भक्ति आन्दोलन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

madhy kal men bhakti andolan ki shuruat sarvapratham dakshin ke alavar bhakton dvara ki gee. dakshin bharat se uttar bharat men barahavin shatabdi ke prarambh men ramanand dvara yah andolan laya gaya. bhakti andolan ka mahattvapoorn uddeshy tha- hindoo dharm evn samaj men sudhar tatha islam evn hindoo dharm men samanvay sthapit karana. apane uddeshyon men yah andolan kafi saphal raha. shnkarachary ke ‘advaitadarshan’ ke virodh men dakshin men vaishnav snton dvara 4 maton ki sthapana ki gee, jo nimnalikhit hain-

  1. 'vishishtadvaitavad' ki sthapana 12vin sadi men ramanujachary ne ki.
  2. 'dvaitavad' ki sthapana 13vin shatabdi men madhvachary ne ki.
  3. 'shuddhadvaitavad' ki sthapana 13vin sadi men vishnusvami ne ki.
  4. 'dvaitadvaivad' ki sthapana 13vin sadi men nimbarkachary ne ki.

in santon ne bhakti marg ko eeshvar prapti ka sadhan manate hue 'gyan', 'bhakti' aur 'samanvay' ko sthapit karane ka prayas kiya. in sanaton ki pravritti sagun bhakti ki thi. inhonne ram, krishn, shiv, hari adi ke roop men adhyatmik vyakhyaen prastut kin. 14vin evn 15vin shatabdi men bhakti andolan ka netritv kabiradas ke hathon men tha. is samay ramanand, namadev, kabir, nanak, dadoo, ravidas (raidas), tulasidas evn chaitany mahaprabhu jaise logon ke hath men is andolan ki bagador thi.

bhakti andolan ke karan

adi shnkarachary dvara sthapit pith
pith sthan
jyotishpith badrinath (uttarakhand)
govardhanapith puri (udisa)
sharadapith dvarika (gujarat)
shrringeripith maisoor (karnatak)

madhy kal men bhakti andolan aur soofi andolan apane mahattvapoorn padav par pahunch ge the. is kal men bhakti andolan ke sootrapat evn prachar-prasar ke mahattvapoorn karan nimnalikhit the-

  1. muslim shasakon ke barbar shasan se kunthit evn unake atyacharon se trast hindoo janata ne eeshvar ki sharan men apane ko adhik surakshit mahasoos kar bhakti marg ka sahara liya.
  2. hindoo evn muslim janata ke apas men samajik evn sanskritik sampark se donon ke madhy sadabhav, sahanubhooti evn sahayog ki bhavana ka vikas hua. is karan se bhi bhakti andolan ke vikas men sahayog mila.
  3. soofi-santon ki udar evn sahishnuta ki bhavana tatha ekeshvaravad men unaki prabal nishtha ne hinduon ko prabhavit kiya; jis karan se hindoo, islam ke siddhanton ke nikat sampark men aye. in sabaka prabhav bhakti andolan par bahut gahara pada.
  4. hinduon ne soofiyon ki tarah ekeshvaravad men vishvas karate hue oonch-nich evn jat-pat ka virodh kiya.
  5. shnkarachary ka gyan marg v advaitavad ab sadharan janata ke lie bodhagamy nahin rah gaya tha.
  6. mnslim shasakon dvar aye din moortiyon ko nasht evn apavitr kar dene ke karan, bina moorti evn mndir ke eeshvar ki aradhana ke prati logon ka jhukav badha, jisake lie unhen bhakti marg ka sahara lena pada.

andolan ke praneta

bhaktikal ke pramukh snt, unake sampraday evn mat
pravartak sampraday mat kal
shnkarachary smriti sampraday advaitavad 788-820 ee.
ramanujachary shri sampraday vishishtadvaitavad 1017-1133 ee.
nimbarkachary sanak sampraday dvaitadvaitavad 1165 ee. (janm)
madhvachary brahma sampraday dvaitavad 1199-1278 ee.
kabiradas kabir pnth vishuddh dvaitavad 1140-1510 ee.
nanak sikkh sampraday - 1469-1538 ee.
ballabhachary rudr sampraday shuddhadvaitavad 1479-1531 ee.
chaitany mahaprabhu madhy gaudiy sampraday achinty bhedabhedavad 1486-1533 ee.
dadoo dayal dadoopanth/nipakh sampraday - 1544-1603 ee.
tukaram varakari sampraday - 1598-1650 ee.
hitahari vnsh radha vallabh sampraday - -
bhashkarachary - bhedabhevad -
shriknth - shaiv vishishtadvait -
shripati - vir shaiv vishishtadvait -
vibhan bhikshu - avibhagadvait -

