विजय नगर साम्राज्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

vijayanagar (lagabhag 1350 ee. se 1565 ee.) ka shabdik arth hai- 'jit ka shahar'. prayah is nagar ko madhyayug ka pratham hindoo samrajy mana jata hai. 14 vin shatabdi men utpann vijayanagar samrajy ko madhyayug aur adhunik aupaniveshik kal ke bich ka snkranti-kal kaha jata hai. is samrajy ki sthapana 1336 ee. men dakshin bharat men tugalaq satta ke viruddh hone vale rajanitik tatha sanskritik andolan ke parinamasvaroop sngam putr harihar evn bukka dvara tungabhadra nadi ke uttari tat par sthit anegundi durg ke sammukh ki gayi. apane is sahasik kary men unhen brahman vidvan madhav vidyarany tatha vedon ke prasiddh bhashyakar 'sayan' se prerana mili. vijayanagar samrajy ka nam tungabhadra nadi ke dakshin kinare par sthit usaki rajadhani ke nam par pada. usaki rajadhani vipul shakti evn sampada ki pratik thi. vijayanagar ke vishay men farasi yatri 'abdul rajjak' ne likha hai ki, "vijayanagar duniya ke sabase bhavy shaharon men se ek laga, jo usane dekhe ya sune the."

itihas

sngam vnsh
shasak shasanakal
harihar pratham (1336-1356 ee.)
bukka pratham (1356-1377 ee.)
harihar dvitiy (1377-1404 ee.)
virupaksh pratham (1404 ee.)
bukka dvitiy (1404-1406 ee.)
devaray pratham (1406-1422 ee.)
devaray dvitiy (1422-1446 ee.)
vijayaray dvitiy (1446-1447 ee.)
mallikarjun (1447-1465 ee.)
virupaksh dvitiy (1465-1485 ee.)

vindhyachal ke dakshin ka bharat 200 varshon se adhik samay tak vijayanagar aur bahamani rajyon ke prabhutv men raha. unhonne n keval qanoon aur vyavastha banaye rakhi, balki vyapar tatha hastashilp ka vikas bhi kiya. kala aur sahity ko protsahan diya tatha apani rajadhaniyon ko sundar banayan uttar bharat men jabaki vighatanakari shaktiyan dhire-dhire vijayi hueen, dakshin bharat men lambe samay tak sthir shasan rahe. is sthirata ka ant pndrahavin shatabdi ke ant men bahamani samrajy ke vighatan se aur usake pachas varshon ke bad 1565 ki rakshas-tngadi ki ladaee men parajay ke bad vijayanagar samrajy ke tootane se hua. is bich bharat ki paristhitiyon men poornatah parivartan ho gaya. yah parivartan pahale samudri marg se yooropiyon (purtagal) ke agaman ke karan aur phir uttar bharat men mugalon ke akraman aur vijay ke karan hua. mugalon ke agaman se uttar bharat men ekata ke sootr ek bar phir panape par sath hi bhoomi adharit eshiyaee shaktiyon aur samudr par prabhutv rakhane vali yooropiy shaktiyon ke madhy ek lambe sngharsh ke yug ka bhi sootrapat hua.

utpatti matabhed

vijayanagar samrajy ke snsthapakon ki utpatti ke bare men spasht janakari ke abhav men itihasakaron men vivad hai. kuchh vidvan ‘telugu andhr’ athava kakatiy utpatti manate hain, to kuchh 'karnata' (karnatak) ya hoyasal tatha kuchh 'kampili' utpatti manate hain. harihar aur bukka ne apane pita sngam ke nam par sngam rajavnsh ki sthapana ki. vijayanagar samrajy ki rajadhaniyan kramash: anegundi ya anegondi, vijayanagar, penugonda tatha chandragiri thin. hampi (hastinavati) vijayanagar ki purani rajadhani ka pratinidhitv karata hai. vijayanagar ka vartaman nam 'hampi' (hastinavati) hai.

sthapana

viyajanagar samrajy ki sthapana panch bhaeeyon vale parivar ke do sadasyon harihar aur bukka ne ki thi. knvadntiyon ke anusar ve varngal k kakatiyon ke samnt the aur bad men adhunik karnatak men kampili rajy men mntri bane the. jab ek musalaman vidrohi ko sharan dene par muhammad tugalaq ne kampili ko raud dala, to in donon bhaeeyon ko bhi bndi bana liya gaya tha. inhonne islam svikar kar liya aur tugalak ne inhen vahin vidrohiyon ko dabane ke lie vimukt kar diya. tab maduree ke ek musalaman gavarnar ne svayn ko svatntr ghoshit kar diya tha aur maisoor ke hoisal aur varagnl ke shasak bhi svatntr hone ki koshish kar rahe the. kuchh samay bad hi harihar aur bukka ne apane naye svami aur dharm ko chhod diya. unake guru vidyaran ke prayatn se unaki shuddhi huee aur unhonne vijayanagar men apani rajadhani sthapit ki. harihar ke rajyarohan ka samay 1336 nirdharit kiya gaya hai. shuroo men, is naye rajy ko maisoor ke hoyasal raja aur maduree ke sultan ka muqabala karana pada. maduree ka sultan mahatvakankshi tha. ek ladaee men usane hoyasal raja ko hara diya aur use barbar tariqe se mar dala. hoisal rajy ki parajay ke bad harihar aur bukka ko apani chhoti-si riyasat ke vistar ka mauqa mila. hoyasal ka sara pradesh 1346 tak vijayanagar ke adhikar men a gaya. is ladaee men harihar aur bukka ke bhaeeyon ne unaki madad ki thi aur unhonne apane sambandhiyon ke sath milakar jite hue pradesh ka prashasan sambhal liya. is prakar, prarambh men vijayanagar samrajy ek prakar ka sahakari shasan tha. bukka ne apane bhaee ko uttaradhikari banakar 1356 men aur usane 1377 tak rajy kiya.

samrajy ka vistar

vijayanagar ki sainy shakti kramashah badh rahi thi aur isi vistar ke karan use dakshin aur uttar donon or sngharsh karana pada. dakshin men unake pramukh shatru maduree ke sultan the. maduree aur vijayanagar ke bich lagabhag char dashakon tak yuddh ki sthiti bani rahi. maduree sultan ko 1377 tak mita diya gaya. usake bad vijayanagar samrajy men tamil pradesh aur cheron (keral) ke pradesh sahit rameshvaram tak sara dakshin bharat sammilit raha. bahamani rajy ki sthapana 1347 men huee thi. isaka snsthapak ek mahatvakankshi afagan 'alauddin hasan' (alauddin bahaman shah pratham) tha. usane ek brahman gngoo ki seva men rahakar shakti badhaee thi. isalie use 'hasan gngoo' kaha jata hai. rajyarohan ke bad usane 'alauddin hasan bahaman shah' ki upadhi dharan ki. kaha jata hai ki vah apane ko arddh-pauranik eerani yoddha ka vnshaj manata tha, jisaka nam tha 'bahamanashah'. kintu lokashrutiyon ke anusar bahamanashah usake brahman ashrayadata ke prati adar ka pratik tha. usake pichhe tathy koee bhi ho, yah nishchit hai ki is upadhi ke karan rajy ko bahamani samrajy kaha gaya.

