नादिरशाह  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

nadirashah
Nadir Shah

nadirashah (ya 'nadir koli beg') (1688 -1747) faras ka shah tha. usane sadiyon ke bad eerani prabhuta sthapit ki thi. usane apana jivan dasata se arnbh kiya tha aur faras ka shah hi nahin bana, balki usane us samay eerani samrajy ke sabal shatru 'usmani' samrajy aur 'roosi' samrajy ko eerani kshetron se bahar nikala. vo bharat vijay ke abhiyan par bhi nikala tha. dilli ki satta par asin mugal badashah muhammadashah ko harane ke bad usane vahan se apar sampatti arjit ki, jisamen kohinoor hira bhi shamil tha. isake bad vah apar shaktishali ban gaya, lekin isake kuchh samay bad hi usaka svasthy bhi bigadata gaya. apane jivan ke uttarardh men vah bahut atyachari ban gaya tha. sanh 1747 men usaki hatya ke bad usaka samrajy jald hi titar-bitar ho gaya.

bharat par akraman

muhammadashah ke shasan kal ki ek atynt du:khant ghatana bharat par nadirashah ka akraman karana tha. mugal shasan ke arnbh se hi kisi bahari shatru ka bharat par akraman nahin hua tha; kintu us kal men dilli ki shasan−satta itani durbal ho gee thi, ki eeran ke ek mahattvakankshi lutere shasak nadirashah ne bharat par akraman karane ka sahas kiya tha. mugal badashah muhammadashah aur nadirashah ke madhy karanal ka yuddh 24 faravari, 1739 ee. men lada gaya. is ladaee men nadirashah ki vijay huee aur mugal samrath dvara shasit qabul−kndhar pradesh par adhikar karake peshavar sthit mugal sena ka vidhvns kar dala gaya.

harjane ki mang

jab muhammadashah ko nadirashah ke akraman ki bat batalaee gee, to usane use hnsi men uda diya. usaki ankhe tab khulin, jab nadirashah ki sena pnjab ko raundhati huee karanal tak a pahunchi thi. muhammadashah ne apani sena usake viruddh bheji, kintu snvat 1769 (24 faravari, 1739) men usaki parajay ho gee. nadirashah ne pahale 2 karod rupaya harjana dene ki mang ki thi, kintu usake svikar hone par vah 20 karod mangane laga.

dilli men lootapat

mugalon ka karoo ka sa khazana bhi us kal men khali ho gaya tha, at: 20 karod kaise diya ja sakata tha. phalat: nadirashah ne dilli ko lootane aur vahan nar snhar karane ki agya pradan kar di. usake barbar sainik rajadhani men ghus pade aur unhonne lootamar ka bazar garm kar diya. usake karan dilli ke hazaron nagarik mare gaye aur vahan bhari loot ki gee. is loot men nadirashah ko beshumar daulat mili thi. use 20 karod ki bajay 30 karod rupaya naqad mila. usake atirikt dhero javaharat, begamon ke bahumooly abhooshan, sone-chandi ke aganit vartaman tatha any vesh-qimati vastuen use mili thin. inake sath hi sath dilli ki loot men use kohinoor hira aur shahajahan ka 'takht-e-taoos' (mayoor sinhasan) bhi mila tha. vah bahumooly mayoor sinhasan ab bhi eeran men hai ya nahin, isaka gyan kisi ko nahin hai. nadirashah ke hath padane vali shahi haram ki sundari begamon ke atirikt muhammadashah ki putri 'shahanaj banoo' bhi thi, jisaka vivah usane apane putr 'nasaroolla khan' ke sath kar diya. nadirashah pray: do mahine tak dilli men lootamar karata raha tha. usake karan mugalon ki rajadhani ujad aur barbad si ho gee thi. jab vah yahan se jane laga, tab karodo ki snpada ke sath hi sath vah 1,000 hathi, 7,000 ghode, 10,000 oont, 100 khoje, 130 lekhak, 200 sngatarash, 100 raj aur 200 badhee bhi apane sath le gaya tha.

mrityu

eeran pahunchakar usane 'takht-e-taoos' par baith kar bada shanadar darabar kiya. bharat ki apar sampada ko bhogane ke lie vah adhik kal tak jivit nahin raha tha. usake kukrityon ka prayashchitt usake sainikon ke vidroh ke roop men hua tha, jisamen vah mara gaya. nadirashah ki mrityu savat 1804 men huee thi.

muhammadashah, nadirashah ke akraman ke bad bhi kee varsh tak jivit raha tha, kintu usaka shasan dilli ki or−pas ke bhag tak hi simit rah gaya tha. mugal samrajy ke adhikansh soobe svatntr ho gaye aur vibhinn sthanon men samrajy virodhi shaktiyon ka uday ho gaya tha. muhammadashah unhen dabane men asamarth tha. vah svayn apane mantriyon aur senapatiyon ki daya par nirbhar tha. usaki mrityu snvat 1805 (26 aprail, sanh 1748) men huee thi. is prakar usane 20 varsh tak shasan kiya tha. vah kisi tarah apane shasanakal ko poora to kar gaya; kintu mugal samrajy ko sarvanash ke kagar par khada kar gaya tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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