bhakti andolan ko prerana pradan karane vale nimn mahapurush the-

ramanand

bhakti andolan ko dakshin se uttar men lane ka shrey ramanand ko hi diya jata hai. ve ramanuj ki pidi ke pratham snt the. unhonne sabhi jatiyon evn dharm ke logon ko apana shishy banakar ek tarah se jativad par kada prahar kiya. unake shishyon men kabir (julaha), sena (naee), raidas (chamar) adi the. unhonne ekeshvaravad par bal dete hue ram ki upasana ki bat kahi. sambhavatah hindi men upadesh dene vale pratham vaishnav snt ramanand hi the.

kabiradas

kabir ka janm 1440 ee. men varanasi men hua tha. ye sultan sikandar shah lodi ke samakalin the. soorat gopal inaka mukhy shishy tha. madhyakalin snton men kabiradas ka sahityik evn aitihasik yogadan niahsandeh avismaraniy hai. ek mahanh samaj sudharak ke roop men unhonne samaj men vyapt har tarah ki buraiyon ke khilaf sngharsh kiya, jinamen unhe kafi had tak saphalata bhi mili. kabir ne ram, rahim, hajarat, allah, adi ko ek hi eeshvar ke anek roop mana. unhonne jati pratha, dharmik karmakand, bahari adambar, moortipooja, jap-tap, avataravad adi ka ghor virodh karate hue ekeshvaravad men astha evn nirakar brahma ki upasana ko mahatv diya. kabir ne eeshvar prapti hetu shuddh prem, pavitrata evn nirmal haday ki avashyakata bataee. kabir ne kaha tha ki “he madhav! apani knthi mala le lo, kyonki bhookhe pet main tumhara bhajan nahin kar sakata.” nirgun bhakti dhara se jude kabir aise pratham bhakt the, jinhonne sant hone ke bad bhi poornatah sahishnuta ki bhavana ko banaye rakhate hue dharm ko akarmanyata ki bhoomi se hatakar karmayogi ki bhoomi par lakar khada kiya. kabir ne apana sandesh apane dohon ke madhyam se janasadharan ke sammukh prastut kiya. inake anuyayi kabirapnthi kahalaye. isamen hindoo tatha muslim donon sampradayon ke log shamil the. kabir ki pramukh rachanaon men sakhi, sabad, ramaini, doha, holi, rekhatal adi pramukh hai. kabir ki mutyu 1510 ee. men magahar men huee. ye ramanand ke shishy tatha sikandar lodi ke samakalin the.

jo log tatkalin samaj vyavastha ke prati tivr alochak the aur hindoo-muslim ekata ki bat karate the, unamen se kabir aur nanak ka yogadan sabase adhik hai. kabir ke janm aur bachapan ke vishay men kafi anishchay hai. lok shrutiyon ke anusar ve ek vidhava brahmani ke putr the, jisane unhen talab par chhod diya tha aur unaka lalan-palan ek julahe ne kiya. usane apane palak ka vyavasay sikh liya. lekin apane kashi-pravas ke dauran kabir hindoo aur muslim snton ke sampark men aye. kabir eeshvar ke ek hone par bal dete the. eeshvar ko unhonne ram, hari, govind, allah, saeen, sahib adi anek namon se pukara hai. unhonne moorti-pooja, tirth yatra, pavitr-nadi snan, namaz jaise karmakandon ka tivr virodh kiya. ve sadhu jivan apanane ke lie grihasthi ka samany jivan tyagane ko bhi anavashyak manate the. yadyapi kabir yaugik kriyaon se parichit the, phir bhi ve hathayog aur pustakiy gyan ko vastavik gyan ke lie zaroori nahin samajhate the. adhunik itihasakar daauktar tarachnd kahate hain ki kabir ka lakshy prem ke dharm ka prachar tha, jo sab varnon aur jatiyon men ekata sthapit kar sake. unhonne hindoo aur islam, donon dharmon ke un tatvon ko asvikar kiya, jo is bhavana ke virodhi the, aur jo vyakti ke vastavik adhyatmik mngal men mahattvapoorn nahin rahe the.

