शूद्र  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

shoodr
charmakar ka abhikalpit chitr
vivaran shoodr bharatiy samaj vyavastha men chaturth varn ya jati hai.
utpatti shoodr shabd moolat: videshi hai aur snbhavat: ek parajit anary jati ka mool nam tha.
pauranik sndarbh vayu puran ka kathan hai ki shok karake dravit hone vale paricharyarat vyakti shoodr hain. bhavishyapuran men shruti ki druti (avashishtansh) prapt karane vale shoodr kahalae.[1]
vaidik parnpara atharvaved men kalyani vak (ved) ka shravan shoodron ko vihit tha.[2] parnpara hai ki aitarey brahman ka rachayita mahidas itara (shoodr) ka putr tha. kintu bad men vedadhyayan ka adhikar shoodron se le liya gaya.
aitihasik sndarbh shoodr janajati ka ullekh dayodoras, taaulmi aur hven tsang bhi karate hain.
arthik sthiti uttar vaidik kal men shoodr ki sthiti das ki thi athava nahin[3] is vishay men nishchit nahin kaha ja sakata. vah karmakar aur paricharya karane vala varg tha.
madhy kal kabir, raidas, pipa is kal ke prasiddh shoodr snt hain. asam ke shnkaradev dvara pravartit mat, pnjab ka sikkh snpraday aur maharashtr ke barakari snpraday ne shoodr mahattv dharmik kshetr men pratishthit kiya.
adhunik kal vebar, bhimarav ambedakar, zimar aur ramasharan sharma kramash: shoodron ko moolat: bharatavarsh men prathamagat aryaskndh, kshatriy, brahuee bhashi aur abhir snbaddh manate hain.
snbndhit lekh varn vyavastha, brahman, vaishy, kshatriy, charmakar, mina, kumhar, das, bhil, bnjara
any janakari pad se utpann hone ke karan padaparicharya shoodron ka vishisht vyavasay hai. dvijon ke sath asan, shayan vak aur path men samata ki ichchha rakhane vala shoodr dndy hai.[4]

shoodr bharatiy samaj vyavastha men chaturth varn ya jati hai. vayu puran[5], vedantasootr[6] aur chhandogy evn vedantasootr ke shankarabhashy men shuch aur dru dhatuon se shoodr shabd vyutpann kiya gaya. vayu puran ka kathan hai ki shok karake dravit hone vale paricharyarat vyakti shoodr hain. bhavishyapuran men shruti ki druti (avashishtansh) prapt karane vale shoodr kahalae.[7] dirghanikay men khuddachar (kshudrachar) men sudd shabd snbaddh kiya gaya.[8] homar ke dvara ullikhit 'koodron' se shoodr shabd jodane ka bhi prayatn hua.[9]

utpatti

shoodr shabd moolat: videshi hai aur snbhavat: ek parajit anary jati ka mool nam tha. shastron ke anusar pratyek vyakti shoodr paida hota hai aur prayatn aur vikas se any varn avasthaon men pahunchata hai. vastav men pratyek men charon varn sthapit hain.

parnparik snbhavanaen

rigved ke purushasookt[10] se purush ke padon se shoodr ki utpatti ka ullekh hai. purushotpatti ka yah siddhant brahman grnth[11], vajasaneyi snhita[12], mahabharat[13], puran[14] men shoodradev poosha se shoodr ki utpatti batalaee gee hai. vishnu aur vayu puran ke anusar ygynishpatti ke lie chaturvarnon ka sarjan hua. shantiparv aur gita men gunakarm ke adhar par chaturvarny pratishthit hai. hinsa, anrit, lobh aur ashuchita ke karan tamasi dvij krishn hokar shoodr varn men parinat hue.[15] bauddh parnpara men bndhapadapachy se ivy (sevak) aur kinh (krishn) nikale.[16] jain parnpara men tirthnkar rishabhadev aur unake shishy bharat ne charon varnon ka nirman kiya.[17]

aitihasik paryalochan

pashchaty vidvanon ke anusar prarnbh men do hi varn the, ary aur das.[18] atharvaved men ary das ka yugm aryashoodr men parinat ho gaya.[19] at: shoodr das dasyu ke uttaradhikari hain. kintu yah mat nirbhrant nahin. uparyukt sthalon par[20] shabd ary nahin kintu ary (vaishy) hai. vebar, bhimarav ambedakar, zimar aur ramasharan sharma kramash: shoodron ko moolat: bharatavarsh men prathamagat aryaskndh, kshatriy, brahuee bhashi aur abhir snbaddh manate hain. shoodr janajati ka ullekh dayodoras, taaulmi, aur hvenasang bhi karata hai. shoodr varn men snbhavat: ary aur anary karmakaron ke yugal tatv the.

