आधुनिक भारत का इतिहास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharatiyon ki phoot tatha vighatanakari tattvon ke karan atharahavin shatabdi men bharat par angrezon ka prabhutv jam gaya. bharat ke itihas men lagabhag pahali bar aisa hua ki, isake prashasan aur bhagy-nirnay ki dor ek aisi videshi jati ke hathon men chali gee, jisaki matribhoomi kee hazar mil door avasthit thi. is tarah ki paradhinata bharat ke lie ek sarvatha naya anubhav thi, kyonki yon to atit men bharat par kee akraman hue the, samay-samay par bharatiy pradesh ke kuchh bhag asthayi taur par vijetaon ke upaniveshon men shamil ho gaye the, par aise avasar kam hi aye the, aur unaki avadhi bhi atyalp hi rahi thi. bharat par angrezon ne ek videshi ki tarah shasan kiya. aise kam hi angrez shasak hue, jinhonne bharat ko apana desh samajha aur kalyanakari bhavana se utprerit hokar shasan kiya. unhonne vyapar aur rajanitik sadhanon ke madhyam se bharat ka arthik shoshan kiya aur dhan-nikas ki niti apanakar desh ko khokhala kar dala. unhonne bharatiyon ke naitik manobal par sadaiv aghat kiya. is kal ke itihas ke panne is bat ko siddh karate hain ki, ek or jahan british satta ke bharat men sthapit ho jane ke bad desh men ghor andhakarapoorn aur nirashajanak vatavaran sthapit ho gaya, vahin doosari or desh ko gulami ki or dhakel diya gaya.[1]

bharat ka patan

Blockquote-open.gif yah bat shuroo men hi saf ho gee thi ki, saphalata angrezon ke hath lagegi, aur usake karan spasht the. ve rashtravad men vishvas rakhate the, jabaki bharat men n yah bhavana thi, aur n hi anushasan. yuddh-kaushal tatha rananiti men angrez bharatiyon ki apeksha kahin age the. bharatiy sainik nishthavan to the, par inhen bhi apane raja ke prati poorn eemanadar aur vafadar nahin kaha ja sakata. bharatiy itihas men n jane kitane hi sahayakon aur vishvasapatron ne apane hi rajaon ko dhokha diya aur unake sath vishvasaghat karake unhen maut ke ghat utar diya. inhin sab baton se bharatiyon ka apani bhoomi par hi patan hua. Blockquote-close.gif

bharat ke prati inglaind ki adhikar lipsa ki bhavana bahut pahale hi ubharane lagi thi, tatha angrez log bharat ko apane adhikar ki vastu aur sab prakar se patit desh manane lage. bharat ka upayog inglaind ke lie karana unaka pramukh drishtikon ban gaya tha. angrez prashasan, n bharatiy janata ke prati sahanubhooti rakhata tha aur n hi bharatavasiyon ke kalyan ke prati sajag tha. inglaind men jo qanoon ya niyam bharat ke sambandh men banaye jane lage the, unake prati yah british niti bani ki, bharat ke hiton ka inglaind ke lie sadaiv balidan kiya jana chahie. angrezon ki is niti ke karan bharat uttarottar arthik drishti se nirdhan aur sanskritik drishti se hin hota chala gaya. bharat ke patan ke sambandh men kee prasiddh vyaktiyon ne apane vichar rakhe hain, unamen se kuchh is prakar se hain-

  • keshav chandr sen ke anusar - "aj ham apane charon or jo dekhate hain, vah hai ek gira hua rashtr. ek aisa rashtr, jisaki prachin mahanata khandaharon men gadi huee padi hai. usaka rashtriy sahity aur vigyan, usaka adhyatm gyan aur darshan, usaka udyog aur vanijy, usaki samajik samriddhi aur garhasthik sadagi aur madhurata aisi hai, jisaki ginati lagabhag atit ki vastuon men ki jati hai. jab ham adhyatmik, samajik aur bauddhik drishti se ujade hue, shokayukt aur udasin drishy, jo hamare samane phaila hua hai, ka nirikshan karate hain, to ham vyarth hi usamen kalidas ke desh-kavita, vigyan aur sabhyata ke desh ko pahachanane ka prayatn karate hain."
  • daau. thyodor ke anusar - "pradhanatah arthik labh ke lie eest indiya kampani ne british rajy ki sthapana ki aur usaka vistar kiya."
  • tarachandr ke anusar - "satrahavin shatabdi men bharat ka gaurav apani parakashtha par tha, aur usaki madhyugin snskriti apani charam sima par pahunch gee thi. parantu jaise-jaise ek ke bad ek shatabdiyan bitin, vaise-vaise yooropiy sabhyata ka soory tezi se akash ke madhy ki or badhane laga aur bharatiy gagan men andhakar chhane laga. phalatah jaldi hi desh par andhera chha gaya, aur naitik patan tatha rajanitik arajakata ki parachhaiyan lambi hone lagin.[1]

bharatiyon ka virodh

yah sahi hai ki, prashasan evn yatayat tatha shiksha ke kshetr men bharatavasiyon ne is videshi shasan se anek tattv grahan kiye, kintu is bat se inkar nahin kiya ja sakata ki, angrezon ne adhikadhik arthoparjan karane ki niti ka hi anushilan kiya. yahi karan tha ki, jahan bharatiyon ne musalamanon ke shasan ko svikar karake use bharatiy shasan ke itihas men shamil kiya, vahin unhonne angrazon ko apana snprabhu nahin mana. hriday ki gaharaiyon se unake shasan ko svikar nahin kiya aur prarambh se hi unake prati apana virodh prakat kiya. angrez kabhi bhi bharatiy n ban sake, sadaiv videshi bane rahe aur samay ane par sab ke sab svadesh chale gaye. yah videshi shasan bharatiyon ko qatee svikar nahin tha. bngal ke 'siraj' ke kal se lekar dilli ke bahadurashah dvitiy ke kal tak bharatiy virodh jari raha tha.