sikkh snpraday ke das guru
guru kal pramukh upalabdhiyan
guru nanakadev 1469-1539 ee. sikkh dharm ke pravartak
guru angad 1538-1552 ee. gurumukhi lipi ke janak
guru amaradas 1552-1574 ee. -
guru ramadas 1574-1581 ee. amritasar ke snsthapak
guru arjun dev 1581-1606 ee. svarn mndir ki sthapana
guru haragovind sinh 1606-1645 ee. akal takht ki sthapana
guru hararay 1645-1661 ee. -
guru hari kishan 1661-1664 ee. -
guru teg bahadur sinh 1664-1675 ee. -
guru govind sinh 1675-1708 ee. khalasa sena ka sngathan

gurunanak (1469-1539 ee.)

guru nanak ka janm 1469 men talavandi namak sthan par hua tha. inake pita ka nam kaloo tatha mata ka nam tripta tha. kabir ke bad tatkalin samaj ko prabhavit karane valon men nanak ka mahattvapoorn sthan hai. unaka vivah balyavastha men hi ho gaya tha, aur unhen pita ke vyavasay, lekha-jokha taiyar karane men prashikshit karane ke lie farasi ki shiksha di gee thi. kintu nanak ka jhukab adhyatmavad ki or tha aur unhen sadhu-snton ki sngati achchhi lagati thi. kuchh samay bad unhen adhyatmik drishti mili aur unhonne sannyas grahan kar liya. ve kavy rachana karate the aur sarngi ke sngit ke sath gaya karate the. sarngi unaka svamibhakt shishy maradana bajaya karata tha. kaha jata hai ki nanak ne sare bharat aur dakshin men shrilnka tatha pashchim men makka aur madina ka bhraman kiya. badi snkhya men log unaki or akrisht hue aur 1539 men unaki mrityu se poorv hi unaka nam door-door tak phail gaya.

unhonne bina kisi varg par aghat kiye hi usake andar chhipe kusnskaron ko nasht karane ka prayas kiya. unhonne dharm ke bahm adambar, jat-pat, chhuachhoot, oonch-nich, upavas, moortipooja, andh-vishvas, bahu-devavad adi ki alochana ki. unhonne hindoo-musjim ekata, sachchi eeshvar bhakti aur sachcharitrata par vishesh bal diya. nirnkar eeshvar ko inhonne akal purush ki sngya di. unaka drishtikon vishal manavatavadi tha. unake upadeshon ko sikkh pnth ke pavitr grnth ‘gurugrnth sahab’ men snkalit kiya gaya hai.

gurunanak ka vyaktitv asadharan tha. unamen paigambar, darshanik, rajayogi, grihasth, tyagi, dharmasudharak, samaj-sudharak, kavi, sngitgy, deshabhakt, vishvabandhu sabhi ke gun utkrisht matra men vidyaman the. unamen vichar-shakti aur kriya-shakti ka apoorv samnjasy tha. unhonne poore desh ki yatra ki. logon par unake vicharon ka asadharan prabhav pada. unamen sabhi gun maujood the. paignbar, darshanik, rajayogi, grihasth, tyagi, dharmasudharak, kavi, sngitgy, deshabhakt, vishvabndhu adi sabhi gun jaise ek vyakti men simatakar a ge the. unaki rachana 'japuji' ka sikkhon ke lie vahi mahattv hai jo hinduon ke lie gita ka hai.

chaitany mahaprabhu(1486 se 1533 ee.)

bngal men bhakti andolan ke pravartak chaitany mahaprabhu ne sagun bhakti marg ka anusaran karate hue, krishn bhakti par vishesh bal diya. any santon ki tarah chaitany ne bhi jat-pat evn anavashyak dharmik kuritiyon ka virodh kiya. chaitany ne moortipooja, avataravad, kirtan, upasana adi ko mahatv diya. chaitany ke anusar prem tatha bhakti, nrity evn sngit, lila evn kirtan se sagun brahma ka sakshatkar kiya ja sakata hai. chaitany mahaprabhu ne ‘gosaee sngh’ ki sthapana ki aur sath hi ‘snkirtan pratha’ ko janm diya. unake darshanik siddhant ko ‘achinty bhedabhedavad’ ke nam se jana jata hai. chaitany ke anuyayi unhen krishn ya vishnu ka avatar manate hain tatha 'gaurangamahaprabhu' ke nam se poojate hain. chaitany ka prabhav bngal ke atirikt bihar evn udisa men bhi tha. sagunopasana ko chaitany ke atirikt ballabhachary, tulasidas, sooradas evn mirabaee ne bhi apanaya.