vijayanagar ke rajavnsh

vijayanagar samrajy par jin rajavnshon ne shasan kiya, ve nimnalikhit hain-

  1. sngam vnsh - 1336-1485 ee.
  2. saluv vnsh - 1485-1505 ee.
  3. tuluv vnsh - 1505-1570 ee.
  4. aravidu vnsh - 1570-1650 ee.

bahamani rajy se sngharsh

vijayanagar ke shasakon aur bahamani sultanon ke madhy aye din sngharsh hote rahate the. in sultanon ke ye svarth tin alag-alag kshetron- tungabhadra ke doab, krishna-kaveri ghati aur marathavada men takaraye. tungabhadra doab, krishna aur tungabhadra nadiyon ke bich ka pradesh tha. pahale bhi yah pradesh apani arthik samriddhi ke karan pashchimi chalukyon aur cholon ke bich aur bad men hoyasalon aur yadavon ke bich sngharsh ka vishay raha. krishna-godavari ghati men anek bndaragahen thin, jahan se is kshetr ka samudri vyapar hota tha. tungabhadra doab krishna aur tungabhadra nadi ke bich ka kshetr tha. apani arthik sampadaon ke karan yah kshetr poorvakal men pashchimi chalukyon aur cholaon ke bich tatha bad ke samay men yadavon aur hoisalon ke bich sngharsh ka kshetr bana raha. krishna-godavari kshetr jo bahut hi upajaoo tha aur jo apane kshetr men phaile asnkhy bndaragahon ke karan videsh-vyapar ka niyntran rakh sakata tha, aksar tungabhadra doab par adhikar ki ladaee men jud jata tha.

maratha kshetr ki ladaee hamesha konkan kshetr aur usase judane vale raston par adhikar ko lekar hoti thi. konkan pashchimi ghat aur samudr ke bich ki patali bhoo-patti thi. yah bahut hi upajaoo kshetr tha aur pradesh men banane vali vastuon ke niryat aur iraki tatha eerani ghodon ke ayat ke lie ek mahattvapoorn bndaragah goa bhi isi men tha. jaisa ki pahale kaha ja chuka hai, achchhi naslon ke ghode bharat men nahin milate the. atah dakshin rajyon ke lie goa ke raste ghodon ka ayat bahut mahattvapoorn tha.

bahamani sultan ki pratigya

vijayanagar aur bahamani samrajyon ke bich sainik sngharsh ek dainik kary ho gaya tha. yah sngharsh tab tak chalata raha, jab tak ki ye donon rajy bane rahe. ye sainik sngharsh un kshetron aur as pas ke kshetron ke liy bhaynkar vinash ka karan banate the. isase jan-mal ka bhi bahut nuqasan hota tha. donon paksh shaharon aur ganvon ko raund dalate the, unhen jala dete the, purushon-striyon aur bachchon ko pakadakar gulamon ke roop men bech dete the tatha aur bhi kee tarah ki barbarataon ka kam karate the. isi prakar 1367 men tungabhadra-doab ke mudde ko lekar bukka pratham ne mudakal ke qile par chadhaee ki to usane ek adami ko chhodakar sabhi ko qatl kar dala. jab yah samachar bahamani sultan ke pas pahuncha to use bahut krodh aya aur usane turant kooch kar diya. marg men usane pratigya ki ki jab tak badale men ek lakh hinduon ka khoon nahin kar loonga, talavar ko mayan men nahin rakhoonga.

sultan ki vijay

varsha ka mausam aur vijayanagar ki sena ke kade muqabale ke bavajood vah krishna nadi par karane men saphal hua aur usane mudakal par punah adhikar kar liya. phir usane tungabhadra nadi par ki. yah pahala mauqa tha jab kisi bahamani sultan ne svayn vijayanagar ki sima men pair rakha tha. vijayanagar ka raja ladaee men har gaya aur jngalon men jakar chhip gaya. kaha jata hai ki isi ladaee men sabase pahale donon hi pakshon dvara topakhane ka prayog hua tha. bahamani sultan ki jit isalie huee thi, kyonki usake pas behatar kism ka topakhana aur ghudasena thi. ladaee kee mahinon tak chalati rahi, lekin bahamani sultan n to raja ko pakad saka aur n hi usaki rajadhani ko jit saka. is dauran purushon, striyon aur bachchon ka qatle-am chalata raha. akhir donon paksh thak ge aur unhonne sndhi ka phaisala kiya. is sndhi ke antargat donon paksh apani purani simaon par laut ge. doab ka pradesh donon ke bich bnt gaya. isase bhi jyada mahattvapoorn bat yah thi ki donon pakshon ne nirnay kiya ki choonki donon rajyon ko lambe samay tak ek-doosare ka padosi rahana hai, isalie yah phaisala kiya gaya ki barbarata ko tyag diya jae. yah phaisala bhi kiya gaya ki yuddhon men asahay aur nihatthon ka vadh nahin kiya jaega. halanki is sndhi ka ullnghan kee bar kiya gaya. parantu isase dakshin bharat men yuddhon ko adhik manaviy banane men sahayata avashy mili.

vijayanagar samrajy ke uttaradhikari

bad ke samay men vijayanagar samrajy ke uttaradhikari maduree ke sultan ko mitakar dakshin men apani sthiti mazaboot karane ke bad harihar dvitiy (1377-1404) ke netritv men vijayanagar samrajy ne poorv men vistar ki niti apanayi. is kshetr men kee chhoti-chhoti svatntr hindoo riyasaten thin. inamen sabase mahattvapoorn delta ke oopari bhagon men basi reddiyon ki riyasat, aur krishna-godavari delta ke nichale hisse men basa varngal rajy tha. uttar men udisa ke raja tatha poorv men bahamani sultanon ki ruchi bhi is kshetr men thi. halanki varngal ke shasak ne dilli sultan ke khilaf 'hasan gngoo' (alauddin bahaman shah pratham) ki madad ki thi, lekin usake uttaradhikari ne varngal par akraman karake kaulas tatha golakunda ke pahadi qile par apana adhikar sthapit kar liya. phir usane golakunda ko apani sima nirdharit karake yah vachan diya tha ki usake uttaradhikari koee bhi varngal par bhavishy men kabhi akraman nahin karenge. is sndhi ko pakka karane ke lie varngal ke shasak ne bahamani sultan ko bahoomooly ratnon se jadi ek gaddi bhent men di thi. kaha jata hai ki isaka nirman muhammad tugalak ko bhent karane ke lie karavaya gaya tha. varngal aur bahamani rajy ke bich yah sndhi 50 varshon tak rahi. yahi sabase bada karan tha ki vijayanagar n to tungabhadra doab par hi kabhi adhikar kar saka aur n hi us kshetr men bahamani akramanon ko rok paya tha.