angrez

bharat men vyaparik kothiyan kholane ke prayas ke antargat hi briten ke samrat jems pratham ne 1608 ee. men kaiptan haaukins ko apane rajadoot ke roop men mugal samrat jahangir ke darabar men bheja tha. 1609 ee. men haaukins ne jahangir se milakar soorat men basane ki ijajat mangi, parantu purtagaliyon tatha soorat ke saudagaron ke vidroh ke karan use svikriti nahin mili. haaukins farasi bhasha ka bahut achchha janakar tha. kaiptan haaukins tin varshon tak agara men raha. jahangir ne usase prasann hokar use 400 ka manasab tatha jagir pradan ki. 1616 ee. men samrat jems pratham ne sar taaumas ro ko apana rajadoot banakar jahangir ke pas bheja. taaumas ro ka ekamatr udeshy tha - 'vyaparik sndhi karana'. yadyapi usaka jahangir se vyaparik samajhauta nahin ho saka, phir bhi use gujarat ke tatkalin soobedar 'khurram' (bad men shahajahan ke nam se prasiddh) se vyaparik kothiyon ko kholane ke lie faraman prapt ho gaya. is prakar angrezon ke pair ek bar jo bharat men jame, vah 1947 ee. men desh ke azad hone tak ke bad hi ukhad sake.
eest indiya kampani ki muhar

eest indiya kampani

eest indiya kampani ek niji vyaparik kampani thi, jisane 1600 ee. men shahi adhikar patr dvara vyapar karane ka adhikar prapt kar liya tha. isaki sthapana 1600 ee. ke antim din maharani elijabeth pratham ke ek ghoshanapatr dvara huee thi. yah landan ke vyapariyon ki kampani thi, jise poorv men vyapar karane ka ekadhikar pradan kiya gaya. kampani ka mukhy uddeshy bharat men vyapar karana aur dhan kamana tha. 1708 ee. men eest indiya kampani ki pratidvandi kampani 'nyoo kampani' ka 'eest indiya kampani' men vilay ho gaya. parinamasvaroop 'd yoonaited kampani aauf marchents aauf inglaind treding too eest indij' ki sthapana huee. kampani aur usake vyapar ki dekh-rekh 'garvanar-in-kaunsil' karati thi. inhen bhi dekhen: gavarnar-janaral, regyuleting ekt, saiman kamishan evn pit ekt

angrezon ki ekata evn niti

yah bat shuroo men hi saf ho gee thi ki, saphalata angrezon ke hath lagegi, aur usake karan spasht the. ve rashtravad men vishvas rakhate the, jabaki bharat men n yah bhavana thi, aur n hi anushasan. yuddh-kaushal tatha rananiti men angrez bharatiyon ki apeksha kahin age the. bharatiy sainik nishthavan to the, par inhen bhi apane raja ke prati poorn eemanadar aur vafadar nahin kaha ja sakata. bharatiy itihas men n jane kitane hi sahayakon aur vishvasapatron ne apane hi rajaon ko dhokha diya aur unake sath vishvasaghat karake unhen maut ke ghat utar diya. inhin sab baton se bharatiyon ka apani bhoomi par hi patan hua. udhar angrezon ke samane naitikata jaisi koee chiz nahin thi. bngal, avadh, maisoor, maharashtr, pnjab aur sindh in sabhi ka vilay angrezi samrajy men ho gaya tha. jo bhi angrez shasak aye, chahe vah varen hestings ho ya laaurd kaaurnavaaulis, laaurd velezali ho ya laaurd hestings, laaurd viliyam baintik ho ya laaurd dalahauzi, in sabhi ne apane shasakiy evn sainik sudharon par atyadhik bal diya. in sabhi ka sirf ek hi makasad tha, sampoorn bharat par adhikar aur british satta men vriddhi. apane is lakshy ko prapt karane ke lie angrezon ne apani apasi soojhaboojh banaye rakhi aur har sambhav prayatn kiya. inhen bhi dekhen: angrez, gavarnar-janaral evn eest indiya kampani

bharatiy samaj ki kuritiyan

bharatiy samaj anek kuritiyon ka shikar tha. jati-pratha, shishu-bali, bal-vivah, sati pratha, vidhava vivah-nishedh adi ke karan bharatiy samaj khokhala ho raha tha. apani andhavishvasi parampara evn riti-rivajon ke ghere men pade bharatiy adhunikata se sarvatha aparichit the. eest indiya kampani ne shuroo men to bharatiy samaj ke mamale men tatasthata ki niti apanayi, parantu 18 vin shatabdi ke antim charan men angrez bharatiy samaj men sudhar lane ki sochane lage. bharat ke prati sudharavadi drishtikon apanane ke pichhe jo bhi karan rahe hon, parantu isase bharat men punarjagaran ka marg khula. samajik qanoon banane ka kram shuroo hua. shishu-vadh, vidhava vivah-nishedh, nar bali, sati pratha adi aisi baten thin, jinake nivaran men sarakar ko raja ramamohan ray tatha eeshvarachandr vidyasagar jaise bharatiy netaon ka sahayog bhi mila.[1]

bharat ka arthik shoshan

eest indiya kampani ke kal men arthik parivartan hue. angrezon ke ane se pahale bharatiy gram atmanirbhar the. bharatiy karigari ki khyati door-door tak thi. bharat ke saman se deshi aur videshi mandiyan bhari rahati thin. 18 vin shatabdi ke arambh tak bharat se utkrisht sooti aur reshami vastr, masale, nil, chini, davaen aur javaharat adi badi matra men videsh bheje jate the, aur badale men sona aur chandi hindustan men ata tha. shuroo men eest indiya kampani ne bhi bharatiy chijon ka khoob niryat kiya, parantu kalantar men bharatiy vyapar aur kala-kaushal ka gala ghontane ki niti apanayi gayi. krishi-bhoomi par bhoo-rajasv lagaya gaya, jisaki kathorata ke karan krishi ki pragati samapt ho gee. is prakar kampani ke shasan kal men krishi, vyapar v udyog tinon ka patan hua. 19 vin shatabdi ke poorv bharat men poonji lagakar angrezon ne yahan ki arthavyastha par apani pakad kar li. doosari or vah bharat ka dhan inglaind le gaye. in donon baton se hi bharat ka arthik shoshan hua. dhan ke is nirgaman ne jahan bharat ko daridr banaya, vahin inglaind ke audyogik vikas ne gati pakad li.