chaitany mahaprabhu ka poora nam 'vishvambhar mishr' aur kahin-kahin 'shrikrishn chaitany chandr' milata hai. chaitany ne chaubis varsh ki umr men vaivahik jivan tyag kar sannyas grahan kar liya tha. ve karmakand ke virodhi aur shrikrishn ke prati astha ke samarthak the. chaitany mat ka ek nam 'godiy vaishnav mat' bhi hai. chaitany ne apane jivan ka shesh bhag prem aur bhakti ka prachar karane men lagaya. unake pnth ka dvar sabhi ke lie khula tha. hindoo aur musalaman sabhi ne unaka shishyatv grahan kiya. unake anuyayi chaitanyadev ko vishnu ka avatar manate hain. apane jivan ke atharah varsh unhonne udisa men bitaye. chhah varsh tak ve dakshin bharat, vrindavan adi sthanon men vicharan karate rahe. 48 varsh ki alpayu men unaka dehant ho gaya. mridng ki tal par kirtan karane vale chaitany ke anuyayiyon ki snkhya aj bhi poore bharat men paryapt hai.

raidas

raidas chamar jati ke the. ve ramanand ke barah shishyon men se ek the. ye banaras men mochi ka kam karate the. nirgun brahma ke upasak raidas ne hindoo aur musalamanon men koee bhed nahin mana. ve eeshvar ki ekata men vishvas karate the, kintu unhonne avataravad ka khandan kiya. unhonne ‘rayadasi sampraday’ ki sthapana ki.

dadoo dayal

any santon ki tarah andh vishvas, moorti pooja, jat-pat, tirthayatra adi ke virodhi dadoo dayal ne acharan evn charitr ki shuddhata par bal diya. dadoo dvara sthapit ‘dadoopnthi’ ek bhedabhav mukt pnth hai. unake samay men ‘nipaksh’ namak andolan ki shuruat ki gee. any snt kaviyon, jaise kabir, namadev, ravidas (raidas) aur haridas ki rachanaon ke sath bhi kinchit parivartit chhnd sngrah pnchavani men shamil hain. yah grnth dadoo pnth ke dharmik grnthon men se ek hai. am janata ka vivaran am taur par kahin nahin milata. yahi karan hai ki in snton ke jivan ka pramanik vivaran hamen nahin milata. dadoo, raidas aur yahan tak ki kabir ka namollekh bhi us yug ke itihas-grnthon men yada-kada hi milata hai. snton ka ullekh unaki mrityu ke varshon bad milane lagata hai, jab unake shishy sngathit rajanitik-samajik shakti ke roop men ubhar kar ane lage the. itani upeksha ke bavajood, dadoo dayal un kaviyon men se nahin hain, jinhen bharatiy janata ne bhula diya ho. adhunik shodhakartaon ne anusndhan karake aise anek vismrit kaviyon ko khoj nikalane ka gaurav prapt kiya hai.

dadoo ke jivan kal men hi unake anek shishy ban chuke the. unhen ek sootr men bandhane ke vichar se ek prithakh sampraday ki sthapana honi chahiye, yah vichar svayn dadoo ke man men a gaya tha, aur isalie unhonne sanbhar men 'par brahm sampraday' ki sthapana kar di thi. dadoo ki mrityu ke bad unake shishyon ne is sampraday ko 'dadoo pnth' kahana shuroo kar diya. arambh men inake kul ek sau bavan shishy mane jate rahe. inamen se ek sau shishy (bitaragi) the aur bhagavat bhajan men hi lage rahe. bavan shishyon ne ekant bhagavat-chintan ke sath lok men gyan ke prachar-prasar ka sngathanatmak kary karana bhi avashyak samajha. in bavan shishyon ke thanbhe prachalit hue. inake thanbhe ab bhi adhikatar rajasthan, pnjab v hariyana men hain. is kshetr men anek sthano par dadoo-dvaron ki sthapana ki gee thi. unake shishyon men garibadas, badhana, rajjab, sundaradas, janagopal adi prasiddh hue. inamen se adhikatar snton ne apani maulik rachanaen bhi prastut ki thin.

sundaradas

sundaradas dadoo dayal ke shishy, ek kavi aur sant the. unaka janm rajasthan ke baniya parivar men hua tha. unake vichar ‘sundar vilas’ namak pustak men milate hain.

