नागरिकता  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat men ekal nagarikata ki vyavastha ki gee hai. nagarikata ke sambandh men bharatiy snvidhan ke bhag-2 tatha anuchchhed 5-11 men pravadhan kiya gaya hai. in anuchchhedon men keval yah pravadhan kiya gaya hai ki bharat ka nagarik kaun hai aur kise bharat ka nagarik mana jae. isake atirikt anuchchhed 11 dvara snsad ko bhavishy men nagarikata ke sambandh men qanoon banane ka adhikar pradan kiya gaya hai. is adhikar ka prayog karake snsad ne nagarikata ke sambandh men adhiniyam, 1955 banaya hai. jisamen ab tak kee bar snshodhan kiya ja chuka hai.

bharatiy snvidhan men pravadhan

bharatiy snvidhan ke anuchchhed 5 se 9 tak men nagarikata ke sambandh men nimnalikhit pravadhan kiye ge hain–

snvidhan ke prarambh par nagarikata

anuchchhed 5 ke anusar bharatiy snvidhan ke prarambh par jis vyakti ka bharat men adhivas ho aur

  1. jo bharat ke rajy kshetr men janma tha, ya
  2. jisake mata-pita men se koee bharat men janma tha, ya
  3. jo snvidhan ke prarambh ke thik pahale kam se kam panch varsh tak mamooli taur se bharat men nivasi raha hai, vah bharat ka nagarik hoga. is sthiti men vyakti ke mata-pita ki rashtriyata ka koee mahattv nahin hai.

bharatiy nagarikata

pakistan se bharat ane vale vyakti ko bharatiy nagarik mana jaega (anuchchhed 6), yadi–

  1. vah ya usake mata-pita men se koee usake pitamah ya pitamahi athava matamah ya matamahi men se koee bharat men janma tha.
  2. vah 19 julaee, 1948 se pahale bharat men chala aya tha tatha is tithi se bharat ka nivasi raha hai.
  3. vah 19 julaee, 1948 ke pashchath bharat men aya hai, to bharat sarakar dvara nagarik ke roop men pnjikrit kar liya gaya hai.

aise vyakti ko bharatiy nagarik ke roop men pnjikrit nahin kiya jaega, jo bharat men apane nivas ki avadhi ke chhah mah ke antargat nagarik ke roop men pnjikrit kiye jane ka avedan karata hai, arthath nagarik ke roop men keval usi vyakti ko pnjikrit kiya jaega, jo ki bharat men apane nivas ki avadhi ke 6 mah pashchath pnjikaran ke lie avedan karata hai.

pakistan ko avrajan karane valon nagarikata

snvidhan ka anuchchhed 7 yah upabandh karata hai ki anuchchhed 5 ya 6 men kisi bat ke hote hue bhi jo vyakti 1 march, 1947 ke pashchath bharat se pakistan ka avrajan kar gaya hai vah bharat ka nagarik nahin samajha jaega. kintu yah niyam us vyakti par lagoo nahin hoga jo pakistan ko avrajan karane ke pashchath kisi anugya ke adhin bharat laut aya hai. pratyek aisa vyakti anuchchhed 9 ke khand (kh) ke prayojanaon ke lie 19 julaee, 1948 ke pashchath bharat kshetr men avrajan karane vala samajha jaega aur yadi vah anuchchhed 6 ke adhin di gee sabhi sharton ko poora karata hai, jo 1948 ke bad pakistan se bharat ane vale pravasiyon ke lie avashyak hai, to vah bharat ka nagarik banane ka hakadar hai.

bharat ke bahar bharatiy utpatti vale vyakti ki nagarikata

anuchchhed 8 bharat men janme kintu videsh men rahane vale kuchh vyaktiyon ko kuchh sharton ko poora karane par nagarikata ka adhikar pradan karata hai. isake antargat pakistan jane vale log sammilit nahin hain. anuchchhed 8 ke anusar koee bhi vyakti ya usake mata-pita men se koee jo bharat sarakar adhiniyam 1935 men paribhashit bharat ke bahar kisi desh men rah raha hai, yadi vah nimnalikhit sharten poori kar le to vah bharat ka nagarik samajha jaega–