madhyayugin lekhakon ne vijayanagar v bahamani ke bich huee ladaiyon ka varnan vistar se kiya hai. kintu vah sab aitihasik mahatv ki bat nahin hai. donon pakshon ki sthiti lagabhag ek si rahi, keval ladaee men palada kabhi ek paksh ki or jhuk jata to kabhi doosare paksh ki aur jhuk jata tha. harihar dvitiy bhi bahamani aur varngal ki snyukt shakti ke muqabale apani sthiti banaye rakhane men saphal raha. usaki sabase badi saphalata pashchim men bahamani rajy se belaganv aur goa ka adhikar chhinana tha. usane uttari shrilnka par bhi akraman kiya.

devaray pratham aur firojashah

kuchh samay tak avyavastha ke bad devaray pratham (1406-1422) harihar dvitiy ka uttaradhikari bana. usake rajy ke prarambhik charan men tungabhadra doab ki ladaee phir se chhidi. bahamani shasak firojashah ke hathon usaki har huee aur use hoovo, motiyon aur hathiyon ke roop men das lakh ke harjane dene paden. use sultan ke sath apani ladaki ki shadi karani padi aur dahej ke roop men doab kshetr men sthit bankapur bhi sultan ko dena pada taki bhavishy men ladaee ki gunjaish n rahe. yah vivah badi shano-shaukat ke sath kiya gaya. jab firojashah bahamani shadi ke lie vijayanagar pahuncha to, raja devaray ne nagar se bahar akar badi shan se usaka svagat kiya. nagar dvar se lekar mahal tak das kilomitar lambe marg ko sone, makhamal aur resham ke kapadon aur any bahoomoolyon ratnon se sajaya gaya tha. donon raja nagar chauk ke kendr se ghodon par savar hokar gujare. devaray ke sambandhi is juloos ke sath marg men mile aur dono shasakon ke age-age paidal chale. utsav tin din tak chalata raha.

dakshin bharat men yah is prakar pahala rajanitik vivah nahin tha. isase pahale kherala ka raja shanti sthapit karane ke lie firojashah bahamani ke sath apani ladaki ki shadi kar chuka tha. kaha jata hai ki vah sultan ki sabase pahali begam thi. kintu yah vivah apane ap men shanti sthapit nahin kar saka. krishn-godavari ke bich ke kshetr ko lekar vijayanagar, bahamani rajy aur udisa men phir sngharsh chhid gaya. reddiyon ke rajy men ast-vyastata dekhakar devaray ne varngal ke sath use apas men bant lene ki sndhi kar li. bahamaniyon se varngal ke alagav ne dakshin men shakti sntulan ko badal diya. devaray ko firojashah bahamani ko buri tarah parajit karane men saphalata mili aur usane krishna nadi ke muhane tak ka sara pradesh hadap liya. devaray pratham ne shanti ki kalaon ki bhi avahelana nahin ki. usane tungabhadra par ek bandh banavaya taki vahan se shahar men nahar lakar pani ki kami ko door kar sake. isase as-pas ke kheton ki sinchaee bhi hoti thi. yah janakari bhi milati hai ki isase usake rajasv men 350,000 peradaon ki bhi vriddhi huee. sinchaee ke lie usane haridra nadi par bhi bandh banavaya.

devaray dvitiy ka prashasan

kuchh avyavastha ke bad devaray dvitiy (1422-1446) vijayanagar ki gaddi par baitha. vah is vnsh ka mahanatam shasak mana jata hai. apani sena ko bhi shaktishali banane ke lie usane aur musalamanon ko bharti kiya. farishta ke anusar devaray dvitiy ka vichar tha ki bahamani sena sirph isalie behatar thi ki usake pas jyada mazaboot ghode aur jyada snkhya men achchhe tir-andaj the. atah usane 2000 musalamanon ko sena men naukari aur jagiren di aur sab hindoo sainikon aur sainik adhikariyo ko unase tir-andaji sikhane ka adesh diya. vijayanagar ki sena men musalamanon ki bharti koee nayi bat nahin thi. devaray pratham ki sena men bhi 10,000 musalaman sainik the. tir-andaji bhi nayi kala nahin thi. sambhavatah farishta yah kahana chahata hai ki vijayanagar ki sena men ghodon par chadhakar tir-andaji ke prashikshan ka abhav tha. farishta kahata hai ki is prakar devaray dvitiy ne tir-andaji men kushal 60,000 hindoo, 80,000 ghud savar aur 200,000 paidal sainik ekatr kar lie. ho sakata hai ki yah snkhya badha-chadha kar batayi gee ho. phir bhi yah nishchit hai ki itani badi ghudasena ke nirman se rajy ke sroton par kafi dabav pada hoga, kyonki achchhe ghode ayat karane padate the aur is vyapar par ekadhikar rakhane vale arab unake lie oonchi qimat vasool karate the.

apani nayi sena ko lekar devaray dvitiy ne 1443 men tungabhadra nadi ko par kiya aur mudakal, bankapur adi ko phir se jitane ki koshish ki. ye nagar krishna nadi ke dakshin men the aur purani ladaiyon men bahamani rajy ke adhikar men a ge the. tin kadi ladaiyan ladi geen, lekin antatah donon pakshon ko purani simaon ko hi svikar karana pada.

charamotkarsh tatha vighatan

devaray dvitiy ki mrityu ke bad vijayanagar samrajay men avyavastha a gee thi. kyonki vnshadhar ke hi uttaradhikari hone ka siddhant nishchit nahin ho saka. isalie gaddi ke pratidvandviyon ke bich kee yuddh hue. isamen kee karad rajy svatntr ho ge. rajy ke mntri shaktishali ho ge, aur unhonne janata se kee upahar aur bhari kar vasoolana arambh kar diya. isase janata men asntosh paida hone laga. rajy ka shasan karnatak aur andhr pradesh ke kuchh bhag tak hi simit rah gaya. raja aishvary men doob gaye. ve karyon ki avahelana karane lage. kuchh samay ke bad raja ke mntri saluv narasinh ne gaddi par adhikar kar liya. prachin sngam vnsh ke rajy ka ant ho gaya. saluv ne antarik qanoon aur vyavastha ko phir se sthapit kiya aur naye vnsh ka sootrapat kiya. yah vnsh bhi jaldi hi samapt ho gaya. antatah krishnadev ray dvara ek naye vnsh tuluv ki sthapana huee.