virabhan

inaka janm pnjab ke 'naranaul' ke samip hua. unhonne satanamiyon ke sampraday ki sthapana ki. satanamiyon ki dharmapustak ka nam ‘pothi’ hai. unhonne jativad evn moortipooja ka khandan kiya.

bahinabaee

bahinabaee maharashtr ki ek mahila snt thin. vah tukaram ko apana guru manati thin.

nimbarkachary

nimbarkachary ka janm tamilanadu ke 'bellari' men hua tha. inhen 'sudarshan chakr' ka avatar mana jata hai. inhonne 'sanak sampraday' ki sthapana ki tatha 'dvaitadvaitavad' namak darshan diya. vartaman anveshakon ne anek pramanon se inaka jivan-kal gyarahavin shatabdi siddh kiya hai. inake bhakt inaka janm kal dvapar ka manate hain. inaka janm dakshin bharat ke godavari nadi ke tat par sthit vaidooryapattan ke nikat arunashram men hua tha. aisa prasiddh hai ki, inake upanayan ke samay svayn devarshi narad ne inhen shri gopal-mantri ki diksha pradan ki thi tatha shrikrishnopasana ka upadesh diya tha.

madhvachary

madhvachary ko 'anndatirth' evn 'poornaprgy' adi namon se bhi jana jata hai. inhonne 'dvaitavad' ka pratipad kiya. inake shastrarth ka uddeshy bhagavadbhakti ka prachar, vedon ki pramanikata ki sthapana, mayavad ka khandan tatha shastr-maryada ka snrakshan karana tha. gitabhashy ka nirman karane ke bad inhonne badarinarayan ki yatra ki. vahan inako bhagavan vedavyas ke darshan hue. anek raja inake shishy hue. anek vidvanon ne inase prabhavit hokar inaka mat svikar kiya. inhonne anek prakar ki yog-siddhiyan prapt kin. badarinarayan men shri vyasaji ne in par prasann hokar inhen tin shaligram-shilaen di thin, jinako inhonne subrahmany, madhyatal aur udupi men padharaya.

ballabhachary

ballabhachary ne krishnadev ray ke samay vijayanagar men vaishnav sampraday ki pratishtha ki. ve dvaitavad men vishvas karate the aur 'shrinathaji' ke roop men unhonne krishn bhakti par bal diya. unake mahattvapoorn dharmik granthon men 'subodhini' aur 'siddhant rahasy' shamil hain. unaka adhikatam samay kashi aur vrindavan men vyatit hua. ilahabad men unhonne chaitany se bhent ki thi. bhakti aur prem ke prati unaka atyadhik jhukav tha isi karan unhonne ras-lilaon ko apana samarthan diya. inaka janm 1479 ee. men varanasi men hua. vishnu svami ke rudr sampraday ka inake vyaktitv par gahara prabhav pada. inhonne 'shuddhadvaitavad' darshan diya. ballabhachary ke anuyayi 'avatachhap' nam se vikhyat hue.

ramanuj

ramanuj ka janm 1017 ee. men tirupati namak sthan par hua tha. mata ka nam 'kanti devi' tatha 'pita' ka nam 'asuri keshav somathaji' tha. inaka bachapan ka nam 'lakshman' tha. inaka darshanik mat 'vishishtadvaitavad' tatha sampraday, shri sampraday tha. chol shasak kulottung dvitiy se matabhed ke karan 'ramanuj' hoyasal shasak vishnuvardhan ke darabar men chale ge aur use vaishnav sampraday ka anuyayi banaya.

mirabaee

mirabaee ka janm 1498 ee. men meda zile ke 'kudaki' namak gram me hua tha. ve 'sisodiya vnsh' ki rajakumari thin. inaka vivah sisodiya vnsh ke rana sanga ke putr bhojaraj se hua tha. mirabaee ke eesht dev shrikrishn the. mirabaee ne krishn-bhakti ke sphut padon ki rachana ki hai. ye bachapan se hi krishnabhakti men ruchi lene lagi thin . mira ke krishn-bhakti ke pad bahut lokapriy hain. hindi ke sath-sath rajasthani aur gujarati men bhi inaki rachanaen paee jati hain. hindi ke bhakt-kaviyon men mira ka sthan bahut ooncha hai.

