka namakaran tatha vivah men mool dhruv ke pratyaksh darshan ki pratha ko nakshatr ganana ke adhar par 3000 ee. poo. ke prathamarth men mana ja sakata hai. rigved ke vivahasookt men dhruvadarshan ki pratha ka ullekh nahin, isaliye yah kaha ja sakata hai ki rigved ke sookton ki rachana 3000 ee. poo. se pahale ho chuki hogi. is prakar snkshep men yakobi ke anusar 4500 ee.poo. se 3000 ee.poo. rigved ka rachanakal hai tatha 3000 ee.poo. se 2000 ee. poo. brahmanon ka rachanakal hai.

balagngadhar tilak ka mat

  • jis samay baaun men yakobi ne jyotish sambandhi tathyon ke adhar par rigved ka rachanakal 4500 ee.poo. nirdharit kiya usi samay bharat men jyotish-sambandhi tathyon ke hi adhar par svatantr roop se kary karate hue balagngadhar tilak bhi usi nishkarsh par pahunche. donon men antar yah tha ki tilak ne vaidik sahity se anek aise bhi praman uddhrit kiye jinase vedamantron ka rachana kal do hazar varsh aur poorv siddh hota hai. tilak ke anusar vaidik yagyik sahity ke avalokan se yah bat spasht roop se maloom hoti hai ki jis prakar rituon ke sath varsh ya satr ke prarambh ka sambandh mana jata tha usi prakar nakshatron ke sath bhi varsh ya satr ke prarambh ka sambandh mana jata tha. jis nakshatr se varsh ka prarambh vaidik sahity men milata hai, usase yah bat pusht hoti hai ki vasant-sampat se hi varsh ya uttarayan ka prarambh hota tha. sampat ya snkranti hamesha ek hi nakshatr par nahin hote. jis nakshatr men ek samay sampat padega kee sau varsh bad vah usi nakshatr men nahin padega. is asngati ko dar karane ke liye samay-samay par vaidik jyotish-vaigyanikon ke dvara sudhar kiye jate rahe.
  • tilak ke anusar prachin kailendar men tin parivartanon ke praman vaidik vanamay men milate hain: ek samay krittika nakshatr men, ek samay mrigashira nakshatr men tatha ek samay punarvasu nakshatr men vasant-sampat padata tha. jis samay kritrika, vasant-sampat, uttarayan tatha varsh ka prarambh ek sath tha vah samay 2500 ee.poo. ka hai. krittika se ek nakshatr poorv arthat bharani nakshatr ke 10° men vasant-sampat ko ullekh vedang jyotish men milata hai. yah samay 1400 ee. poo. ka hai. is prakar 2500 ee. poo. se 1400 ee. poo. tak ke kal ko tilak ne krittikakal ki sngya di.[16] isi samay taittiriy-snhita tatha anek brahmanon ki rachana huee. is samay tak rigved ke sookt prachin aur aspasht ho chuke the. yah vah kal tha jisamen sambhavat: vedon ki snhitaon ka vyavasthit roop se granth ke roop men snkalan hua aur prachinatam sookton ke arthabodh ki disha men bhi prayatn hue. isi samay bharatiyon ka chiniyon ke sath sampark hua aur chiniyon ne unaki nakshatravidya grahan ki.