  1. vah bharat ka nagarik ke roop men pnjikrit kar liya gaya ho.
  2. vah pnjikaran bharat ke rajanayik ya kaunshalar pratinidhi, jahan vah us samay nivas kar raha ho, dvara kiya gaya ho.
  3. us ashay ka avedan patr uparyukt rajanayik athava kaunshalar pratinidhi jahan vah us samay nivas kar raha ho, dvara kiya gaya ho.
  4. yah avedan snvidhan lagoo hone ke pahale ya bad men kiya gaya ho.
  5. avedan patr dominiyan sarakar dvara ya bharat sarakar dvara vihit prapatr par aur riti se kiya gaya ho.

videshi nagarikata arjit karane par bharat ki nagarikata ki samapti

anuchchhed 9 yah upabandhit karata hai ki yadi koee vyakti apani ichchha se kisi videshi rajy ki nagarikata arjit kar leta hai to usaki bharat ki nagarikata samapt ho jaegi aur vah anuchchhed 5, 6 ya 8 ke adhar par nagarikata ke adhikar ka dava nahin kar sakata. yah pravadhan keval un logon ke sambandh men hai, jinhonne snvidhan prarambh hone ke pahale svechchha se kisi videshi rajy ki nagarikata prapt kar li thi. snvidhan lagoo hone ke bad nagarikata ke sambandh men poorn vyavastha nagarikata adhiniyam dvara nirdharit ki jati hai. ==bharatiy nagarikata ka arjan==  snsad dvara nirmit nagarikata adhiniyam 1955 ke adhin bharatiy nagarikata ka arjan nimn prakar se kiya jata hai-

janm dvara nagarikata

26 janavari, 1950 ke bad tatha nagarikata snshodhan adhiniyam, 1986 ke poorv bharat men janm lene vale pratyek vyakti ko bharat ki nagarikata prapt hogi, lekin nagarikata snshodhan adhiniyam ke pravartan ke bad bharat ke rajyakshetr men janm lene vala koee vyakti tab bharat ka nagarik hoga, jab usake mata-pita men se koee bharat ka nagarik ho.

deshiyakaran dvara nagarikata ki prapti

koee bhi videshi vyakti jo vayask ho chuka hai aur pratham anusoochi men varnit deshon ka nagarik nahin hai, bharat sarakar se nirdharit prapatr par deshiyakaran ke lie avedan patr de sakata hai. kuchh nirdharit sharton ke adhar par kendriy sarakar dvara sntusht hone ke pashchath avedan karta ko deshikaran ka pramanapatr diya ja sakata hai. is riti se nagarikata prapt karane ke lie nimnalikhit sharton ko poora karana avashyak hai–

  1. vah kisi aise desh ka nagarik n ho jahan bharatiy deshikaran dvara nagarik banane se rok diye jate hon.
  2. usane apane desh ki nagarikata ka parityag kar diya ho, aur kendriy sarakar ko is bat ki soochana de di ho.
  3. vah deshiyakaran ke lie avedan karane ki tithi se pahale 12 varsh tak ya to bharat men raha ho ya bharat sarakar ki seva men raha ho, is sambandh men kendriy sarakar yadi uchit samajhe to us avadhi ko ghata sakati hai.
  4. ukt 12 varsh ke pahale ko kul 7 varshon men se kam se kam 4 varsh tak usane bharat men nivas kiya ho ya bharat sarakar ki naukari men raha ho,
  5. vah ek achchhe charitr ka vyakti ho.
  6. vah rajyanishtha ki shapath grahan kare.
  7. use bharatiy snvidhan dvara many bhasha ka samyak gyan ho.
  8. deshiyakaran ke pramanapatr ki prapti ke uparant usaka bharat men nivas karane ya bharat sarakar ki naukari karane ka irada ho.

vnsh parampara ke dvara nagarikata

bharat ke bahar any desh men 26 janavari, 1950 ke pashchath janm lene vala vyakti bharat ka nagarik mana jaega, yadi usake janm ke samay usake mata-pita men se koee bharat ka nagarik ho. mata ki nagarikata ke adhar par videsh men janm lene vale vyakti ko nagarikata pradan karane ka pravadhan nagarikata snshodhan adhiniyam, 1992 dvara kiya gaya hai.