bharat ki tatkalin rajanitik sthiti

bharat men videshiyon ke agaman ke samay rajaniti men do pramukh shaktiyan thin : mugal aur maratha. mugal patanonmukh ho chale the, aur maratha vikasonmukh the. vastavikata yah thi ki, aurngazeb ki mrityu (1707 ee.) ke uparant bharat men kendriy satta nahin rahi aur sara desh chhote-chhote rajyon men vibhakt ho gaya. atharahavin shatabdi ke prarambh men hi charamarate hue mugal samrajy ko patan ki or agrasar hona hi tha. samrajy ke vibhinn rajyon men sngharsh chalane lage aur ve ek doosare ko hadapane ke lie nirantar shadyantr ki rachana karane lage. aurngazeb ki mrityu ke pahale se hi yoorop ki vibhinn jatiyon ka agaman bharatavarsh men hone laga tha. ye jatiyan desh ki ladakhadati rajaniti aur vyapt arajakata ko dekh rahi thin.

ayogy mugal uttaradhikari

aurngazeb ki mrityu kal se lekar plasi ki ladaee ke poorv kal tak bngal, bihar aur udisa ki rajaniti mugal prashasan se aprabhavit rahane lagi. 'sukumar bhattachary' ne likha hai, "yah saty hai ki aurngazeb ki mrityu se poorv hi shadyantrakari shaktiyon ne sir uthana prarambh kar diya tha. yahan tak ki jis rajy ki jade itani shaktishali thin, unhen dhool-dhoosarit kar diya gaya aur ab aurngazeb ke vnsh men koee aisa nahin raha, jo in shadyantron ko kuchal sakata. isaka karan yah tha ki, mugalon ka vishal samrajy kee pranton men vibhajit tha, jo soobedaron ke snrakshan men the. pratyaksh hai ki, aisa shasan prabandh shaktishali kendriy sarakar ki upasthiti men hi chal sakata tha. lekin mugalon ka kendriy shasan-prabandh aurngazeb ki anupasthiti men nitant shaktihin aur adridh ho gaya tha. usake sare ke sare uttaradhikari jahandarashah, farrukhasiyar, muhammadashah adi ayogy the, jo girate samrajy ko snbhal nahin sakate the. aisi sthiti men mugal soobedar apane pranton ke svami ban baithe. is karan samrajy men charon taraf ashanti, upadrav shadyantr adi ke bazar garm ho gaye. dakshin bharat ke rajy bhi ashant ho uthe. dakshin men nizamulamulk, asifajan aur avadh men sadat ali khan ne svatantr rajasatta ka prayog kiya. isi marg ka anushilan roohelakhand ke afagan pathanon ne bhi kiya. marathon ne bhi maharashtr, madhy pradesh, malava aur gujarat par adhikar karake poona ko apani rajanitik kary-kalapon ka kendr bana liya. agar 1761 ee. men ahamadashah abdali ke hathon panipat ke maidan men marathon ko parajay n mili hoti to, aj bharatiy itihas ki ek nee rooparekha hoti. bharat men kam karane vali yooropiy kampaniyan kya is antarik phoot se labh uthane ke lobh ka snvaran kar sakati thin?[1] inhen bhi dekhen: mugal vnsh, mugal kal, mugalakalin sthapaty evn vastukala evn mugalakalin rajasv pranali

marathon ka utkarsh

mugal shasan ki shaktihinata ke karan bharat men ane vali videshi jatiyon aur unaki kampaniyon ko prabhav jamane ka mauqa to mila hi, bharat ki ek any shakti maratha bhi apana vikas karati gee aur mugal prashasan ki snprabhuta ko chunauti dekar apani pradhanata qayam kar li. unnisavin shatabdi ka ek angrez itihasakar likhata hai ki, "aurngazeb ki mrityu ke sath hi mugal samrajy ka patan arambh ho gaya. jahandarashah laparavah, lampat aur pagalapan ki had tak nashebaz tha. usane duracharapoorn aur strain darabari jivan ka ek dusht namoona samane rakha aur shasak varg ki naitikata ko kalnkit kiya. is kathaputali badashah ke kal men sari satta vazir tatha any darabariyon ke hathon men chali gee. uttaradayitv bnt jane se prashasan men laparavahi ayi aur arajakata phail gee. apane gyarah mahine ke prashasan kal men jahandarashah ne apane poorvajon dvara snchit khazane ko adhikanshat: loota diya. sona, chandi aur babar ke samay se ikatthi ki gee any moolyavan chizen uda di geen. yuvak muhammadashah ko prashasan men koee ruchi nahin thi. vah nimn koti ke logon se ghira rahata tha aur tuchchh kamon men apana samay bitata tha. isi ke shasan kal men dilli par nadirashah ka akraman hua tha. is samay bharat ki shakti adhikanshat: marathon ke hathon men a chuki thi, aur vahi nadirashah ke akraman ka mukabala bhi kar sakate the. inhen bhi dekhen: shahaji bhonsale, jijabaee, shambhuji, shahoo, tarabaee evn chhatrapati rajaram