udisa v purtagaliyon se sngharsh

krishnadev ray (1509-1530) is vnsh ka mahanatam vyakti tha. katipay itihasakar use vijayanagar samrajy ka mahanatam shasak manate hain. krishnadev ko antarik qanoon aur vyavastha ki punahsthapana hi nahin karani padi, balki use vijayanagar ke purane shatru bahamani rajy ke uttaradhikari rajyon aur udisa ka bhi muqabala karana pada. udisa ne vijayanagar samrajy ke bahut se hisson par adhikar kar liya tha. isake atirikt use purtagaliyon ka bhi samana karana pada, jo us samay dhire-dhire shaktishali ho rahe the. ve samudr par adhikar ka prayog tatavarti kshetron men upasthit vijayanagar ki chhoti navon ko ghudakane men kar rahe the, taki ve arthik aur rajanitik suvidhaen prapt kar saken. unhonne krishnadev ray ko tatasth bane rahane ke lie rishvat dene ka prastav bhi kiya. yah rishvat bijapur se goa ka adhikar punah chhinane ke lie sahayata aur ghodon ke ayat men ekadhikar ke prastav ke roop men thi.

sat sal tak ladaiyan ladakar krishnadev ne pahale udisa ko, krishna nadi tak ke kshetr ke sab jite hue pradeshon ko vijayanagar ko lautane ko vivash kiya. is prakar apani sthiti mazaboot karake krishnadev ne tungabhadr doab ke lie purani ladaee shuroo ki. isaka parinam yah hua ki usake do shatruon, udisa aur bijapur ne, apas men sndhi kar li. krishnadev ray ne yuddh ke lie kafi taiyariyan kin. usane rayapur aur mudakal par akraman karake yuddh shuroo kar diya. bijapur ki yuddh men 1520 men poorn parajay huee. use krishna nadi ke par khaded diya gaya. usaki jan mushkil se bachi. vijayanagar ki sena belaganv pahunchi, phir usane bijapur par adhikar kiya aur kee din tak lootapat hoti rahi. usake bad unhonne gulabarga ko nasht kar diya. tab kahin koee sndhi huee.

krishnadev ki mrityu ke pashchath usake rishtadaron men apas men uttaradhikar ke lie sngharsh hua. kyonki usake putr us samay nabalig the. antatah 1543 men sadashiv ray gaddi par baitha aur usane 1567 tak rajy kiya. parantu vastavik shakti ek trigut ke pas thi. jinaka mukhiya ram raja tha. ram raja ko kee muslim takaton ko apas men bhidane men saphalata mili thi. usane purtagaliyon se ek vyaparik samajhauta kiya, jisase bijapur ke raja ko ghodon ki bikri bnd kar di gee. phir kee ladaiyon ke bad usane bijapur ko poori tarah hara diya. usake bad bijapur ke raja ko sath lekar usane golakunda aur ahamadanagar ko parajit kiya. aisa pratit hota hai ki raja ram ka lakshy keval in rajyon ke madhy shakti sntulan ka palada vijayanagar ke paksh men karane ke lie hi tha. kalantar men unhonne vijayanagar ke viruddh snyukt hokar 1565 men talikota ke nikat bannihatti men use parajit kiya. is yuddh ko 'rakshas-tngadi' ya talikota ka yuddh bhi kaha jata hai. raja ram ko gher kar pakad liya gaya aur use turant mar dala gaya. kaha jata hai ki is yuddh men 100,000 hinduon ka vadh kiya gaya. vijayanagar ko poori tarah se loot liya gaya aur use khandahar bana diya gaya.

bannihatti ki ladaee ko samany roop se vijayanagar samrajy ke shanadar yug ka ant mana jata hai. halanki rajy usake bad bhi lagabhag 100 varsh tak ghisat-ghisat kar chalata raha, lekin usaki simaen lagachar snkuchit hoti rahin aur dakshin bharat men rayon ka rajanitik drishti se koee mahatv shesh nahin raha.

vidvan kathan

nikolo konti kahata hai ki kvilan, shrilnka, poolikat, pegoo aur tenasirim[1] ke raja devaray dvitiy ko kar dete the. kintu isamen snket hai ki vijayanagar ke rajaon ke pas itani samudri shakti thi ki ve pegoo aur tenasirim se nirantar kar le saken. sambhavatah is kathan ka ashay yah tha ki in deshon ke shasakon ka vijayanagar se sampark tha aur unhonne usaki shubhakamanaen prapt karane ke lie upahar bheje the. han, shrilnka par avashy kee bar akraman kie ge. is bat ki sambhavana hai ki vah vijayanagar ka karad tha. kintu shaktishali nausena ke bina yah bhi sambhav nahin ho sakata tha.

is prakar lagatar kee samarth rajaon ke netritv men vijayanagar pndrahavin shatabdi ke poorvarddh men dakshin ka sarvadhik shaktishali aur samriddh rajy ban gaya. italavi yatri nikolo konti ne 1420 men vijayanagar ki yatra ki thi. usane usaka sundar varnan kiya hai. vah kahata hai- "nagar ka ghera sath mil hai, isaki divaren pahado tak chali gee hain. anuman hai ki is nagar men nabbe hazar log aise hain, jo shastr dharan karane yogy hain. raja bharat ke any rajaon se jyada shaktishali hai." farishta bhi likhata hai- "bahamani vnsh ke rajakumar sirf dileri ke bal par apani shreshthata banaye hue hain, anyatha shakti, samriddhi aur kshetraphal men bijanagar (vijayanagar) ke raja unase kahin badh kar hain."

faras ke yatri abdurrajjak ne bharat tatha any deshon ka bahut bhraman kiya tha. usane devaray dvitiy ke samay men vijayanagar ki bhi yatra ki. usane is rajy ka bhavy varnan kiya hai. vah kahata hai ki is rajakumar ke rajy men 300 bndaragah hain. inamen se pratyek kalikat ke barabar hai. isake rajy ki bhoomi itani phaili huee hai ki usaki yatra karane men tin mahine lag jate hain. is bat se sabhi yatri sahamat hain ki rajy men bahut adhik nagar aur ganv the. abdurrazak kahata hai ki "desh ke adhikansh hisson men kheti hoti hai aur bhoomi bahut hi upajaoo hai. sena ki snkhya 11 lakh hai." abdurrazak vijayanagar ko snsar ke dekhe aur sune nagaron men sab se bhavy manata hai. nagar ka varnan karate hue vah kahata hai, "vah is tarah se bana hai ki sat qile aur itani hi divaren ek-doosare ko ghere hue hain, saton qile ka kshetraphal, jo any qilon ke kendr men bana hai, herat ke bazar se das guna bada hai. mahal ke pas hi char bazar hain jo bahut hi lambe-chaude the." bharatiy vyavastha ke anuroop ek varn ya vyavasay ke log shahar ke ek bhag men rahate the. lagata hai ki musalaman apane lie surakshit alag hisse men rahate the. bazaron aur raja ke mahal men saf, kate hue, palish kie pattharon se bane nale aur naharen dikhaee deti thin. bad ka ek yatri likhata hai ki yah us samay ke pashchim ke sabase bade nagar rom se bhi bada aur bhavy nagar tha.