pnjikaran ke dvara nagarikata

jo vyakti bharat ka nagarik nahin hai, vah pnjikaran dvara bharat ki nagarikata prapt kar sakata hai. pnjikaran dvara nagarikata prapt karane ke lie vyakti ko isake lie niyukt adhikari ke samaksh vihit praroop men avedan karana hota hai.

arjit bhoo-bhag ke vilayan dvara nagarikata

yadi kisi naye bhoo-bhag ko bharat men shamil kiya jata hai, to us kshetr men nivas karane vale vyaktiyon ko bharat ki nagarikata prapt ho jati hai. gova, daman aur div, pandicheri tatha sikkim ke rajy kshetr men nivas karane vale vyaktiyon ko inake bharat men vilayan par isi prakar se nagarikata prapt huee thi.

snshodhan adhiniyam, 2003

pravasi bharatiyon ki nagarikata sambandhi nagarikata snshodhan adhiniyam, 2003- pravasi bharatiyon v videsh men base bharatiy mool ke logon ko dohari nagarikata pradan karane ke uddeshy se snsad dvara adhiniyam, 1955 men snshodhan kiya gaya hai. isake lie nagarikata (snshodhan) vidheyak, 2003 ko sarvasammati se parit kiya gaya hai. yah vidheyak lakshmimal sindhavi ki adhyakshata vali samiti ki sifarishon ke adhar par taiyar kiya gaya tha.

bharatiy mool ke log

nagarikata adhiniyam 1955 men snshodhan karake 16 deshon men base bharatiy mool ke logon ko unaki videshi nagarikata ke sath bharat ki ovarasij nagarikata pradan karane ka pravadhan kiya gaya hai. in 16 deshon men svitjaralaind, aaustreliya, kanada, israyal, purtagal, frans, svidan, nyoojilaind, yoonan, saipras, itali, phinalaind, ayaralaind, nidaralaind, briten v snyukt rajy amarika shamil hain. deshon ki is soochi ka bad men vistar kiya jaega. aisi dohari nagarikata prapt karane vale bharatiy mool ke vyaktiyon ko bharat men ane-jane ki svatntrata hogi, kintu bharat men unhen matadhikar prapt nahin hoga. sath hi unhen bharat men kisi snvaidhanik pad ko prapt karane ka bhi adhikar nahin hoga. isake atirikt sarvajanik naukariyon ke lie snvidhan ke anuchchhed 16 men pradatt avasar ki samanata ka adhikar bhi inhen prapt nahin hoga.

adhyadesh 2005 ki udaghoshana

bad men 28 joon, 2005 ko nagarikata (snshodhan) adhyadesh, 2005 ki udaghoshana ki gee. yah snshodhan nagarikata adhiniyam, 1955 ki chauthi anusoochi ko hatane sambandhi pravadhanon se yukt hai. isake anusar bharatiy mool ke log, jo athava jinake mata/pita ya dada/dadi 26 janavari, 1950 ke bad pravasit hue hon athava 26 janavari, 1950 ko bharatiy nagarikata ki yogyata unake pas rahi ho athava aise kshetr men hon jo 15 agast, 1947 ke bad bharat ka ang ban gaya ho, unake us samay ke chhote bachche jo ab aise desh men rah rahe hon, jahan par dohari nagarikata ka kisi bhi prakar ka pravadhan upalabdh ho, ovarasij (sima pariy) bharatiy nagarikata (osiaee) prapt kar sakate hain. is prakar pakistan tatha bangladesh ko chhodakar any sabhi deshon ke nagarikon ko is pravadhan ke antargat ovarasij bharatiy nagarikata pradan ki ja sakati hai. nagarikata (snshodhan) adhyadesh, 2005 ke dvara osiaee jinaka pnjikaran 5 varsh ke lie hua hai ki bharat men thaharane/rukane ki avadhi do varsh se ghatakar 1 varsh kar di jaegi.