shivaji ke uttaradhikari

prachin rajy sab chhinn-bhinn ho chuke the aur mugalon ka samana marathon se tha, jo pratidin shaktishali hote ja rahe the, aur ant men marathe mugalon par poori tarah se chha gaye. marathon men rajanitik jagaran evn sngathan ki prishthabhoomi ka nirman chhatrapati shivaji ne kiya tha. aurngazeb ke shasan-kal men hi unhonne toran, ramagadh, chakan, kalyani adi ko jitakar apani shakti badha li thi, tatha bijapur ke sultan, yahan tak ki aurngazeb se bhi sngharsh karake apani ajey shakti ka parichay diya. unhonne svatantr maratha rajy ki sthapana kar li, jise vivash hokar mugal samrat ko bhi manyata deni padi. shivaji ke netritv men nirmit maratha prashasan mugal samrajy ki kamazori ka parichayak hai. shivaji ke uttaradhikariyon-shambhaji, rajaram, shivaji dvitiy aur shahoo ne maratha rajy ka snchalan kiya. unake bad peshavaon ki pradhanata maratha rajy men qayam ho gee. balaji vishvanath, bajirav pratham aur balaji bajirav namak peshavaon ne maratha shakti ko apane snrakshan men qayam rakha. yadyapi ek din marathe ahamadashah abdali ke hathon parajit hue, tathapi unhonne bharat ki ek mahanh shakti ke roop men apana astitv banaye rakha. plasi ki ladaee ke bad ve aurngazeb ke ek bade virodhi siddh hue. inhen bhi dekhen: raghuji bhonsale, raghova, narayanarav evn madhavarav narayan

any shaktiyon ka udbhav

uttar mugalakalin shasakon ke shasan kal men marathon ke atirikt bharat men sikkhon, rajapooton, jaton tatha ruhelon ke roop men any shaktiyan bhi uchhal-kood kar rahi thin. sikkhon ne pnjab men apani shakti men vriddh kar li thi. pnjab men unhonne apani svatantr satta sthapit kar li aur mugalon ki snprabhoota ki avahelana kar di. isi prakar rajapooton ne rajapootana men, jaton ne dilli ke as-pas aur ruhelon ne roohelakhand men apani-apani shakti ka vistar kar liya. marathon tatha sikkhon ki tarah unhonne bhi apani svatantr satta ki sthapana kar dali. sampoorn desh ko vighatit karane vali in tamam shaktiyon par niyantran rakhana mugal shasakon ke lie sambhav nahin rah gaya aur desh vighatit hone laga. desh ki aisi anaikyapoorn sthiti men bharat men videshi jatiyon tatha kampaniyon ka agaman hua aur in navagat kampaniyon ko apana adhikar-kshetr vistrit karane ka avasar mil gaya. in videshiyon ko apana kshetradhikar badhane ka ye suavasar yoon hi nahin mil gaya. inhonne dekh liya tha ki, bharat ki deshi riyasaton men apasi phoot bahut zyada hai. ye phoot is had tak badh chuki thi ki deshi riyasaten bahari logon ka mukabala karane ki bajay apas men hi ladati rahin. jab in riyasaton ne bahari akramanakariyon ko pahachana, tab tak bahut der ho chuki thi.

jat

aurngazeb ke shasak banane ke kuchh hi samay ke andar jat ankh ka kanta ban ge the. unaka nivas mukhyatah shahi paragana tha, jo "mote taur par ek chaukor pradesh tha, jo uttar se dakshin ki or lagabhag 250 mil lamba aur 100 mil chauda tha"[2]. yamuna nadi isaki vibhajak rekha thi, dilli aur agara isake do mukhy nagar the. isamen vrindavan, gokul, govardhan aur mathura men hindoo dharmik tirthasthan tatha mandir bhi the. poorv men yah gnga ki or phaila tha aur dakshin men chambal nadi tak, ambala ke uttar men pahadon aur pashchim men maroosthal tak. " inake rajy ki koee vastavik simaen nahin thin. yah ilaqa kahane ko samrat ke sidhe shasan ke adhin tha, parantu vyavahar men yah kuchh saradaron men bnta hua tha. yah zaminen unhen, unake sainikon ke bharan-poshan ke lie di gee hain. jat-log dabng dehati the, jo sadharanataya shant hone par bhi, usase adhik rajasv dene vale nahin the, jitana ki unase jabaradasti aintha ja sakata tha; aur unhonne mitti ki divaren banakar apane ganvon ko aise qilon ka roop de diya tha, jinhen keval topakhane dvara jita ja sakata tha. jat shasakon men maharaja soorajamal (shasanakal sanh 1755 se sanh 1763 tak )aur unake putr javahar sinh (shasan kal sanh 1763 se sanh 1768 tak ) mathura ke itihas men bahut prasiddh hain . inhen bhi dekhen: braj ka jat maratha kal, jaton ka itihas, braj ka mugal kal, rajaram evn gokul sinh

bharat ki aitihasik ladaeeyan

bharatiy itihas men samay-samay par kee yuddh hue hain. in yuddhon ke dvara bharat ki rajaniti ne n jane kitani hi bar ek alag hi disha prapt ki. bharatiy riyasaton men apas men hi kee itihas prasiddh yuddh lade ge. in deshi riyasaton ki apasi phoot bhi is had tak badh chuki thi, ki angrezon ne usaka poora labh uthaya. rajapooton, marathon aur musalamanon men bhi kee sandhiyan hueen. bharat ke itihas men adhikansh yuddhon ka lakshy sirf ek hi tha, dilli saltanat par hukoomat. angrezon ne hi apani soojhaboojh aur chalaki v kootaniti se dilli ki hukoomat prapt ki thi. halanki unhen bharat men apane panv jamane ke lie kafi pareshaniyon ka samana karana pada tha, phir bhi unhonne bharatiyon ki apasi phoot ka labh uthate hue ise ek lambe samay tak gulam banaye rakha.

panipat yuddh

ahamadashah abdali ne 1748 se 1760 ee. ke bich bharat par chadhaiyan kin aur 1761 ee. men panipat ki tisari ladaee jit kar mugal samrajy ka fatiha padh diya. usane dilli par dakhal karake use loota. panipat ki tisari ladaee men sabase adhik kshati marathon ko uthani padi. kuchh samay ke lie unaki badh ruk gayi aur is prakar ve mugal badashahon ki jagah le lene ka mauqa kho baithe. yah ladaee vastav men mugal samrajy ke patan ki soochak hai. isane bharat men mugal samrajy ke sthan par british samrajy ki sthapana men madad ki. abdali ko panipat men jo fatah mili, usase n to vah svayn koee labh utha saka aur n usaka sath dene vale musalaman saradar. is ladaee se vastavik fayada angrezi eest indiya kampani ne uthaya. isake bad kampani ko ek ke bad doosari saphalataen milati gayin.