prashasan tatha arthik jivan

vijayanagar ke shasakon ke mastishk men rajy ka svaroop bahut saf tha. rajaniti par apani pustak men krishnadev ray raja ke lie likhata hai ki, "tumhen bade dhyan se yathashakti suraksha[2] aur dnd[3] kam karana chahie. usamen apane dekhe-sune ki avahelana nahin karani chahie." vah raja ko "praja par udar hokar kar lagaon," jaisi salah bhi deta hai. vijayanagar samrajy men raja ki sahayata ke lie ek mntrimnndal hota tha, jisamen samrajy ke shreshth vidvan hote the. samrajy rajyash ya mndalamh[4] aur usake antargat nadu[5], sthal[6] aur gram men vibhakt tha.

vijayanagar ke shasakon ne svayatt gram-prashasan ki chol parampara ko banaye rakhan, lekin vnshagat nayak hone ki parampara ne us svatntrata ko simit avashy kar diya. pranton ke gavarnar[7] pahale rajakumar hua karate the. bad men samrajy ke shasak vnshon aur samnton men se bhi is pad par niyuktiyan hone lagin. prantiy prashasak kafi sima tak svatntr hote the. ve apana darabar lagate the. apane adhikari niyukt karate the aur apani sena bhi rakhate the. ve apane sikke bhi chala sakate the. parantu yah adhikar chhote sikkon ke parichalan tak simit tha. prantiy prashasak ki karyavahi nishchit nahin hoti thi. vah usaki yogyata aur shakti par nirbhar karati thi. gavarnar ko naye kar lagane ya purane karon ko hatane ka adhikar bhi tha. pratyek gavarnar kendr ki seva men nishchit snkhya men sainik aur paisa upasthit karata tha. anuman hai ki samrajy ki kul ay 12,000,000 parado thi, jisamen adha kendriy sarakar ko milata tha.

samrajy men 'kabalakar' nam ka ek adhikari bhi hua karata tha, jo pray: samajik evn dharmik vishayon par nirnay deta tha. ise 'arasukavalakar' ke nam se bhi jana jata tha. nagar men bahut se kshetr aise bhi the, jo adhinasth shasakon dvara shasit the, arthat unake dvara jinhen yuddhon men parast karane ke bad chhota rajy lauta diya gaya tha. raja senapatiyon ko bhi nishchit kar ke evaj men kuchh amaramh[8] pradan karata tha. ye senapati palaiyagar[9] athava nayak kahalate the. inhen samrajy ki seva ke lie paidal-sainikon, ghud-savaron aur hathiyon ki ek nishchit snkhya rakhani padati thi. nayakon ko bhi kendriy rajasv men ek nishchit rashi deni padati thi. ye samrajy ka ek shaktishali varg tha aur kabhi-kabhi raja ko inhen kaboo men rakhane ke lie kafi kathinaiyon ka samana karana padata tha. vijayanagar samrajy ki in kamazoriyon ka bannihatt ya talikota athava rakshas-tngadi ke yuddh men usaki parajay aur bad men usake vighatan men bahut bada hath tha. tnjaur aur maduree adi sthanon ke nayak tabhi se svatntr ho ge the.

kisanon ki sthiti

vijayanagar samrajy men kisanon ki arthik sthiti par sab itihasakar ek mat nahin hai. kyonki adhikansh yatriyon ko gramin-jivan ka bahut kam anubhav hua tha aur unhonne is vishay men matr samany tippaniyan di hain. yah svikar kiya ja sakata hai ki samany nagarik ki arthik sthiti lagabhag pahale jaisi hi rahi. unake makan mitti aur phoos ke the, jinake daravaze bhi chhote the. ve aksar nnge panv chalate the aur kamar ke oopar kuchh bhi nahin pahanate the. uchch varg ke log kabhi-kabhi mnhage joote, siron par reshami pagadi pahanate the, lekin kamar ke oopar ve bhi kuchh nahin pahanate the. sabhi vargon ke log abhooshanon ke shauqin the aur kanon, gardanon aur bazuon par koee n koee abhooshan pahanate the. is bat ki koee janakari nahin milati ki kisan apane utpadan ka kitana ansh lagan ke roop men dete the. ek alekh ke anusar karon ki dar is prakar thi-

  • sardiyon men 'kurubaee', chaval ki ek qism, ka 1/3
  • sisam, raggi aur chane adi ka 1/4
  • jvar aur shushk bhoomi par utpann hone vale any anajon ka 1/6

is prakar anaj, bhoomi, sinchaee ke sadhanon ke anusar lagan ki dar alag-alag thi. lagan ke atirikt sampatti kar, vikray-kar, vyavasay-kar, yuddh ke samay sainyakar, vivah kar adi bhi the. solahavin shatabdi ka yatri nikitin kahata hai ki "desh men janasnkhya bahut adhik hai, lekin gramin bahut garib hain jabaki samnt samriddh hain aur aishvaryapoorn jivan ka anand uthate hain." is prakar ke kathan bahut sadharan janakari dete hain. aisi janakari ko madhyayug ke samast bharatiy samaj par lagoo kiya ja sakata hai.

kendriy vyavastha

vijayanagar samrajy ki shasan paddhati rajatntratmak thi. rajy evn shasan ke mool ko raja, jise 'ray' kaha jata tha, hota tha. is kal men prachin rajy ki ‘saptang vicharadhara’ ka anusaran kiya jata tha. raja ke chunav men rajy ke mntri evn nayak mahattvapoorn bhoomika ka nirvah karate the. vijayanagar men snyukt shasak ki bhi parampara thi. raja ko rajyabhishek ke samay prajapalan evn nishtha ki shapath leni padati thi. rajyabhishek ke avasar par darabar men atyant bhavy ayojan hota tha, jisamen nayak, adhikari tatha janata ke pratinidhi sammilit hote the. achyutadev ray ne apana rajyabhishek tirupati venkateshvar mandir men sampann karaya tha. raja ke bad ‘yuvaraj’ ka pad hota tha. yuvaraj raja ka bada putr v rajy parivar ka koee bhi yogy purush ban sakata tha. yuvaraj ke rajyabhishek ko 'yuvaraj pattabhishek' kahate the. vijayanagar men snyukt shasan ki parampara bhi vidyaman thi, jaise - harihar pratham evn bukka pratham. yuvaraj ke alpayu hone ki sthiti men raja apane jivan kal men hi svayn kisi mntri ko usaka snrakshak niyukt karata tha. is kal men kuchh mahattvapoorn snrakshak the- vir narasinh, narasa nayak evn ramaray adi. kalantar men yahi snrakshak vyavastha hi vijayanagar ke patan men bahut kuchh zimmedar rahi. vijayanagar ke rajaon ne apane vyaktigat dharm ke bad bhi dharmik sahishnuta ki niti ka anusaran kiya. yadyapi rajy nirnkush hota tha, par barbar nahin. usaki nirnkushata par niyantran tatha prashasanik karyon men sahayog karane ke lie ek ‘mntriparishad’ hoti thi, jisamen pradhanamntri, mntri, upamntri, vibhagon ke adhyaksh tatha rajy ke kuchh nazadik ke sambandhi hote the.