sooradas

sooradas ka janm 1478 ee. men runakata namak gram men hua tha. ve ballabhachary ke shishy the. sooradas ko 'pushtimarg' ka jahaz kaha jata hai. ve 'ashtachhap' ke kavi the. unhonne brajabhasha men tin granthon ki rachana ki, jo 'soorasagar', 'soorasaravali' tatha 'sahity lahari' ke nam se jani jati hain. gosvami hariray ke 'bhav prakash' ke anusar sooradas ka janm dilli ke pas 'sihi' nam ke ganv men ek atyant nirdhan sarasvat brahman parivar men hua tha. unake tin bade bhaee the. sooradas janm se hi andhe the, kintu sagun batane ki unamen adbhut shakti thi. 6 varsh ki avastha men hi unhonne apani sagun batane ki vidya se mata-pita ko chakit kar diya tha. kintu isi ke bad ve ghar chhodakar char kos door ek ganv men talab ke kinare rahane lage the. sagun batane ki vidya ke karan shighr hi unaki khyati ho gayi. ganavidya men bhi ve prarambh se hi pravin the. shighr hi unake anek sevak ho gaye aur ve 'svami' ke roop men pooje jane lage. 18 varsh ki avastha men unhen pun: virakti ho gee aur ve yah sthan chhodakar agara aur mathura ke bich yamuna nadi ke kinare 'googhat' par akar rahane lage.

sooradas ke jivan ki kisi any ghatana ka ullekh nahin hai, keval itana bataya gaya hai ki, ve bhagavadbhakton ko apane padon ke dvara bhakti ka bhavapoorn sandesh dete rahate the. kabhi-kabhi ve shrinath ji ke mandir se navanit priy ji ke mandir bhi chale jate the. kintu hariray ne kuchh any chamatkarapoorn rochak prasngon ka ullekh kiya hai. jinase keval yah prakat hota hai ki, sooradas param bhagavadiy the aur unake samasamayik bhakt kumbhanadas, paramanandadas adi unaka bahut adar karate the. 'varta' men sooradas ke golokavas ka prasng atyant rochak hai.

tulasidas

tulasidas ka janm 1523 ee. men banda zile ke 'rajapur' namak gram men hua tha. ve mugal shasak akabar ke samakalin the. unhonne eeshvar ke sagun roop ko svikar karate hue ram ko eeshvar ka avatar manakar unaki bhakti par vishesh bal diya. tulasidas ne avadhi bhasha men ramacharitamanas ki rachana ki. isake atirikt unake any granthon men- 'vairagy sndipani', 'shrikrishn gitavali' tatha 'vinayapatrika' adi pramukh hain.

tulasidas shrisampraday ke achary ramanand ki shishyaparampara men the. inhonne samay ko dekhate hue lokabhasha men 'ramayan' likha. isamen byaj se varnashramadharm, avataravad, sakar upasana, sagunavad, go-brahman raksha, devadi vividh yoniyon ka yathochit samman evn prachin snskriti aur vedamarg ka mandan aur sath hi us samay ke vidharmi atyacharon aur samajik doshon ki evn panthavad ki alochana ki gayi hai. gosvamiji panth va sampraday chalane ke virodhi the. unhonne vyaj se bhratriprem, svarajy ke viddhant, ramarajy ka adarsh, atyacharon se bachane aur shatru par vijayi hone ke upay; sabhi rajanitik baten khule shabdon men us kadi jasoosi ke jamane men bhi batalayin, parantu unhen rajyashray prapt n tha.

maharashtr men bhakti andolan

madhyakal men bhakti andolan ko vikasit karane tatha lokapriy banane men maharashtr ke santon ka mahattvapoorn yogadan raha hai. maharashtr men bhakti pnth 'pandharapur' ke mukhy devata 'vithova' ya 'bitthal' ke mandir ke charon or kendrit tha. vitthal ya vithova ko krishn ka avatar mana jata tha, isalie yah andolan pandharapur andolan ke roop men prasiddh hua maharashtr men bhakti andolan mukhy roop se do sampradayon men vibhakt tha-

maharashtr ke bhakt sant
sant kal
namadev 1270-1350 ee.
gyaneshvar (gyanadev) 1271-1296 ee.
ekanath 1533-1598 ee.
tukaram 1599-1650 ee.
ramadas 1608-1681 ee.
  1. varakari sampraday - pandharapur ke vitthal bhagavan ke saumy bhakton ka sampraday. yah rahasyavadiyon ka sampraday than.
  2. dharakari sampraday - bhagavan ram ke bhakton ka sampraday. isake anuyayi svayn ko 'ramadas' avihit karate hain.