plasi ka yuddh

plasi ka yuddh 23 joon, 1757 ee. ko lada gaya tha. angrez aur bngal ke navab sirajuddaula ki senayen 23 joon, 1757 ko murshidabad ke dakshin men 22 mil door 'nadiya zile' men bhagirathi nadi ke kinare 'plasi' namak ganv men amane-samane a geen. sirajuddaula ki sena men jahan ek or 'miramadan', 'mohanalal' jaise deshabhakt the, vahin doosari or mirajafar jaise kutsit vicharon vale dhokhebaz bhi the. yuddh 23 joon ko pratah 9 baje prarambh hua. mirajafar evn rayadurlabh apani senaon ke sath nishkriy rahe. is yuddh men miramadan mara gaya. yuddh ka parinam shayad niyati ne pahale se hi tay kar rakha tha. raaubart klaiv bina yuddh kiye hi vijayi raha. phalasvaroop mirajafar ko bngal ka navab banaya gaya. ke.em.panikkar ke anusar, 'yah ek sauda tha, jisamen bngal ke dhani sethon tatha mirajafar ne navab ko angrezon ke hathon bech dala'.

maisoor yuddh

1761 ee. men haidar ali ne maisoor men hindoo shasak ke oopar niyntran sthapit kar liya. nirakshar hone ke bad bhi haidar ali ki sainik evn rajanitik yogyata advitiy thi. usake fransisiyon se achchhe sambandh the. haidar ali ki yogyata, kootanitik soojhaboojh evn sainik kushalata se marathe, nizam evn angrez eershya karate the. haidar ali ne angrezon se bhi sahayog manga tha, parantu angrez isake lie taiyar nahin hue, kyonki isase unaki rajanitik mahatvakanksha poori n ho pati. bharat men angrezon aur maisoor ke shasakon ke bich char sainy muthabhed huee thin. angrezon aur haidar ali tatha usake putr tipoo sultan ke bich samay-samay par yuddh hue. 32 varshon (1767 se 1799 ee.) ke madhy men ye yuddh chhede ge the.

angl-maratha yuddh

bharat ke itihas men tin angl-maratha yuddh hue hain. ye tinon yuddh 1775 ee. se 1818 ee. tak chale. ye yuddh british senaon aur maratha mahasngh ke bich hue the. in yuddhon ka parinam yah hua ki, maratha mahasngh ka poori tarah se vinash ho gaya. marathon men pahale se hi apas men kafi bhedabhav the, jis karan vah angrezon ke viruddh ekajut nahin ho sake. jahan raghunatharav ne eest indiya kampani se mitrata karake peshava banane ka sapana dekha, aur angrezon ke sath soorat ki sandhi ki, vahin qayar bajirav dvitiy ne basin bhagakar angrezon ke sath basin ki sandhi ki aur marathon ki svatntrata ko bech diya. pahala yuddh(1775-1782 ee.) raghunatharav dvara mahasngh ke peshava (mukhyamntri) ke dave ko lekar british samarthan se prarambh hua. janavari 1779 ee. men badaganv men angrez parajit ho ge, lekin unhonne marathon ke sath salabaee ki sandhi (mee 1782 ee.) hone tak yuddh jari rakha.

angl-sikkh yuddh

bharat ke itihas men do sikkh yuddh hue hain. in donon hi yuddhon men sikkh angrezon se parajit hue aur unhen angrezon se unaki manamani sharton ke anusar sandhi karani padi. pratham yuddh men parajay ke karan sikkhon ko angrezon ke sath 9 march, 1846 ee. ko 'lahaur ki sandhi' aur isake uparant ek aur sandhi, 'bhairoval ki sandhi' 22 disambar, 1846 ee. ko karani padi. in sandhiyon ke dvara 'lal sinh' ko vazir ke roop men angrezon ne manyata pradan kar di aur apani ek rejident ko lahaur men rakh diya. maharani zinda kaur ko dalip sinh se alag kar diya gaya, jo ki dalip sinh ki snrakshika thin. unhen 'shekhapura' bhej diya gaya. dvitiy yuddh men sikkhon ne angrezon ke age atm samarpan kar diya. dalip sinh ko penshan pradan kar di gee. use v rani zinda kaur ko 5 lakh rupaye varshik penshan par inglaind bhej diya gaya. jahan par kuchh samay bad hi rani zinda kaur ki mrityu ho gee.

gorakha yuddh

gorakha yuddh 1816 ee. men british bharatiy sarakar aur nepal ke bich hua. us samay bharat ka gavarnar-janaral laaurd hestings tha. eest indiya kampani ke rajy ka prasar nepal ki taraf bhi hone laga tha, jabaki nepal apane rajy ka vistar uttar ki or chin ke hone ke karan nahin kar sakata tha. gorakhon ne pulis thanon par hamala kar diya aur kee angrezon ko apana nishana banaya. in sab paristhitiyon men kampani ne gorakha logon ke viruddh yuddh ki ghoshana kar di. inhen bhi dekhen: yuddh sandhiyan, andolan viplav sainik vidroh (1757-1856 ee.) evn gorakha

pratham svatntrata sngram

laaurd kaining ke gavarnar-janaral ke roop men shasan karane ke dauran hi 1857 ee. ki mahanh kranti huee. is kranti ka arambh 10 mee, 1857 ee. ko merath se hua, jo dhire-dhire kanapur, bareli, jhansi, dilli, avadh adi sthanon par phail gaya. is kranti ki shuruat to ek sainy vidroh ke roop men huee, parantu kalantar men usaka svaroop badal kar british satta ke viruddh ek janavyapi vidroh ke roop men ho gaya, jise bharat ka pratham svatantrata sngram kaha gaya. 1857 ee. ki is mahanh kranti ke svaroop ko lekar viddhan ek mat nahin hai. is bare men vidvanon ne apane alag-alag mat pratipadit kiye hain, jo is prakar hain-'sipahi vidroh', 'svatantrata sngram', 'samantavadi pratikriya', 'janakranti', 'rashtriy vidroh', 'muslim shadayntr', 'eesaee dharm ke viruddh ek dharm yuddh' aur 'sabhyata evn barbarata ka sngharsh' adi.