  • jis samay mrigashira nakshatr, vasant-sampat, uttarayan tatha varsh ka prarambh ek sath tha vah samay 4500 ee.poo. ka hai. krittika kal se poorv arthat 2500 ee.poo. se lekar 4500 ee. poo. ke kal ko tilak ne mrigashirakal ki sngya di. ary sambhyata ke itihas men sarvadhik mahattvapoorn kal yahi hai. rigved ke adhikansh sookton ki rachana isi samay huee. anek naye akhyanon tatha prachin akhyanon ke naye roopon ka vikas bhi isi samay hua. is kal men ary, grik, tatha parasi ek sath nivas karate the. isake antik kal men ve ek doosare se alag hue.[17]
  • rigvaidik mantron ke rachanakal ki 4500 ee. poo. tak ki avadhi yakobi ne bhi nirdharit ki thi. kintu vah usase pichhe nahin ja saka. tilak ne vaidik sahity men kee aise uddharan khoj nikale jisamen vasant-sampat, uttarayan tatha varsh ke arambh ka punarvasu nakshatr men hone ka snket milata hai. tilak ne dekha ki taitariy snhita tatha tanday brahman men jahan phalguni poornamas se varsh ke prarambh hone ka ullekh kiya gaya hai vahan chitra poornamas se bhi varsh ke prarambh hone ki bat kahi gee hai.[18]
  • tilak ke anusar taitariy snhita men jis varsh ke prarambh hone ka ullekh kiya gaya hai vah varsh vastut: punarvasu nakshatr se shuroo hota tha. us din vasant-sampat bhi hota tha. punarvasu nakshatr, vasant-sampat aur varsh ka prarambh tinon ki sthiti ek sath thi, isake samarthan men tilak ne kee praman diye hain. purnavasu ko nakshatron men pratham sthan pradan karane vali soochi yadyapi vaidik sahity men nahin milati aur n agrahayan jaisa usaka paryayavachi shabd hi milata hai, phir bhi yagyik sahity men punarvasu ko nakshatron ki soochi men prathamasthaniy manane ka snket milata hai. *punarvasu nakshatr ki adhishthatri devata aditi hai.
  1. aitarey brahman[19] men aditi se sabhi ygyon ke shuroo hone tatha usi men samapt hone ka ullekh hai.
  2. madhyandin snhita[20] men aditi ko 'ubhayat: shirshni' arthat donon taraph shiravali kaha gaya haih.
  3. rigved[21] men aditi ko devayan ko pitriyan se alag karane vali aur devamata kaha gaya hai. tilak ke anusar ye sare ullekh aditi se varsh ke prarambh hone ka kathan karate hain. aditi se varsh ke prarambh manane ka matalab hai punarvasu se varsh ka prarambh manana. is prakar jis samay aditi se ygy ka prarambh hota tha, us samay punarvasu nakshatr mrigashira se do nakshatr bad men padati hai. vasant-sampat ko mrigashira se sarakakar pichhe hatane men lagabhag 2000 varsh lage honge. is prakar tilak ke anusar yah samay 4000+2000= 6000 ee. poo. ka hai. aryasabhyata ka yahi prachinatam kal hai. 4000 ee. poo. se 6000 ee. poo. ke samay ko tilak ne aditi-kal ki sngya di. yah vah samay hai jabaki alnkrit richaon tatha sookton ki satta nahin thi. gady-pady- ubhayatmak ygyparak nividh mantron ki satta is kal ki hai. grik tatha parasiyon ke pas is kal ki koee parampara surakshit nahin.[22]

