भारतीय राष्ट्रीय आन्दोलन (प्रथम चरण)  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharatiy rashtriy andolan (pratham charan)
Kolaz-freedom.jpg
vivaran bharatiy rashtriy andolan, bharat ki azadi ke lie sabase lambe samay tak chalane vala ek pramukh rashtriy andolan tha.
shuruat 1885 ee. men kangres ki sthapana ke sath hi is andolan ki shuruat huee, jo kuchh utar-chadhavon ke sath 15 agast, 1947 ee. tak anavarat roop se jari raha.
pramukh sngathan evn parti garam dal, naram dal, gadar parti, azad hind fauj, bharatiy rashtriy kangres, indiyan homarool lig, muslim lig
any pramukh andolan asahayog andolan, bharat chhodo andolan, savinay avgya andolan, svadeshi andolan, namak satyagrah
parinam bharat svatntr rashtr ghoshit hua.
snbndhit lekh gandhi yug, raaulet ekt, thiyosaauphikal sosayati, varnakyoolar pres ekt, indiyan kaunsil ekt, hartog samiti, hantar samiti, batalar samiti riport, neharoo samiti, golamez sammelan
any janakari bharat ke rashtriy andolan ko tin bhagon men banta ja sakata hai-
  1. pratham charan
  2. dvitiy charan
  3. tritiy charan.
andolan ka pratham charan (1885-1905)

bharatiy rashtriy andolan ke is kal men bharatiy rashtriy kangres ki sthapana huee. lekin is samay tak kangres ka lakshy poori tarah se aspast hi tha. us samay is andolan ka pratinidhitv alp shikshit, buddhijivi madhyam vargiy logon ke dvara kiya ja raha tha. yah varg pashchim ki udaravadi evn ativadi vichar dhara se kafi prabhavit tha.

udaravadi rashtriyata ka yug

1885 ee. men bharatiy rashtriy kangres ki sthapana ke sath hi is par udaravadi rashtriy netaon ka varchasv sthapit ho gaya. tatkalin udaravadi rashtravadi netaon men pramukh the- dadabhaee nauroji, mahadev govind ranade, firojashah mehata, surendranath banarji, dinasha vacha, vyomesh chanh‍dr banarji, gopal krishn gokhale, madan mohan malaviy adi. kangres ki sthapana ke arambhik 20 varsho men usaki niti atyant hi udar thi, isalie is kal ko kangres ke itihas men 'udaravadi rashtriyata ka kal' mana jata hai. kangres ke snsthapak sadasy bharatiyon ke lie dharm aur jati ke pakshapat ka abhav, manav men samanata, qanoon ke samaksh samanata, nagarik svatntrataon ka prasar aur pratinidhi snsthon ke vikas ki kamana karate the. udaravadi netaon ka manana tha ki snvaidhanik tarike apana kar hi ham desh ko azad kara sakate hai.

kangres ki mangen

is samay kangres par samriddhashali, madhyamavargiy, buddhijiviyon, jinamen vakil, daauktar, injiniyar, patrakar evn sahityakar sammilit the, ka prabhav tha. udaravadi netaon ko angrezon ki nyayapriyata men poorn nishtha thi aur ye angrezon ko apana shatru nahin mitr manate the. ye neta prarthana patron, prativedon, smaran patron evn shisht mandalon ke dvara sarakar ke samane apani mangon ko rakhate the. is kal men kangres ne desh ki svatntrata ki nahin, apitu kuchh riyayaton ki mang ki. kangres ki pramukh mange nimnalikhit thin-

  1. vidhan parishadon ka vistar kiya jae.
  2. pariksha ki nyoonatam ayu men vriddhi ki jae.
  3. pariksha ka bharat aur inglaind men ka ayojan ho.
  4. adhik bharti nikali jaen.
  5. vayasaray tatha gavarnar ki karyakarani men bharatiyon ko adhik pratinidhitv diya jae.

ye sabhi mange hin se hin shabdon men yachana ke roop men snvaidhanik dhngon se prastut ki jati thin. inake isi lachilepan evn snchat vyavahar ke karan hi lokamany tilak jaise ugrapnthi netaon ne ise 'rajanitik bhikshavriti' ki sngya di thi.

