अफ़्रीका में गाँधी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mahatma gandhi vishay soochi
afrika men gandhi
Mahatma-Gandhi-2.jpg
poora nam mohanadas karamachnd gandhi
any nam bapoo, mahatma ji
janm 2 aktoobar, 1869
janm bhoomi porabndar, gujarat
mrityu 30 janavari, 1948
mrityu sthan nee dilli
mrityu karan hatya
abhibhavak karamachnd gandhi, putalibaee
pati/patni kastooraba gandhi
sntan harilal, manilal, ramadas, devadas
smarak rajaghat (dilli), birala haus (dilli) adi.
parti kangres
shiksha bairistar
vidyalay bnbee yoonivarsiti, samaladas kaaulej
snbndhit lekh gandhi yug, asahayog andolan, namak satyagrah, bharat chhodo andolan, dandi march, vyaktigat satyagrah, savinay avgya andolan, khilafat andolan

daraban nyayalay men yooropiy majistret ne unhen pagadi utarane ke lie kaha, unhonne inkar kar diya aur nyayalay se bahar chale ge. kuchh dinon ke bad pritoriya jate samay unhen relave ke pratham shreni ke dibbe se bahar phenk diya gaya aur unhonne steshan par thithurate hue rat bitaee. yatra ke agale charan men unhen ek ghodagadi ke chalak se pitana pada, kyonki yooropiy yatri ko jagah dekar payadan par yatra karane se unhonne inkar kar diya tha, aur antatah 'sirf yooropiy logon ke lie' surakshit hotalon men unake jane par rok laga di gee. natal men bharatiy vyapariyon aur shramikon ke lie ye apaman dainik jivan ka hissa tha. jo naya tha, vah gandhi ka anubhav n hokar unaki pratikriya thi. ab tak vah hathadharmita aur ugrata ke paksh men nahin the, lekin jab unhen anapekshit apamanon se guzarana pada, to unamen kuchh badalav aya. bad men dekhane par unhen laga ki daraban se pritoriya tak ki yatra unake jivan ke mahanatam rachanatmak anubhavon men se ek thi. yah unake saty ka kshan tha.

meritsabarg kand

meritsabarg kand ne gandhi ji ki jivan yatra ko ek nayi disha di. unhonne svayn us ghatana ka vivaran is prakar likha hai---'meritsabarg men ek pulis kaaunstebal ne mujhe dhakka dekar tren se bahar nikal diya. tren chali gayi. main vishram kaksh men baith gaya. main thnd se kanp raha tha. mujhe nahin maloom tha ki mera asabab kahan par hai, aur n to main kisi se kuchh poochhane ki himmat kar sakata tha ki kahin phir se beijjati n ho. nind ka saval hi nahin tha.
feri imarat par gandhi ji ki pratima, sen fransisko
mere man men oohapoh hone lagi. kafi rat gaye main is natije par pahuncha ki bharat vapas bhag jana qayarata hogi. mainne jo dayitv apane oopar liya hai, use poora karana chahie.' meritsabarg kand ke bad unhonne apane man men dakshin afrika ke pravasi bharatiyon ko us apaman ki zindagi se ubarane ka snkalp liya, jise ve lambe arase se jhelate a rahe the. is snkalp ke bad gandhiji agale bis varshon (1893-1914) tak dakshin afrika men rahe aur shighr hi vahan par inake netritv men utpidit bharatiyon par lage sare pratibndhon ko hatane ke lie ek andolan chhid gaya. is andolan ko saphal banane ke uddeshy se unhonne apani chalati huee vakalat chhod di aur brahmachary vrat dharan kar apane parivar aur mitron ke sath taaulastay ashram ki sthapana karake vahin par rahane lage. phir kabhi unhonne anyay svikar nahin kiya. ek bharatiy aur ek vyakti ke roop men apane samman ki raksha ki.

vidaee samaroh

pritoriya pravas ke dauran gandhi ne apane deshavasiyon ki un paristhitiyon ka adhyayan kiya, jisamen ve ji rahe the aur unhen unake adhikaron tatha kartavyon ke bare men shikshit karane ka prayas kiya. unaka dakshin afrika men lambe samay tak rahane ka koee irada nahin tha. joon 1894 men jab ek sal ka anubndh samapt hone ko aya, to vah vapas daraban akar bharat lautane ko taiyar the. unake samman men ayojit vidaee samaroh men natal markyuri ke panne palatate hue unhen pata chala ki natal lejisletiv asenbali bharatiyon ko matadan ke adhikar se vnchit karane sambandhi ek vidheyak par vichar kar rahi hai. gandhi ne apane mezabanon se kaha, 'yah hamare taboot ki pahali kil hai', logon ne is vidheyak ka virodh karane men akshamata dikhaee aur aupaniveshik rajaniti par apani agyanata svikarate hue gandhi se apane lie sngharsh ki prarthana ki.