vishesh adhikar

keval nagarikon ko prapt kuchh vishesh adhikar is prakar hai-

  1. anuchchhed 15, 16, 19 aur 29 ke dvara pradatt mool adhikar.
  2. videshi rajy se upadhi svikar karane par pratibandh.
  3. kuchh mahattvapoorn snvaidhanik pad, yatha- rashtrapati, uparashtrapati, uchchatam nyayalay ka nyayadhish, uchch nyayalay ka nyayadhish, rajyapal, mahanyayavadi, mahadhivakta adi par niyukti ka adhikar.
  4. lokasabha aur rajy vidhanasabha ke lie matadan ki patrata.
  5. snsad ya rajy vidhanamandal ke sadasy hone ke lie arhata.

bharatiy nagarikata ki samapti

bharatiy nagarikata nimnalikhit prakar se samapt hoti hai–

  1. any desh ki nagarikata svikar karane par.
  2. nagarikata ka parityag karane par.
  3. sarakar ke dvara nagarikata chhinane par.

labh

kisi rajy men sthaee nivas ke adhar par labh- bharat men ekal nagarikata hai aur nagarikon ke kisi rajy men nivas ke adhar par nagarikon ke sambandh men koee bhed nahin kiya ja sakata hai, lekin kisi rajy men sthaee nivas ke kuchh mamalon men labh ho sakata hai. yah do prakar se pradan kiya ja sakata hai–

snsad ke dvara qanoon banakar

snvidhan ke anuchchhed 16 (3) ke adhin snsad ko yah adhikar pradan kiya gaya hai ki vah kisi rajy ya sngh rajy ke kshetr ki sarakar ke ya usamen ke kisi sthaniy ya any pradhikari ke sambandh men aise niyojan ya niyukti se pahale us rajy ya sngh rajy kshetr ke bhitar nivas sambandhi yogyata ki apeksha niyat kar sakati hai. is adhikar ke prayog men snsad ne lok niyojan (nivas ki apeksha) adhiniyam, 1957 parit karake kendr sarakar ko andhr pradesh, himachal pradesh, manipur tatha tripura men arajapatrit padon men niyukti ke lie adhivas ki apekshaen vihit karane ke lie niyam banane ki shakti di thi. bad men 1974 men is adhiniyam ko snsad dvara nirast kar diya gaya. snsad ne is adhikar ka prayog karake koee niyam nahin banaya. isalie vartaman sthiti yah hai ki kisi bhi vyakti ko kisi bhi rajy men is adhar par niyojan se vnchit nahin kiya ja sakata ki vah us rajy ka nivasi nahin hai.

rajy vidhanamandal dvara qanoon banakar

koee rajy apane rajy ke nivasiyon ke labh ke lie koee qanoon bana sakata hai, kyonki snvidhan ke anuchchhed 15 (1) men keval dharm, moolavnsh, jati, ling ya janm sthan ke adhar par vibhed ko pratishiddh kiya gaya hai. isamen nivas sthan ka ullekh nahin hai. is prakar snvidhan bhi yah anumati deta hai ki rajy snvidhan ke dvara pradatt adhikaron se bhinn vishayon men apane nivasiyon ko labh pradan kar sakata hai. uchchatam nyayalay ne bhi isaka samarthan karate hue kaha hai ki anuchchhed 15 men nivas sthan ke adhar par vibhed ko pratishiddh nahin kiya gaya hai. isalie rajy apane rajy ke shikshan snsthanon men fis adi ke sambandh men apane nivasiyon ko riyayat de sakata hai.

jammoo-kashmir rajy ke adhikar

jammoo-kashmir rajy ko apane nivasiyon ko adhikar tatha visheshadhikar pradan karane ki shakti-jammoo-kashmir rajy ke vidhan mandal ko nimnalikhit vishayon ke sambandh men rajy men sthayi roop se nivas karane vale vyaktiyon ko adhikar tatha visheshadhikar pradan karane ki shakti pradan ki gayi hai–

  1. rajy ke adhin niyojan ke sambandh men.
  2. rajy men achal sampatti ke arjan ke sambandh men.
  3. rajy men sthayi roop se bas jane ke sambandh men.
  4. chhatravrittiyon athava isi prakar ki sahayata, jo rajy sarakar pradan kare, ke sambandh men.


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