yakobi tatha tilak ke mat ki samiksha

  • yakobi tatha tilak ki vedon ke rachanakal-vishayak nee khoj ne vidvanon men ek halachal macha di. sarvapratham inaka mat vidvanon ko poornataya kalpanik, asnbhav kinva vyarth pratit hua aur kee vidvanon ne isaka mazaq udaya. hitani[23] aur thibaut[24] ne is mat ka datakar virodh kiya. prachin vaidik aryon ko jyotish-sambandhi gyan tha yah inako svikary nahin tha.
  • thibaut ki apattiyan hitani ki apeksha kuchh adhik ugr thin, yadyapi usane yah bhi apana bhav abhivyakt kiya ki tilak aur yakobi ke nishkarshon ko poornataya asambhav kahane ka use adhikar nahin. usaka kahana tha ki ho sakata hai ki vaidik sahity aur sabhyata kahin usase bhi adhik prachin ho aur is bat ke anek praman paravarti vaidik sahity men mil sakate hain. kintu is bat ko svikar karane se poorv use is bat ki poornataya pushti ho jani chahiye ki jin vaidik jyotish-sambandhi uddharanon ke adhar par tilak tatha yakobi ne apane nishkarsh nikale hain unake arth vahin hain jo unhonne kiye hain. thibaut ke anusar jyotish-ganana ke adhar par yah samay 1100 ee. poo. ka siddh hota hai.
  • ek taraph hitani tatha thibaut ne tilak tatha yakobi ke maton ki jahan kadi alochana ki, vahan doosari or byoolar ne apane ek lekh men unaki kafi prashnsa ki.[25] usane unake dvara prastut kiye gaye pramanon ki pariksha ki aur vedon ke rachanakal-nirdharan men unhen pusht paya. usane nishkarsh roop men is bat ko kaha ki prachin hinduon ko jyotish-vishayak gyan tha jo vaigyanik siddhanton tatha vastavik paryavekshan par adharit tha. byoolar ne abhilekhon tatha jain evn bauddh-sahity ke adhar par bhi tilak tatha yakobi ke dvara sthapit vaidik sahity ki prachinata ka samarthan kiya. sanh 1965 men narendr nath la ne apani pustak men tilak tatha yakobi ke maton ka vivechan kiya tatha hitani evn thibaut dvara uthaee gee sabhi apattiyon ka ek-ek karake samadhan kiya.[26] da. la ne bharatiy aitihasik parampara men prapt rajavnshon ki kalaganana dvara bhi tilak ke mat ki pushti ki.

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. da. vrajavihari chaube, vaidik vadmay: ek anushilan, bhoomika khand, katyayan vaidik sahity prakashan, hoshiyarapur 1972, pri0 144-210
  2. maiksamoolar,histri aauph enshiyent snskrit litarechar, pri0 244-45
  3. maiksamoolar, histri aauph enshiyent snskrit litarechar, pri0 435
  4. maiksamoolar, histri aauph enshiyent snskrit litarechar, pri0 497
  5. maiksamoolar,histri aauph enshiyent snskrit litarechar, pri0 572
  6. vilsan, 'edinavarg rivyoo', 1860, pri0 375; transaleshan aph d rigved, bhag 1, pri0 45
  7. vilsan, 'edinavarg rivyoo', 1860, pri0 375; transaleshan aph d rigved, bhag 1, pri0 45-46
  8. martin hag, 'aitarey brahman' bhag, 1, 1863, bhoo0, pri0 47 age
  9. martin hag, 'aitarey brahman' bhag, 1, 1863, bhoo0, pri0 47 age
  10. indiyan aintikveri, bhag 23, 1894, pri0 245 age
  11. maiksamoolar 'phijikal rilijan' (kalekted varks aph maiksamoolar, bhag 2), 1890, pri0 91
  12. indiyan aintikveri, bhag 23, 1894, pri0 157
  13. kaushitaki-brahman 5.1
  14. taitariy brahman 1.1.2.8
  15. indiyan aintikveri, bhag 23, 1894, pri0 157
  16. tilak, orayan, poona, 1893, pri0 33-62; 221
  17. tilak, orayan, poona, 1893, pri0 33-62; 220
  18. chitrapoornamase diksheranh mukhn va etatsnvatsarasy yachchitra poornamaso mukhat evn snvatsaramaramy dikshante. taitariy snhita 7.4.8;
  19. aitarey brahman 1.7
  20. "madhyandin snhita 4.19
  21. rigved 10.72.5
  22. tilak, orayan, pri0 214-20
  23. hitani 'an e resent atempt baee yakovi end tilak tu ditaramin on eshtronaaumikal evidens d det aph d arliest vedik piried ej 4000 bi0si0, indiyan entikveri, aprail 1895, pri0 362-65
  24. thibaut, indiyan entikveri, aprail 1895 men prakashit lekh 'an sam risent atempts tu ditaramin d entikveri aph vedik sivilijeshan' pri0 87-96
  25. indiyan entikveri bhag 23, 1894 men prakashit lekh 'not an prophesar yakobijh ej aph d ved end an prophesar tilakaj orayan', pri0 240-48
  26. narendranath la ej aauph d rigved, 1965

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