'nivrittinath' tatha 'gyaneshvar', maharashtr men rahasyavadi sampraday ke snsthapak the tatha age chalakar namadev, ekanath aur tukaram dvara vibhinn roop dharan kie.

gyaneshvar ya gyanadev (1271-1296 ee.)

maharashtr ke bhakti anndolan ko lokapriy banane men 'gyaneshvar' ka mahattvapoorn sthan hai. inhonne marathi bhasha men shrimadbhagavat par 'gyaneshvari' namak tika likhi.

namadev (1270-1305 ee.)

namadev, snt gyaneshvar ke samakalin the. inaka janm ek darji parivar men hua tha. prarambh men ye dakoo the. ye krantikari svabhav ke the. unaka marg nirgun bhakti ka tha. unhonne jati vyavastha tatha chhuachhoot ka zoradar khandan kiya aur eeshvar ki ekata par bal diya. unhonne marathi bhasha ke madhyam se keval maharashtr ke santon ke lie hi nahin, balki marathon ke rajanitik unnayan ke lie bhi mahattvapoorn kary kiya. namadev ne door-door tak yatra ki tatha dilli men soofi santon se vad-vivad bhi kiya. namadev ne kaha tha ki, “ek patthar ki pooja hoti hai, to doosaron ko pairon tale raunda jata hai. yadi ek bhagavan hai, to doosara bhi bhagavan hai”.

ekanath (1533-1599 ee.)

ekanath ka janm 'paithan' (aurngabad) men hua tha. inhonne pahali bar 'gyaneshvari' ka vishvasaniy snskaran prakashit karavaya. inhonne marathi bhasha men ‘bhavarth ramayan’ ki rachana ki.

tukaram (1598-1650 ee.)

tukaram shivaji ke samakalin the. inaka janm 1608 ee. men poona ke nikat 'dehi' namak parivar men hua tha. inhonne kabhi darabari jivan ko svikar nahin kiya. shivaji dvara die ge vipul upaharon ki bhent ko inhonne lene se inkar kar diya. tukaram ne nirgun brahma ko svikar kiya tatha hindoo-musalaman ekata par bal diya. inhonne 'barakari pnth' ki sthapana ki thi.

ramadas (1608-1681 ee.)

inaka janm 1608 ee. men hua tha. inhonne 12 varshon tak poore bharat ka bhraman kiya tatha ant men krishna nadi ke tat par 'chaphal' ke pas bas ge tatha vahin par inhonne ek mndir ki sthapana ki. ye shivaji ke adhyatmik guru the. inaki mahattvapoorn rachana 'dasabodh' hain, jisamen inhonne samanvayavadi siddhant ke sath-sath vividh vigyanon evn kalaon ke apane vistrit gyan ko snyukt roop se prastut kiya hai. isake atirikt 'hemadri', 'chakradhar' aur 'ramanath' adi ki ganana bhi maharashtr ke prasiddh santon men ki jati hai.

any pramukh sant

kuchh any dharm pracharak v sudharak sant, jinhonne samaj men apana bahumooly yogadan diya, unnaka vivaran nimn prakar se hai-

shnkaradev (1449-1568 ee.)

ye madhyakalin asam ke mahanatam dharmik sudharak the. inaka sndesh vishnu ya unake avatar krishn ke prati poorn bhakti par kendrit tha. ekeshvaravad inaki shiksha ka kendr tha. inake dvara sthapit sampraday ek sharan sampraday ke roop men prasiddh hai. inhonne sarvochch devata ke mahila sahayogiyon ko manyata pradan nahin ki hai. shnkaradev dvara sthapit 'ekasharan sampraday' men bhagavatapuran ya shrimadbhagavat ko mndiron ki vedi par shraddhapoorvak rakha jata hai. shnkaradev ek matr aise sant the, jo moorti ke roop men krishn ki pooja ke virodhi the. inake dharm ko samanyatah mahapurushiy dharm ke roop men jana jata hai.

narasi (narasinh) mehata

narasi mehata 15vin sadi ke gujarat ke ek prasiddh sant the. inhonne radha aur krishn ke prem ka chitran karane hetu gujarati men giton ki rachana ki. mahatma gandhi ke priy bhajan ‘vaishnav jan to teno kahie’ ke rachayita 'narasi mehata' hi the.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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