mngal pande

29 march, 1857 ee. ko mngal pande namak ek sainik ne 'bairakapur chhavani' men apane afasaron ke viruddh vidroh kar diya, lekin british sainy adhikariyon ne is sainik vidroh ko saralata se niyntrit kar liya aur sath hi usaki bataliyam '34 en.aee.' ko bhng kar diya. 24 aprail ko 3 el.si. pared merath men 90 ghudasavaron men se 85 sainikon ne naye karatoos lene se inkar kar diya. agya ki avahelana ke karan in 85 ghudasavaron ko kort marshal dvara 5 varsh ka karavas diya gaya. 'khula vidroh' 10 mee, din ravivar ko sanyakal 5 v 6 baje ke madhy prarambh hua. sarvapratham paidal tukadi '20 en.aee.' men vidroh ki shuruat huee, tatpashchath '3 el.si.' men bhi vidroh phail gaya. in vidrohiyon ne apane adhikariyon ke oopar goliyan chalaee. mngal pande ne 'hiyarase' ko goli mari thi, jabaki 'afasar bag' ki hatya kar di gee thi.

jhansi ki rani

jhansi ki rani lakshmibaee ka janm 19 navnbar, 1828 ko kashi ke puny v pavitr kshetr asighat, varanasi men hua tha. inake pita ka nam 'moropnt tanbe' aur mata ka nam 'bhagirathi baee' tha. inaka bachapan ka nam 'manikarnika' rakha gaya, parantu pyar se manikarnika ko 'manu' pukara jata tha. manu ki avastha abhi char-panch varsh hi thi ki usaki man ka dehant ho gaya. pita moropnt tanbe ek sadharan brahman aur antim peshava bajirav dvitiy ke sevak the. mata bhagirathi baee sushil, chatur aur roopavati mahila thin. apani man ki mrityu ho jane par vah pita ke sath bithoor (kanapur) a gee thin. yahin par unhonne mallavidya, ghudasavari aur shastravidyaen sikhin. choonki ghar men manu ki dekhabhal ke lie koee nahin tha, isalie unake pita moropnt manu ko apane sath bajirav dvitiy ke darabar men le jate the, jahan chnchal evn sundar manu ne sabaka man moh liya tha. bajirav manu ko pyar se 'chhabili' bulane the.

tatya tope

san 1857 ee. ke pratham svatantrata sngram ke agraniy viron men tatya tope ko bada uchch sthan prapt hai. is vir ne kee sthanon par apane sainik abhiyanon men uttar pradesh, rajasthan, madhy pradesh, gujarat men angrezi senaon se takkar li thi aur unhen pareshan kar diya tha. gorilla yuddh pranali ko apanate hue tatya tope ne angrezi senaon ke kee sthanon par chhakke chhuda diye the. tatya tope jo 'tantiya topi' ke nam se vikhyat hain, 1857 ee. ke svatntrata sngram ke un mahanh sainik netaon men se ek the, jo prakash men ae. 1857 ee. tak log inake nam se aparichit the. lekin 1857 ee. ki natakiy ghatanaon ne unhen achanak andhakar se prakash men la khada kiya. is mahanh vidroh ke prarnbh hone se poorv vah rajyachyut peshava bajirav dvitiy ke sabase bade putr bithoor ke raja, nana sahab ke ek prakar se sathi-musahib matr the, kintu svatntrata sngram men kanapur ke sammilit hone ke pashchath tatya peshava ki sena ke senadhyaksh ki sthiti tak pahunch ge.

bahadur shah

bahadur shah zafar akabar dvitiy aur lalabaee ke doosare putr the. apane shasanakal ke adhikansh samay unake pas vastavik satta nahin rahi aur vah angrezon par ashrit rahe. 1857 ee. men svatntrata sngram shuroo hone ke samay bahadur shah 82 varsh ke boodhe the, aur svayn nirnay lene ki kshamata ko kho chuke the. vidrohiyon ne unako azad hindustan ka badashah banaya. is karan angrez unase kupit ho gaye aur unhonne unase shatruvath vyavahar kiya. sitambar 1857 ee. men angrezon ne dubara dilli par qabza jama liya aur bahadur shah zafar ko giraftar karake un par muqadama chalaya gaya tatha unhen rngoon (vartaman yangoon) nirvasit kar diya gaya.

antim mugal shasak bahadurashah zafar, jhansi ki rani lakshmibaee, tantya tope (ramachnndr pandurng), bihar ke baboo kunvarasinh, maharashtr se nana sahab, is pratham kranti ke prayas ke nayak the, kintu prayas viphal ho gaya. adhikansh deshi rajaon ne apane ko kranti se alag rakha. kampani ko balapoorvak kranti ko kuchal dene men saphalata mili, parantu kranti ke bad british parliyament ne bharat par kampani ka shasan samapt kar diya. bharat ka shasan ab sidhe briten ke dvara kiya jane laga.