saluv vnsh
shasak karyakal
saluv narasinh (1485-1491 ee.)
timma ray (1491 ee.)
immadi narasinh (1491-1505 ee.).

mntriparishad

mntriyon ke chayan men anuvnshikata ki parampara ka palan hota tha. mntriparishad ke mukhy adhikari ko ‘pradhani’ ya ‘mahapradhani’ kaha jata tha. isaki sthiti pradhanamntri jaisi thi. isaki tulana maratha kalin peshava se ki ja sakati hai. yah raja evn yuvaraj ke bad tisare sthan par hota tha. mntriparishad men kul 20 sadasy hote the. mntriparishad ke adhyaksh ko ‘sabhanayak’ kaha jata tha. kabhi-kabhi pradhanamntri adhyakshata bhi karata tha. ti.vi. mahalingam ne vijayanagar prashasan ki rajaparishad aur mntriparishad men antar spasht kiya hai. rajaparishad pranton ke nayakon, samant shasakon, viddhanon v rajyon ke rajadooton ko shamil karake gathit kiya gaya ek vishal sngathan hota tha. vijayanagar kalin mntriparishad ki tulana kautily ke mntriparishad ke sath ki ja sakati hai.

kendr men 'dandanayak' nam ka uchch adhikari hota tha. usaka yah pad padabodhak n hokar vibhinn adhikariyon ki vishesh shreni ko ingit karata tha. dndanayak ka arth, ‘prashasan ka pramukh’ aur ‘senaon ka nayak’ hota tha. kahin-kahin mntriyon ko bhi dndanayak ki upadhi pradan kiye jane ka ullekh milata hai. dandanayak ko nyayadhish, senapati, garvanar ya prashasakiy adhikari adi ka karyabhar saunpa ja sakata tha. kuchh any adhikariyon ko ‘karyakarta’ kaha jata tha. kendr men ek sachivalay ki vyavastha hoti thi, jisamen vibhagon ka vargikaran kiya jata tha. in vibhagon men ‘rayasam’ ya sachiv, karnikam ya ekauntent hote the. rayasam raja ke maukhik adhikaron ko lipibaddh karata tha. any vibhag evn unake adhikari ‘maniy pradhan’, grihamntri, mudrakarta, shahi-mudra ko rakhane vala adhikari adi the.

prantiy prashasan

tuluv vnsh
shasak karyakal
vir narasinh (1505-1509 ee.)
krishnadev ray (1509-1529 ee.)
achyutadev ray (1529-1542 ee.)
venkat pratham (1542 ee.)
sadashiv ray (1542-1570 ee.)

vijayanagar samrajy ka vibhajan prant, rajy ya mndal men kiya gaya tha. krishnadev ray ke shasanakal men pranton ki snkhya sarvadhik 6 thi. pranton ke garvanar ke roop men raj parivar ke sadasy ya anubhavi dandanayakon ki niyukti ki jati thi. inhen sikkon ko prasarit karane, naye kar lagane, purane kar maph karane evn bhoomidan karane adi ki svatantrata prapt thi. prant ke garvanar ko 'bhoo-rajasv' ka ek nishchit hissa kendr sarakar ko dena hota tha.

prant ko ‘mndal’ evn mndal ko ‘kotm’ ya ‘zile’ men vibhajit kiya gaya tha. kottam ko ‘valanadu’ bhi kaha jata tha. kottam ka vibhajan ‘naduon’ men hua tha, jisaki sthiti aj ke paragana evn talluka jaisi thi. naduon ko ‘menlagram’ men banta gaya tha. ek melagram ke antargat lagabhag 50 ganv hote the. ‘ur’ ya ‘gram’ prashasan ki sabase chhoti eekaee thi. is sam ganvon ke samooh ko ‘sthal’ evn ‘sima’ bhi kaha jata tha. vibhajan ka kram is prakar tha.

  1. prant - mndal-kottam ya valanadu
  2. prakottam - nadu-melagram-ur ya gram.

samanyatah pranton men rajaparivar ke vyaktiyon (kumar ya rajakumar) ko hi niyukt kiya jata tha. garvanaron ko sikke jari karane, naye kar lagane, purane karon ko maph karane, bhoomidan dene jaise adhikar prapt the. sngam yug men garvanaron ke roop men shasan karane vale rajakumaron ko 'uraiyar' ki upadhi mili huee thi. chol yug aur vijayanagar yug ke rajatntr men sabase bada antar 'naynkar vyavastha' thi.

aravidu vnsh
shasak karyakal
tirumal (1570-1572 ee.)
shrirng (1572-1585 ee.)
venkat pratham (1585-1614 ee.)
shrirng pratham (1614 ee.)
ramadev (1614-1630 ee.)
venkat dvitiy (1630-1642 ee.)
shrirng dvitiy (1642-1652 ee.)

naynkar vyavastha

is vyavastha ki utpatti ke bare men itihasakaron men matabhed hain. kuchh ka manana hai ki, vijayanagar samrajy ki sena ke senanayakon ko ‘nayak’ kaha jata tha, kuchh ka manana hai ki, nayak bhoo-samant hote the, jinhen vetan ke badale evn sthaniy sena ke kharch ko chalane ke lie vishesh bhoo-khand, jise ‘amaram’ kaha jata tha, diya jata tha. choonki ye amaram bhoomi ka prayog karate the, isalie inhe ‘amaranayak’ bhi kaha jata tha. amaram bhoomi ki ay ka ek hissa kendriy sarakar ke kosh ke lie dena hota tha. nayak ko amaram bhoomi men shanti, suraksha evn aparadhon ko rokane ke dayitv ka bhi nirvah karana hota tha. isake atirikt use jngalon ko saf karavana evn krishi yogy bhoomi ka vistar bhi karana hota tha. naynkaron ke antarik mamalon men raja hastakshep nahin kar sakata tha. inaka pad anuvnshik hota tha. nayakon ka sthanantaran nahin hota tha. rajadhani men nayakon ke do sampark adhikari - ek nayak ki sena ka senapati aur doosara prashasanik abhikarta ‘sthanapati’ rahate the. achyutadev ray ne nayakon ki uchchhrinkhata ko rokane ke lie ‘mnhamndaleshvar’ ya 'vishesh kamishnaron' ki niyukt ki thi. naynkar vyavastha men paryapt roop men samntavadi lakshan the, jo vijayanagar samrajy ke patan ka karan bani.

ayngar vyavastha

prashasan ko sucharoo roop se snchalit karane ke lie pratyek gram ko ek svatantr ikaee ke roop men sngathit kiya gaya tha. in sngathit gramin ikaiyon par shasan hetu ek 12 prashasakiy adhikariyon ki niyukti ki jati thi, jinakon samoohik roop se ‘ayngar’ kaha jata tha. ye avaitanik hote the. inaki sevaon ke badale sarakar inhe poornatah kar mukt evn lagan mukt bhoomi pradan karati thi. inaka pad ‘anuvnshik’ hota tha. yah apane pad ko kisi doosare vyakti ko bech ya giravi rakh sakata tha. gram star ki koee bhi sampatti ya bhoomi in adhikariyon ki ijajat ke bagair n to bechi ja sakati thi, aur n hi dan di ja sakati thi. 'karnik' namak ayngar ke pas zamin ke kray evn vikray se sambandhit samast dastavej hote the. is vyavastha ne gramin svatntrata ka gala ghont diya.