kangres ki lokapriyata

kangres ki lokapriyata dhire-dhire kafi badh gee thi. pahale is snstha ka pratinidhitv bauddhik varg ke log hi karate the, lekin kalantar men yah snstha jan sadharan ki snstha ban bee. apani lokapriyata ke karan hi is snstha ne tatkalin snsthaon men sarvadhik badi rajanitik snstha ka akar grahan kar liya. prativarsh hone vale adhiveshanon men pratinidhiyon ki snkhya men abhootapoorv vriddhi hone lagi.

kangres ki lokapriyata
varsh sthan sadasy snkhya adhyaksh
1885 ee. bambee 72 vyomesh chanh‍dr banarji
1886 ee. kalakatta 434 dadabhaee nauroji
1887 ee. madras 607 badaruddin taiyab ji
1888 ee. ilahabad 1248 jaaurj yool
1889 ee. bambee 1880 viliyam vedarabarn

sarakar ka drishtikon

kangres ke prati sarakar ka arambhik drishtikon udaravadi tha, parantu jaise-jaise kangres ki sthiti mazaboot hone lagi, usane mangon ko sarakar ke samane adhik mazabooti se rakhana arambh kar diya, jisaka parinam yah hua ki sarakar kangres ki alochana karane lagi. 1887 ee. ke pashchath to kangres ke prati sarakar ka rukh aur adhik kathor ho gaya.

laaurd dafarin, jisane kangres ki sthapana men sahayog kiya tha, usane isaki alochana karate hue kaha ki "mujhe usaka bharatiy janata ke pratinidhitv ka dava bebuniyad lagata hai. kangres to ek aise nagany alpamat ka pratinidhitv karati hai, jisako ek shanadar aur vibhinn roopon vale samrajay ke shasan ki bagador hargij nahin di jati sakati." is bare men angrezi samachar ne likha ki "yah to chhipe vesh men ek aisi rajadrohi snstha hai, jise n to janata ka pratinidhitv prapt hai aur n hi jisaka koee mooly hai." british bharat ki sarakar ne muslimon ko kangres se alag karane ke lie unamen virodh ki bhavana ko bharana shuroo kiya aur usake in prayason ko kafi saphalata tab mili, jab 1888 ee. men sar saiyyad ahamad khan aur banaras ke shivaprasad ne sarakar ki prerana men kangres ke pratirodh ke lie 'yoonaited indiyan paitriyatik esosiyeshan' ki sthapana ki.

kangres ke prati vichar

1890 ee. men sarakari sevakon ko kangres men sammilit hone ki agya nahin rahi. laaurd karzan ne to yahan tak kah diya ki "kangres apane patan ki or ladakhadati ja rahi hain." karzan ki mahatvakankshaon men ek yah bhi thi ki "vah usaki shantimay mrityu men sahayata kar sake." vah 'phoot dalo raj karo' ki niti ka palan karane lagi. sarakar ko kangres ke daman men isalie saphalata nahin mili, kyonki is snstha ko vishal bharatiy madhyam varg ka sahayog prapt tha. daau. ar.si. majoomadar ke anusar 'british sarakar tatha naukarashahi ke kangres virodhi shadyntr apane uddeshy poorti men isalie saphal nahin hue, kyonki ve vah bat janane men asamarth rahe ki kangres ki shakti ka mool adhar madhyam varg hai, dhani dani log nahin.' karzan ne kangres ko 'gndi chiz aur desh drohi sngathan' kaha hai. bnkimachandr chatarji ne kaha ki kangres ke log padon ke bhookhe hain. lokamany tilak ne kaha hai ki 'yadi ham varsh men ek bar medhak ki tarah tarrayen to hamen kuchh bhi nahin milega.' lala lajapat ray ne kangres sammelanon ko 'shikshit bharatiyon ka varshik rashtriy mela' ki sngya di. ashvini kumar datt ne kangres ke sammelanon ko 'tin dinon ka tamasha' kaha. vipinachandr pal ne ise 'yachana snstha' ki sngya pradan ki.

