महमूद बेगड़ा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mahamood begada gujarat ka chhathan sultan tha. vah terah varsh ki umr men gaddi par baitha aur 52 varsh (1459-1511 ee.) tak saphalatapoorvak rajy karata raha. mahamood ko ‘begada’ ki upadhi 'giranar' joonagadh tatha champaner ke qilon ko jitane ke bad mili thi. vah apane vnsh ka sarvadhik pratapi shasak tha. usane girinar ke samip ‘mustafabad’ ki sthapana kar use apani rajadhani banaya. champaner ke samip begada ne 'mahamoodabad' ki bhi sthapana ki thi.

begada ki upadhi

gujarat men ahamadashah ke uttaradhikariyon ne bhi prasar aur shakti badhane ki apani niti jari rakhi. gujarat ka sabase prasiddh sultan mahamood begada tha. use 'begada' isalie kaha jata tha ki usane do sabase mazaboot qilon- saurashtr aur giranar[1] aur dakshin gujarat ka champaner ko jita tha. [2] giranar ka raja lagatar kar deta raha tha. lekin begada ne saurashtr ko apane adhikar men lene ki niti ke antargat use apane rajy men vilin karana chaha tha. saurashtr samriddh pradesh tha. usaki bhoomi ki kee pattiyan upajaoo thin, aur usake unnat bndaragah the. kintu durbhagy se saurashtr pradesh men lutere aur samudri dakoo bhi bahut the jo vyapariyon aur jahajon par ghat lagaye rahate the. giranar ka qila, saurashtr par adhikar banaye rakhane aur sindh ke viruddh abhiyan ke lie bahut upayukt tha.

giranar abhiyan

mahamood begada ne giranar ko bhari fauj lekar gher tha. yadyapi giranar ke raja ke pas qile men bahut kam bndooken thi, phir bhi usane virata se muqabala kiya, lekan vah har gaya. kaha jata hai ki is durgam qile par begada ki jit rajadroh ke karan huee. raja ke 'kamadar'[3] ki patni ka balapoorvak apaharan kar liya gaya tha. vah apani svami ki har ke shadayntr men sammilit thi. qile par begada ka adhikar hone ke bad raja ne islam svikar kar liya aur sultan ki sena men use shamil kar liya gaya. sultan ne giranar ki pahadi ke niche 'mustafabad' nam ka shahar basaya. usane vahan kee badi-badi imaraten banavane ko kaha. is prakar vah gujarat ki doosari rajadhani ban gaya.

dvaraka ki vijay

apane shasan ke bad ke salon men mahamood begada ne dvaraka ko fateh kiya. isaka pramukh karan samudri dakoo the, jo us bndaragah se makka jane vale haj yatriyon ko lootate the. lekin is abhiyan men vahan ke kee prasiddh hindoo mandiron ko bhi gira diya gaya. khanadesh aur malava ko apane adhikar men karane ki sultan ki yojana men champaner ke qile ka samarik mahatv tha. vahan ka shasak halanki gujarat ke adhin tha, lekin malava se usake nikat sambandh the. champaner ka patan 1454 men hua. raja aur usake sathiyon ne kahin se sahayata n milati dekhakar jauhar kiya aur antim adami jivit rahane tak ladate rahe. mahamood ne champaner ke nikat 'moohammadabad' nam ka naya shahar basaya. usane vahan kee sundar bag lagavaye aur use apana mukhy nivas banaya.

shasan vyavastha

mahamood begada ko purtagaliyon se bhi sngharsh karana pada. ve pashchim eshiya ke deshon ke sath gujarat ke vyapar men hastakshep kar rahe the. purtagaliyon ki nausena shakti ko kam karane ke lie usane misr ke sultan ka sath diya. lekin usamen use koee saphalata nahin mili. mahamood begada ke lambe aur shantipoorn kal men vyapar men unnati huee. usane yatriyon ki suvidha ke lie anek karavan-sarayon aur yatri-sarayon ka nirman karavaya. usake rajy men vyapari sntusht the, kyonki sadaken yatayat ke lie surakshit thin. mahamood begada ko aupacharik shiksha nahin mili thi, lekin vidvanon ki sngati men usane bahut gyan prapt kar liya tha. usake shasan kal men anek arabi-grnthon ka farasi men anuvad kiya gaya. usaka darabari kavi 'udayaraj' tha, jo snskrit ka kavi tha.

vyaktitv

mahamood begada ka vyaktitv akarshak tha. usaki dadhi kamar tak pahunchati thi aur moonchhen itani lambi thin ki vah unhen sir ke oopar bandhata tha. us kal ke yatri 'barabosa' ke anusar mahamood ko bachapan se hi kisi zahar ka sevan karaya gaya tha. atah usake hath par yadi koee makkhi baith jati thi, to vah phoolakar turant mar jati thi. mahamood petoo ke roop men bhi prasiddh tha. kaha jata hai ki vah nashte men ek katora shahad, ek katora makkhan aur sau se dedh sau tak kele khata tha. vah din bhar men 10 se 15 kilo bhojan khata tha. yah bhi kaha jata hai ki rat ke samay usake takie ke donon or gosht ke samoson se bhari tashtariyan rakh di jati thin, taki bhookh lagane par vah turant kha sake. mahamood ke vishay men sare desh men tarah-tarah ki kapol kathaen prachalit thin. ek italavi yatri 'ludoviko di varadema' usake rajy men aya tha, usane bhi in kathaon ka ullekh kiya hai.

nidhan

mahamood begada ke samay men gujarat rajy apani unnati ke shikhar par pahunch gaya tha aur desh ke sarvadhik shaktishali aur sushasit rajyon men se ek ban gaya tha. bad men bhi yah itana shaktishali raha ki mugal shahnshah humayoon ke lie ek khatara ban gaya. 23 navambar, 1511 ko isaki mrityu ke bad usaka putr khalil khan, 'mujaffarashah dvitiy' ki padavi grahan kar sinhasan par baitha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. jise ab joonagadh kaha jata hai.
  2. ek aur mat ke anusar use begada isalie kaha jata tha, kyonki usaki moochhen gay (begada) ke singon ke saman thin.
  3. mntri-doot

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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