sthaniy prashasan

vijayanagar kal men chol kalin sabha ko kahin-kahin 'mahasabha', 'ur' evn 'mahajan' kaha jata tha. ganv ko anek vardon ya muhallon men vibhajit kiya gaya tha. ‘sabha’ men vichar-virmash ke lie ganv ya kshetr vishesh ke log bhag lete the. ‘sabha’ nee bhoomi ya any prakar ki sampatti upalabdh karane, ganv ki sarvajanik bhoomi ko bechane, gramin ki taraf se samoohik nirnay lene, ganv ki bhoomi ko dan men dene ke adhikar apane pas surakshit rakhati thi. yadi koee bhoomi svami lambe samay tak lagan nahin de pata tha to, gram sabhaen usaki zamin jabt kar leti thin. nyayik adhikaron ke antargat sabha ke pas divani mukaddamon evn faujadari ke chhote-chhote mamalon ka nirnay karane ka adhikar hota tha. ‘nadu’ ganv ki badi rajanitik ikaee ke roop men prachalit thi. nadu ki sabha ko nadu evn sadasyon ko ‘natvar’ kaha jata tha. adhikar kshetr kafi vistrit hote the, par shasakiy niyntran men rahana padata tha. vijayanagar ke shasan kal men in sthaniy ikaiyon ka hmas hua. ‘seneteova’ ganv ke ay-vyay ki dekhabhal karata tha, ‘talari’ ganv ke chaukidar ko kahate the. ‘begara’ ganv men begar, mazadoori adi ki dekhabhal karata tha. brahmadev gramon (brahmanon ko bhoomi-anudan ke roop men prapt gram) ki sabhaon ko 'chaturvedimngalam' kaha gaya hai. gair brahmadev gram ki sabha 'ur' kahalati thi.

is samay ay ke pramukh srot the - lagan, sampatti kar, vyavasayik kar, udyagon par kar, sinchaee kar, charagah kar, udyan kar evn anek prakar ke arth dand.

vijayanagar samrajy ke pramukh padadhikari
adhikari pramukh
nayak bade senanayak
mahanayakachary gram sabhaon ka nirikshak adhikari
dandanayak sainik vibhag pramukh tatha senapati
pradhani athava mahapradhani mntriparishad ka pramukh
rayasam sachiv
karnikam lekhadhikari
amaranayak sainy madad dene vala samnton ka varg
ayngar vnshanugat gramin adhikari
palaiyagar (paligar) zamidar
sthanik mndiron ki vyavastha karane vala
senntova gram ka lekhadhikari
talar gram ka rakhavala
gaud gram prashasak
antrimar gram prashasan ka ek adhikari
paroopatyagar raja ya garvanar ka pratinidhi

bhoo-rajasv vyavastha

vijayanagar samrajy dvara vasool kiye jane vale vividh karon ke nam the - 'kadamaee', 'magamai', 'kanikkee', 'kattanam', 'kanam', 'varam', 'bhogam', 'varipattam', 'iraee' aur 'kattayam'. ‘shisht’ namak bhoomikar vijayanagar rajy ki ay ka pramukh evn sabase bada srot tha. rajy upaj ka 1/6 bhag kar ke roop men vasool karata tha. krishnadev ray ke shasan kal men bhoomi ka ek vyapak sarvekshan karavaya gaya tatha bhoomi ki urvarata ke anusar upaj ka 1/3 ya 1/6 bhag kar ke roop men nirdharit kiya gaya. sambhavatah rajasv ki dar vibhinn pranton men alag-alag thi. ay ka ek any srot tha - sinchaee kar, jise tamil pradesh men ‘dasavanda’ evn andhr pradesh v karnatak men ‘kattakodej’ kaha gaya. yah kar un vyaktiyon se liya jata tha, jo sinchaee ke sadhanon ka upayog karate the. brahmanon ke adhikar vali bhoomi se upaj ka 20 van bhag tatha mndiron ki bhoomi se upaj ka 30van bhag lagan ke roop men vasoola jata tha. vijayanagar samrajy men koee aisa varg nahin tha, jisase vyavasayik kar nahin liya jata ho. ramaray ne keval naiyon ko vyavasayik kar se mukt kar diya. kendriy rajasv vibhag ko athanave (ayavan) kaha jata tha.

bhoomi ke prakar v kar

samajik evn samudayik kar ke roop men vivah kar liya jata tha. vidhava se vivah karane vale is kar se mukt hote the. krishnadev ray ne vivah kar ko samapt kar diya tha. rajy ka rajasv vastu evn nakad donon hi roopon men vasool kiya jata tha. vijayanagar kal men mndiron ki mahattvapoorn bhoomika hoti thi. ve sinchaee pariyojanaon ke sath-sath bainkig gatividhiyon ka snchalan bhi karate the. inake pas surakshit bhoomi ko devadan anudan kaha jata tha. ek shilalekh ke ullekh ke adhar par mana jata hai ki, is samay mndiron men lagabhag 370 naukar hote the. bhndaravad gram ve gram the, jinaki bhoomi sidhe rajy ke niyntran men thi. yahan ke kisan rajy ko kar dete the.

  1. unbali - gram men vishesh sevaon ke badale di jani vali kar mukt bhoomi ki bhoo-dharan paddhati ‘unbali’ thi.
  2. ratt (khatt) kodage - yuddh men shaury ka pradarshan karane vale ya anuchit roop se yuddh men mrit logon ke parivar ko di gee bhoomi.
  3. kuttagi - brahman, mndir evn bade bhoo-svami, jo svayn kheti nahin kar sakate the, ve kheti ke lie kisanon ko patte par bhoomi dete the. is tarah ki patte par li gayi bhoomi ‘kuttagi’ kahalati thi.
  4. kudi - ve krishak mazadoor hote the, jo bhoomi ke kray-vikray ke sath hi hastantarit ho jate the, parantu inhen ichchhapoorvak kary se vilag nahin kiya ja sakata tha.

vyapar

vijayanagar kal men malaya, barma, chin, arab, eeran, afrika, abisiniya evn purtagal se vyapar hota tha. mukhy niryatak vastuain thin - kapada, chaval, ganna, ispat, masale, itr, shora, chini adi. ayat ki jane vali vastuain thin - achchhi nasl ke ghode, hathi dant, moti bahumooly patthar, nariyal, paaum, namak adi. moti faras ki khadi se tatha bahumooly patthar pegoo se mngaye jate the. noonij ne hiron ke aise bandaragah ki charcha ki hai, jahan vishv bhar men sarvadhik hiron ki khanen payi jati thin. vyapar mukhyatah chettiyon ke hathon men kendrit tha. dastakar varg ke vyapariyon ko 'vir panchal' kaha jata tha.