natal indiyan kangres

javahar lal neharoo aur mahatma gandhi ki bharatiy dak tikat
18 varsh ki ayu tak gandhi ne shayad hi kabhi samachar patr padha tha. n to inglaind ke vidyarthi kal men aur n hi bharat men bairistari ki shuruat men rajaniti men unaki kabhi ruchi rahi. vastutah kisi sabha men bhashan dete samay ya adalat men muvakkil ka bachav karate hue ve jaise hi bolane khade hote, mnchiy bhay unhen jakad leta tha. phir bhi, 1894 men matr 25 varsh ki ayu men vah lagabhag raton rat ek saphal rajanitik andolanakari ban ge. unhonne natal ki vidhayika aur british sarakar ke nam yachikaen likhin aur un par saikadon bharatiyon ke hastakshar karae. vah vidheyak ko to nahin rok sake, lekin natal men rahane vale bharatiyon ke kashton ki or natal, bharat aur inglaind ke akhabaron ka dhyan akarshit karane men saphal rahe. unhen daraban men rahakar vakalat karane aur bharatiy samuday ka ekajut karane ke lie razi kar liya gaya. 1894 men unhonne natal indiyan kangres ki sthapana ki aur usake sakriy sachiv ban ge.
parajay se satyagrahi ko nirasha nahin hoti balki karyakshamata aur lagan badhati hai. mahatma gandhi

pratirodh aur parinam

gandhi manamutav palane vale vyakti nahin the. 1899 men dakshin afrika (boar) yuddh chhidane par unhonne natal ke british upanivesh men nagarikata ke sampoorn adhikaron ka dava karane vale bharatiyon se kaha ki upanivesh ki raksha karana unaka kartavy hai. unhonne 1100 svayn sevakon ki enbulens kor ki sthapana ki, jisamen 300 svatntr bharatiy aur baqi bndhua mazadoor the. yah ek pnchamel samooh tha-- bairistar aur lekhakar, karigar aur mazadoor. yuddh ki samapti se dakshin afrika ke bharatiyon ko shayad hi koee rahat mili. gandhi ne dekha ki kuchh eesaee mishanariyon aur yuva adarshavadiyon ke alava dakshin afrika men rahane vale yooropiyon par ashanuroop chhap chhodane men vah asaphal rahe hain. 1906 men tansaval sarakar ne vahan ki bharatiy janata ke pnjikaran ke lie vishesh roop se apamanajanak adhyadesh jari kiya. bharatiyon ne sitnbar 1906 men johensabarg men gandhi ke netritv men ek virodh janasabha ka ayojan kiya aur is adhyadesh ke ullnghan tatha isake parinamasvaroop dnd bhugatane ki shapath li. is prakar satyagrah ka janm hua, jo vedana pahunchane ke bajay unhen jhelane, vidveshahin pratirodh karane aur bina hinsa ke usase ladane ki nee takanik thi.

hindi lipi aur bhasha janana har bharatiy ka kartavy hai. us bhasha ka svaroop janane ke lie 'ramayan' jaisi doosari pustak shayad hi milegi. mahatma gandhi
mahatma gandhi

dakshin afrika men sat varsh se adhik samay tak sngharsh chala. isamen utar-chadhav ate rahe, lekin gandhi ke netritv men bharatiy alpasnkhyakon ke chhote se samuday ne apane shaktishali pratipakshiyon ke khilaf sngharsh jari rakha. saikadon bharatiyon ne apane antahkaran aur svabhiman ko chot pahunchane vale qanoon ke samane jhukane ke bajay apani ajivika tatha svatntrata ki bali chadhana zyada pasnd kiya. 1913 men andolan ke antim charan men mahilaon samet saikadon bharatiyon ne karavas ki saza bhugati tatha khadanon men kam band karake hadatal kar rahe hazaron bharatiy mazadooron ne kodon ki mar, jel ki saza aur yahan tak ki goli marane ke adesh ka bhi sahasapoorn samana kiya. bharatiyon ke lie yah ghor yntrana thi. lekin dakshin afriki sarakar ke liy yah sabase kharab prachar siddh hua aur usane bharat v british sarakar ke dabav ke tahat ek samajhaute ko svikar kiya. jis par ek or se gandhi tatha doosari or se dakshin afriki sarakar ke pratinidhi janaral jaaun krishchiyan smats ne batachit ki thi.

bharat ki sabhyata ki raksha karane men tulasidas ne bahut adhik bhag liya hai. tulasidas ke chetanamay ramacharitamanas ke abhav men kisanon ka jivan jadavat aur shushk ban jata hai - pata nahin kaise kya hua, parantu yah nirvivad hai ki tulasidas ji bhasha men jo pranaprad shakti hai vah doosaron ki bhasha men nahin paee jati. ramacharitamanas vichar-ratnon ka bhandar hai. mahatma gandhi

julaee 1914 men dakshin afrika se gandhi ke bharat prasthan ke bad smats ne ek mitr ko likha tha, 'snt ne hamari bhoomi se vida le li hai, asha hai sada ke lie' ; 25 varsh ke bad unhonne likha, 'aise vyakti ka virodhi hona meri niyati thi, jinake lie tab bhi mere man men bahut samman tha' , apani anek jel yatraon ke dauran ek bar gandhi ne smats ke lie ek jodi chappal banaee thi. smats ka snsmaran hai ki unake bich koee ghrina ya vyaktigat durbhav nahin tha aur jab ladaee khatm ho gee to 'mahaul aisa tha, jisamen ek sammanajanak samajhaute ko anjam diya ja sakata tha.'



pichhe jaen
afrika men gandhi
age jaen


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh


varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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