mahatma gandhi

mahatma gandhi ne bharat ko azadi dilane ke lie apana sampoorn jivan hi samarpit kar diya tha. vishvakavi ravindranath taigor ne unhen 'mahatma' ki upadhi di thi, jisase vah mahatma gandhi ke nam se pukare jane lage the. mahatma gandhi ka janm 2 aktoobar 1869 ee. ko gujarat ke porabndar namak sthan par hua tha. unake mata-pita kattar hindoo the. inake pita ka nam karamachnd gandhi tha. mohanadas ki mata ka nam putalibaee tha, jo karamachnd gandhi ji ki chauthi patni thin. mohanadas apane pita ki chauthi patni ki antim sntan the. unake pita karamachnd (kaba gandhi) pahale british shasan ke tahat pashchimi bharat ke gujarat rajy men ek chhoti-si riyasat ki rajadhani porabndar ke divan the aur bad men kramashah rajakot (kathiyavad) aur vankaner men divan rahe. karamachnd gandhi ne bahut adhik aupacharik shiksha to prapt nahin ki thi, lekin vah ek kushal prashasak the aur unhen sanaki rajakumaron, unaki duahkhi praja tatha sattasin kattar british rajanitik adhikariyon ke bich apana rasta nikalana ata tha. inhen bhi dekhen: asahayog andolan, savinay avgya andolan evn namak satyagrah

bharatiy rashtriy kangres ki sthapana

is prakar bharat men british shasan ka doosara kal (1858-1947 ee.) arambh hua. is kal ka shasan ek ke bad ikattis gavarnar-janaralon ke hathon men raha. gavarnar-janaral ko ab vaisaray (british samrat ka pratinidhi) kaha jane laga. laaurd kaining pahala vaisaray tatha gavarnar-janaral niyukt hua. 1885 ee. men bambee men bharatiy rashtriy kangres ki sthapana huee, jisamen desh ke samast bhagon se 71 pratinidhiyon ne bhag liya. kangres ka doosara adhiveshan 1883 ee. men kalakatta men hua, jisamen sare desh se nirvachit 434 pratinidhiyon ne bhag liya. is adhiveshan men mang ki gayi ki bharat men kendriy tatha prantiy vidhanamndalon ka vistar kiya jaye aur usake adhe sadasy nirvachit bharatiy hon. kangres har sal apane adhiveshanon men apani mangen doharati rahi. laaurd dafarin ne kangres par vyngy karate hue use aise alpasnkhyak varg ka pratinidhitv karane vali snstha bataya, jise sirf khurdabin se dekha ja sakata hai. laaurd lainsadaun ne usake prati poorn upeksha ki niti barati, laaurd karzan ne usaka khuleam mazak udaya tatha laaurd minto dvitiy ne 1909 ke indiyan kaauunsil ekt dvara sthapit vidhanamndalon men musalamanon ko anuchit riti se anupat se adhik pratinidhitv dekar unhen phodane tatha kangres ko todane ki koshish ki, phir bhi kangres zinda rahi.

saphalata ki shuruat

kangres ko pahali mamooli saphalata 1909 ee. men mili, jab inglaind men bharatamntri ke nirdeshan men kam karane vali 'bharat parishad' men do bharatiy sadasyon ki niyukti pahali bar ki gayi. vaisaray ki 'ekjikyootiv kaunsil' men pahali bar ek bharatiy sadasy ki niyukti ki gayi tatha 'indiyan kaunsil ekt' ke dvara kendriy tatha prantiy vidhanamndalon ka vistar kar diya gaya tatha unamen nirvachit bharatiy pratinidhiyon ka anupat pahale se adhik badha diya gaya. in sudharon ke prastav laaurd marle ne halanki bharat men snsadiy snsthaon ki sthapana karane ka koee irada hone se inkar kiya, phir bhi ekt men jo vyavasthaen ki gayin thi, unaka uddeshy usi disha men age badhane ke siva aur kuchh nahin ho sakata tha. 1911 ee. men laaurd karzan ke dvara 1905 ee. men kiya bngal ka vibhajan radd kar diya gaya aur bharat ne briten ka poora sath diya. bharat ne yuddh ko jitane ke lie briten ki faujon se, dhan se tatha samagri se madad ki. bharat asha karata tha ki is rajabhakti pradarshan ke badale yuddh se hone vale labhon men use bhi hissa milega.

saradar bhagat sinh

1919 ee. men raulat ekt ke virodh men snpoorn bharat men pradarshan ho rahe the aur isi varsh 13 aprail ko jaliyanvala bag kand hua. is kand ka samachar sunakar bhagat sinh lahaur se amritasar pahunche. desh par mar-mitane vale shahidon ke prati shradhdanjali di tatha rakt se bhigi mitti ko unhonne ek botal men rakh liya, jisase sadaiv yah yad rahe ki unhen apane desh aur deshavasiyon ke apaman ka badala lena hai. 1920 ee. ke mahatma gandhi ke asahayog andolan se prabhavit hokar 1921 ee. men bhagat sinh ne skool chhod diya. asahayog andolan se prabhavit chhatron ke lie lala lajapat ray ne lahaur men 'neshanal kaaulej' ki sthapana ki thi. isi kaaulej men bhagat sinh ne bhi pravesh liya. 'pnjab neshanal kaaulej' men unaki deshabhakti ki bhavana phalane-phoolane lagi. isi kaaulej men hi yashapal, bhagavaticharan, sukhadev, tirtharam, jhandasinh adi krantikariyon se snpark hua. kaaulej men ek neshanal natak klab bhi tha. isi klab ke madhyam se bhagat sinh ne deshabhaktipoorn natakon men abhinay bhi kiya.

chandrashekhar azad

chandrashekhar azad ke saphal netritv men bhagat sinh aur batukeshvar datt ne 8 aprail, 1929 ee. ko dilli ki 'kendriy asenbali' men bam visphot kie. ye visphot sarakar dvara banae ge kale qanoonon ke virodh men kie ge the. is kand ke phalasvaroop bhi krantikari bahut janapriy ho ge. kendriy asenbali men bam visphot karane ke pashchath bhagat sinh aur batukeshvar datt ne svayn ko giraphtar kara liya. ve nyayalay ko apana prachar–mnch banana chahate the. chandrashekhar azad ghoom–ghoomakar kranti prayason ko gati dene men lage hue the. akhir vah din bhi a gaya, jab kisi mukhabir ne pulis ko vah soochana di, ki chandrashekhar azad 'alfred park' men apane ek sathi ke sath baithe hue hain. chandrashekhar azad ne park men kafi der tak angrezon se mukabala kiya. unake pas sari goliyan samapt ho chuki thin, sirf ek goli hi shesh thi. ve angrezon ke hathon men ana nahin chahate the. svayn ko giraphtari se bachane ke lie unhonne vah ek shesh goli apane mastishk se satakar chali di. is prakar ek aise deshabhakt ka ant ho gaya, jisane azadi ki prapti ke liye pranon ka moh nahin kiya. desh ka har ek nagarik is vir ke rin ko sadaiv yad rakhe, yahi us vir ke liye ek sachchi shrriddhajnli hogi.