vijayanagar kalin kritiyan
rachana rachanakar
iroosalay vilakkam haridas
dharmanath puran madhur
amukt-malyad krishnadev ray
svarochit sambhav peddan
manucharit tenaliram
pandurng mahatmy tenaliram
ramakrishn kathe visheshvar
rasavarn sudharak lakanna
shivatatv chintamani jakkanarth
noorodusthal hathy
buddharay charit vishveshvar
chamatkar-chandrika hathy
parijataharan visheshvar
jambavati kalyan krishnadev ray
pramuling lile chamaras
bhachintaratn mallanarth
satyendr cholakathe mallanarth
vir shaivamrit mallanarth

mudra vyavastha

vijayanagar men svarn ka sarvadhik prasiddh sikka 'varah' tha, jisaka vazan 52 gren tha, aur jise videshi yatriyon ne hoon, paradaus ya pagoda ke roop men ullikhit kiya hai. chandi ke chhote sikke ‘tar’ kahalate the. sone ke chhote sikke ko 'pratap' tatha 'phanam' kaha jata tha. vijayanagar samrajy ke snsthapak harihar pratham ke svarn sikkon (varah) par hanuman evn garud ki akritiyan ankit hai. tuluv vnsh ke sikkon par garud, uma, maheshvar, venkatesh aur krishn ki akritiyan evn sadashiv ray ke sikkon par lakshmi, narayan ki akriti ankit hai. aravidu vnsh ke shasak vaishnav dharmanuyayi the, atah unake sikkon par venkatesh, shnkh evn chakr ankit hain.

sainy vyavastha

vijayanagar ki sena men paidal, ashvarohi, hathi tatha oont shamil the. sainy vibhag ko ‘kandachar’ kaha jata tha. is vibhag ka uchch adhikari ‘dandanayak’ ya ‘senapati’ hota tha.

nyay vyavastha

rajy ka pradhan nyayadhish raja hota tha. bhaynkar aparadh ke lie sharir ke ang vichchhedan ka dnd diya jata tha. pranton men prantapati tatha ganvon men 'ayngar' nyay karata tha. nyay vyavastha hindoo dharm par adharit thi. pulis vibhag ka kharch veshyaon par lagaye gaye kar se chalata tha.

samajik dasha

vijayanagar samrajy men samaj char vargon men vibhajit tha, jo is prakar the -

  1. viprul
  2. rajalu
  3. motikiratalu aur
  4. nalavajative

inaka snbndh kramashah brahman, kshatriy, vaishy tatha shoodr se tha. samaj men brahmanon ko charon varnon men sarvochch sthan prapt tha. kshatriyon ke bare men vijayanagar kalin samaj men koee janakari nahin milati. brahmanon ko aparadh ke lie koee saza nahin milata thi. madhyavargiy logon men shettiyon evn chettiyon ka mahattvapoorn sthan tha. adhikansh vyapar inhin ke dvara kiya jata tha. vyapar ke atirikt ye log lipik evn lekhakaryon men bhi nipun the. chettiyon ki tarah vyapar men nipun dastakar varg ke logon ko ‘vir panchal’ kaha jata tha. uttar bharat se dakshin bharat men akar base logon ko ‘badava’ kaha gaya. nimn v chhote samooh ke antargat lohar, badhee, moortikar, svarnakar v any dhatukarmi tatha julahe ate the. julahe mndir kshetr men rahate the aur sath hi mndir prashasan v sthaniy gharon ke aropan men unaka sahayog hota tha.

das pratha

is dauran das pratha ka bhi prachalan tha. mahila evn purush donon varg ke log das hua karate the. manushyon ke kharide evn beche jane vale ko ‘bes-vag’ kaha jata tha. liye gaye rin ko n de pane evn divaliya hone ki sthiti men rin lene valon ko das banana padata tha.

striyon ki sthiti

vijayanagar kalin samaj men striyon ki sammanajanak sthiti thi. snpoorn bharatiy itihas men vijayanagar hi aisa ekamatr samrajy tha, jisane vishal snkhya men striyon ko rajakiy padon par niyukt kiya tha. kintu samaj men bal vivah, devadasi evn sati pratha jaisi kuprathaen bhi vidyaman thi. raja ki angarakshikaon ke roop men striyon ki niyukti hoti thi. mndiron men devapooja ke lie rahane vali striyon ko devadasi kaha jata tha, jo ajivan kunvari rahati thin. ganikaon ka samaj men mahattvapoorn sthan tha. ye do tarah ki hoti thin-

  1. mndiron se sambandhit aur
  2. svatantr dhng se jivan-yapan karane vali.

ye paryapt shikshit tatha visheshadhikari sampann hoti thin. raja evn samant log bina kisi apatti ke inase sambandh banate the.

sati pratha ka prachalan

vijayanagar kalin samaj men sati pratha ka prachalan nayakon evn rajaparivar tak hi simit tha. edavard barbosa bhi vijayanagar men prachalit sati pratha ka ullekh karata hai. rajy ne vyavaharik drishti se sati pratha ko pashray nahin diya. yuddh men shaury ka pradarshan karane ke karan un vyaktiyon ko samman ke roop men pair men ‘gndapedr’ ka kada pahanaya jata tha. bad men yah samman asainik samman ke roop men mntriyon, viddhanon sainikon evn any sammaniy vyaktiyon ko diya jane laga. vijayanagar naresh shiksha ko pratyaksh protsahan nahin dete the. mndir, math evn agrahar mukhy shiksha ke kendr the. agraharon men mukhy roop se vedon ki shiksha di jati thi. tuluv vnsh ne shiksha ko paryapt protsahan diya.

manornjan ke kshetr men natak evn sngitamay abhinay (yakshagan) ka prachalan tha. bomaghat (chhaya-natak) natak kafi saraha jata tha. shatarnj, jua v pase ke khel ke prachalan men hone ka ullekh milata hai. krishnadev ray svayn shatarnj ke khiladi the.

dharmik evn sanskritik sthiti

vijayanagar kalin shasakon ne hindoo dharm tatha snskriti ko protsahit kiya. yah dakshin bharat ka ek matr hindoo rajy tha, jisane hindoo dharm ki snskriti ko akshunn banaye rakha. vijayanagar ke shasakon ne sthapatyakala, natyakala, pratimakala evn bhasha aur sahity ke kshetr men bhi vishesh ruchi dikhaee.

bhasha aur sahity

vijayanagar samrajy men dakshin bharatiy bhashaon telugoo, kannad, tamil ke atirikt snskrit bhasha ka bhi vikas hua. vedon ke prasiddh bhashyakar sayan tatha madhav vidyarany vijayanagar ke the.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. kramashah brahm aur malay men
  2. nirdosh ki
  3. aparadhi ko
  4. prant
  5. zila
  6. tahasil ya up-zila
  7. prashasak
  8. kshetr
  9. paligar

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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