भारत सरकार अधिनियम- 1919  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat sarakar adhiniyam- 1919 ko 'mantegyoo-chemsaford sudhar' ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. bharatamntri laaurd mantegyoo ne 20 agast, 1917 ko british snsad men yah ghoshana ki ki british sarakar ka uddeshy bharat men uttaradayi shasan ki sthapana karana hai. navambar, 1917 men bharatamntri mantegyoo ne bharat akar tatkalin vayasaray chemsaford evn any asainik adhikariyon evn bharatiy netaon se prastav ke bare men vichar-vimarsh kiya. ek samiti sar viliyam dyook, bhoopendranath basu, charls raaubart ki sadasyata men banaee gayi, jisane bharatamntri evn vayasaray ko prastavon ko antim roop dene men sahayog diya. 1918 ee. men is prastav ko prakashit kiya gaya. yah adhiniyam antim roop se 1921 ee. men lagoo kiya gaya. mantegyoo-chemsaford riport ke pravartanon ko bharat ke rng birnge itihas men "sabase mahattvapoorn ghoshana" ki sngya di gayi aur ise ek yug ka ant aur ek navin yug ka prarnbh mana gaya. is ghoshana ne kuchh samay ke lie bharat men tanavapoorn vatavaran ko samapt kar diya. pahali bar 'uttaradayi shasan' shabdon ka prayog isi ghoshana men kiya gaya.

visheshataen

1919 ke is adhiniyam ki mukhy visheshataen nimnalikhit thi-

  1. pranton ke hastantarit vishayon par bharat sachiv ka niyntran kam ho gaya, jabaki kendriy niyntran bana raha.
  2. bharatiy kary ki dekhabhal ke lie ek naya adhikari 'bharatiy uchchayukt' niyukt kiya gaya. ise bharatiy rajakosh se vetan dene ki vyavastha ki gayi.
  3. gavarnar-janaral ki karyakarini men 8 sadasyon men se 3 bharatiy niyukt kiye gaye tatha inhen vidhi, shram, shiksha, svasth v udyog vibhag saunpe gaye.
  4. vishayon ko pahali bar kendriy v prantiy bhagon men banta gaya. rashtriy mahatv ke vishayon ko kendriy soochi men shamil kiya gaya tha, jis par gavarnar-janaral saparishad qanoon bana sakata tha. videshi mamale raksha, rajanitik snbndh, dak aur tar, sarvajanik rin, snchar vyavastha, divani tatha faujadari qanoon tatha kary pranali ityadi sabhi mamale kendriy soochi me the. prantiy mahatv ke vishayon par gavarnar karyakarini tatha vidhanamandal ki sahamati se qanoon banata tha. prantiy mahatv ke vishay the- svasthy, sthaniy svashasan, bhoomikar prashasan, shiksha, chikatsa, jalasnbharan, akal sahayata, shanti vyavastha, krishi ityadi. jo vishay spashtataya hastantarit nahin kiye gaye the, ve sabhi kendriy mane gaye.
  5. kendr men dvisadani vidhan sabha rajy parishad men striyan sadasyata ke lie upayukt nahin samajhi gayi thi, kendriy vidhanasabha ka karyakal 3 varshon ka tha, jise gavarnar-janaral badha sakata tha. sampradayik nirvachan ka dayara badhakar sikkhon tak vistrit kar diya gaya.
  6. kendriy vidhan mandal sampoorn bharat ke lie qanoon bana sakata tha. gavarnar-janaral adhyadesh jari kar sakata tha tatha usaki prabhavita 6 mahine tak rahati thi.
  7. bajat par bahas ho to sakati thi, par matadan ka adhikar nahin diya gaya tha.
  8. pranton men vaidh shasan lagoo kiya gaya, prantiy vishayon ko do bhago men vibhajit kiya gaya, arakshit evn hastantarit. arakshit vishayon ka prashasan un mntriyo ki sahayata se gavarnar karata tha, jo vidhanamandal ke nirvachit sadasy the, parantu unaki pad sthapana v padachyuti gavarnar ki ichchha par adharit thi. hastantarit v arakshit vishayon ka vibhajan bhi doshapoorn tha. udaharanarth- sinchaee to arakshit vishay tha aur krishi hastantarit, parantu spasht hai ki dono ek doosare se avibhedy hain. isi prakar udyog hastantarit tha, jabaki jalashakti, kal karakhane adi arakshit vishay the, jinhen ek doosare se prithakh karana avyavaharik tha.

dvaidh shasan paddhati 1 aprail, 1921 ko lagoo ki gayi, jo 1 aprail, 1937 tak chalati rahi, parantu bngal men 1924 se 1927 ee. tak aur madhy prant men 1924 se 1926 ee. tak yah kary nahin kar saki. is adhiniyam ka mahattvapoorn dosh tha- pranton me 'dvaidh shasan ki sthapana' evn 'sampradayik nirvachan paddhati ka vistar'.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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