netaji bos

subhash chandr bos ek mahanh neta the. kahate hain n, ki neta apane siddhanton se kabhi samajhauta nahin karate, par unamen virodhiyon ko sath lekar chalane ka mahanh gun hota hai. so neta ji men yah gun koot-koot kar bhara tha. darasal, bharatiy svatntrata sngram men alag-alag vicharon ke dal the. zahir taur par mahatma gandhi ko udar vicharon vale dal ka pratinidhi mana jata tha. vahin netaji apane joshile svabhav ke karan krantikari vicharon vale dal men the. yahi karan tha ki mahatma gandhi aur subhash chandr bos ke vichar bhinn-bhinn the. lekin ve yah achchhi tarah janate the ki, mahatma gandhi aur unaka maqasad ek hai, yani desh ki azadi. ve yah bhi janate the ki mahatma gandhi hi desh ke rashtrapita kahalane ke sachamuch haqadar hain. sabase pahale gandhi ji ko rashtrapita kahane vale netaji hi the. inhen bhi dekhen: saradar ballabh bhaee patel , sukhadev, rajaguru, lala lajapat ray evn azad hind fauj

sampradayik dnge

kuchh british afasaron ne bharat ko svadhin hone se rokane ke lie antim durrabh sndhi ki aur musalamanon ki bharat vibhajan karake pakistan ki sthapana ki mang ka samarthan karana shuroo kar diya. isake phalasvaroop agast 1946 ee. men sare desh men bhayanak sampradayik dnge shuroo ho gaye, jinhen vaisaray laaurd vevel apane samast fauji anubhavon tatha sadhanon bavajood rokan men asaphal raha. yah anubhav kiya gaya ki bharat ka prashasan aisi sarakar ke dvara chalana sambhav nahin hai, jisaka niyntran mudhy roop se angrezon ke hathon men ho. atev sitambar 1946 ee. men laaurd vevel ne pndit javahar lal neharoo ke netritv men bharatiy netaon ki ek antarim sarakar gathit ki. british adhikariyon ki kripapatr hone ke karan muslim lig ke dimag kafi oonche ho gaye the. usane pahale to ek mahine tak antarim sarakar se apane ko alag rakha, isake bad vah bhi usamen sammilit ho gayi.

svatntrata prapti

bharat ka snvidhan banane ke lie ek bharatiy snvidhan sabha ka ayojan kiya gaya. 1947 ee. ke shuroo men laaurd vevel ke sthan par laaurd mauntabeten vaisaray niyukt hua. use pnjab men bhayanak sampradayik dngon ka samana karana pada. jinako bhadakane men vahan ke kuchh british afasaron ka hath tha. vah pradhanamntri etali ke netritv men briten ki sarakar ko yah samajhane men saphal ho gaya ki bharat ka bharat aur pakistan ke roop men vibhajan karake use svadhinata pradan karane se shanti ki sthapana sambhav ho sakegi aur briten bharat men apane vyaparik hiton ko surakshit rakh sakega. 3 joon, 1947 ee. ko british sarakar ki or se yah ghoshana kar di gayi ki bharat ka; bharat aur pakistan ke roop men vibhajan karake use svadhinata pradan kar di jayagi. british parliyament ne 15 agast, 1947 ee. ko 'indipedns aauf indiya ekt' pas kar diya. is tarah bharat uttar pashchimi sima prant, baloochistan, sindh, pashchimi pnjab, poorvi bngal tatha pashchim bngal ke muslim bahul bhagon se rahit ho jane ke bad, sat shatabdiyon ki videshi paradhinata ke bad svadhinata ke ek naye path par agrasar hua.

riyasaton ka vilay

adhikansh deshi riyasaton ne, jinake samane bharat athava pakistan men vilay ka prastav rakha gaya tha, bharat men vilay ke paksh men nirnay liya, parantu, do riyasaton-kashmir tatha haidarabad ne koee nirnay nahin kiya. pakistan ne balapoorvak kashmir ki riyasat par adhikar karane ka prayas kiya, parantu aktoobar 1947 ee. men kashmir ke maharaj ne bharat men vilay ki ghoshana kar di aur bharatiy senaon ko vayuyanon se bhejakar shrinagar sahit kashmiri ghati tak jammoo ki raksha kar li gayi. pakistani akramanakariyon ne riyasat ke uttari bhag par apana qabza banaye rakha aur isake phalasvaroop pakistan se yuddh chhid gaya. bharat ne yah mamala snyukt rashtr sngh men uthaya aur snyukt rashtr sngh ne jis kshetr par jisaka qabza tha, usi ke adhar par yuddh viram kar diya. vah aj tak is saval ka koee nipatara nahin kar saka hai. haidarabad ke nizam ne apani riyasat ko svatntrata ka darja dilane ka shadayntr racha, parantu bharat sarakar ki pulis karravaee ke phalasvaroop vah 1948 ee. men apani riyasat bharat men vilayan karane ke lie majaboor ho gaye. riyasaton ke vilay men tatkalin grihamntri saradar ballabh bhaee patel ki mukhy bhoomika rahi.

inhen bhi dekhen: bharat men samachar patron ka itihas evn samajik sudhar adhiniyam


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 pandey, dhanapati. adhunik bharat ka itihas - bhag 1 (hindi) motilal banarasidas pablishars. abhigaman tithi: 2 agast, 2011.
  2. (ti.ji.pi spiyar, 'tvilait aph mugals,' pri.5)

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