inglaind men prachar

e.o. hyoom, dadabhaee nauroji evn vendarabarn adi netaon ka manana tha ki 'bharatiy rashtriy kangres' ka inglaind se adhik prachar kiya ja sakata hai. 1887 ee. men dadabhaee nauroji ne inglaind men 'bharatiy sudhar samiti' ki sthapana ki. 1888 ee. men nauroji ne viliyam digbi ki adhyakshata men 'indiyan lig' ki sthapana ki. 1889 ee. ke kangres ki 'british samiti' bani, jisane 'indiya' nam ki ek masik patrika ka prakashan kiya. isake madhyam se inglaind ke nagarikon ko bharat ki yatha-sthiti se parichit karaya jata tha. kangres ne bharatiyon ki samasya ke nivaran hetu samay-samay par apane pratinidhimandal ko briten bheja. 1890 ee. men kangres ki or se inglaind bheje gaye pratinidhi mandal men surendranath banarji, vyomesh chanh‍dr banarji, e. o. hyoom sammilit the. 1899 ee. men vipinachandr pal inglaind gaye. in samasy prayason ka pratiphal yah raha ki inglaind men bharatiy janamanas ki samasyaon ke prati sahanubhooti rakhane vale ek gut ka nirman hua.

bahut-se alochakon ne udaravadi rashtriy netaon ki upalabdhiyon ki alochana ki hai. ugravadiyon ne udaravadiyon ki avedan-nivedan ki niti ko 'bhiksha mangane' ki niti kahakar usaki khilli udayi. is sambandh men lala lajapat ray ne likha ki '20 varshon tak riyayaton aur duahkhon ko door karane ke asaphal sngharsh ke pashchath inhen roti ke badale patthar prapt hue.' is bat men sndeh nahin ki unaki tatkalik upalabdhiyan nagany thin aur 19vin sadi ke british shasan ki badalati huee prakriti ke karan unaki kee rajanitik dharanayen galat sabit huee, lekin jin paristhitiyon men unhonne yah kathin kary apane hathon men liya or jo kathinaiyan unake sammukh aeen, unako dekhate hue unaki upalabdhiyon ki upeksha nahin ki ja sakati. ye madhyam varg tatha nimn madhyam varg men rashtriy ekata ka bhav jagrit karane men saphal rahe. unhonne ek samany shatru se bharatiyon ko parichit karaya aur ek sashakt arthik samiksha prastut kar yah siddh kar diya ki garibi, bekari aur arthik pichhadapan angrezon ke hi karan hai.

velbi kamishan ki niyukti

yadi dadabhaee nauroji, sar firojashah mehata, sar dinasha vacha, gopal krishn gokhale, surendranath banarji ke sath nyay karen to yah svikar karana padega ki ye log samakalin bharatiy samaj ke sabase adhik pragativadi tatv or sachche deshabhakt the. in logon ne 1886 ee. men ek lok seva ayog niyukt karavaya tatha 1862 ee. men bharatiy parishadon ka adhiniyam parit karavaya. sarakar ne unake anurodh par bharatiy vyay samiksha ke lie 1896 ee. men 'velbi kamishan' bhi niyukt kiya.

bngal vibhajan

vibhajan ke samay bngal ki kul janasnkhya 7 karod, 85 lakh thi tatha is samay bngal men bihar, udisa evn bngaladesh shamil the. bngal presidensi us samay sabhi presidensiyon men sabase badi thi. 1874 ee. me asam bngal se alag ho gaya. ek lephtinent garvanar itane bade prant ko kushal prashasan de pane men asamarth tha. tatkalin gavarnar-janaral laaurd karzan ne prashasanik asuvidha ko bngal vibhajan ka karan bataya, kintu vastavik karan prashasanik nahin apitu rajanitik tha. karzan ke 'bngal vibhajan' ke virodh men svadeshi evn bahishkar andolan ka sootrapat kiya gaya. bngal us samay bharatiy rashtriy chetana ka kendr bindu tha aur sath hi bngaliyon men prabal rajanitik jagriti thi, jise kuchalane ke lie karzan ne bngal ko bantana chaha. usane bngali bhashi hinduon ko donon bhagon men alpasnkhya men karana chaha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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