panini ka ullekh

panini ne do prakar ke shoodron ka ullekh kiya hai- ek aniravasit, jo hindoo samaj ke ang the, aur doosare niravasit (shoodranamaniravasitanamh).[21] is sootr par patnjali ka vishad bhashy shoodron ki shungakalin sthiti ka parichayak hai. 'aniravasit shoodr ve hain, jo aryavart ki bhaugolik sima ke bhitar rahate hain. isake viparit patnjali ne aryavart ki sima ke bahar ke shoodron men kuchh videshiyon ka ullekh kiya hai, jaise shak aur yavan. patnjali ke samay ki aitihasik sthiti men shak log eeran aur afaganistan ki sima par shakasthan men jame the aur yavan arthat yoonani log balhik aur gndhar men pratishthit the. isi sootr par patnjali ka doosara udaharan 'kishkindhagabdikn' hai. panini ke sindhvadi-gan [22] men kishkindha aur gabdika donon ka path hai. kishkindha gorakhapur zile ka khukhundo aur gabdika chnba ka gaddi pradesh tha. ye donon us samay aryavart ki sima se bahar mane jate the.


maury samrajy ki kamar tootane par videshiyon ke dhakke se aryavart ki simaen yahan tak sikud gee ki ghar ke duare par sthit kishkindha gabdika bhi bahar gine jane lage. pntajali ke anusar mritap, chandal adi nimn shoodr jatiyan pray: gram, ghosh, nagar adi ary bastiyon men ghar banakar rahati thin. par jahan ganv aur shahar bahut bade the, vahan unake bhitar bhi ve apane muhallon men rahane lage the. ye samaj men sabase nichi koti ke shoodr the. inase oopar badhee, lohar, bunakar, dhobi, taksha, ayaskar, tntuvay, rajak adi jatiyon ki ganana bhi shoodron men thi. ve ygy se sambndhi kuchh karyon men sammilit ho sakate the, par unake sath khane ke bartanon ki chhuachhoot barati jati thi. inamen bhi oonchi koti ke shoodr ve the, jo aryon ke ghar ka nyauta hone par unhin bartanon men kha-pi sakate the, jinamen ki ghar ke log khate-pite the. vastut: ary aur shoodr ki samasya ary evn munda nishad-shabar adi jatiyon ko ek samajik tntr ke anrtagat lane ki samasya thi. doosari or shak-yavan sadrish videshi shoodron ko bhi bharatiy samaj men sthan dene ki samasya thi.[23] malavaputr hi vartaman 'malotre' ho sakate hain.[24]

dharmik sthiti

vividh yugon aur parnparaon men shoodron ki sthiti vibhinn thi.

vaidik parnpara

ygy adhan ke adhikari n hote hue liyagyik samaroh men sammilit ho sakate the. purushamedh ke prasng men[25] ve traivarnikon ke sath varnit hain. rajasooy men danaprapti[26] aur somapan[27] karate the. havishkrit men adhan se ahoot hote the aur mahavrat men unaka apana kary tha.

atharvaved

atharvaved[28] men kalyani vak (ved) ka shravan shoodron ko vihit tha. brihaddevata[29] aur pnchavinsh brahman[30] se dasiputr kakshivat, pnchavinsh[31] se shoodrotpann vats, chhandogy se satyakam jabal tatha shoodraraja raikv ke ved vidya ka adhyayan gyat hota hai. dasiputr kavash ailoosh rigved[32] ke rishi ke roop men vikhyat hai. parnpara hai ki aitarey brahman ka rachayita mahidas itara (shoodr) ka putr tha. kintu bad men vedadhyayan ka adhikar shoodron se le liya gaya. gautam dharmasootr[33] men vaidik shravan, udaharan aur dharan karane par shoodr ko dndarh mana gaya.

bauddh

ashvaghosh ki vajrasoochi[34] ka kathan hai ki "drishyat ch shoodra api kvachidh vedavyakaran - sarvashastravid:." shardoolakarnavadan men chandal trishunk sangopang ved, upanishad ka gyata hai. uddalak jatak men shoodr bhi shruti ka adhyayan aur nirvan prapt kar sakate hain :-

khattiya brahmana vessa sudda chandal pukkasa. savve va sorata danta savve va parinivvuta..

jain

'utradhyayan sootr'[35] ka chandal harikeshi, uvasagadasao[36] ka saddal kunhar, aur 'antagadadasao' ka malakar arjun nimnavarn hokar bhi adhyatmik uchchata prapt kar sake. anavady achar aur upaskar ki shuchita hone par shoodr bhi devapoojan devakary ke yogy mana jata tha.[37] kintu shoodr shravak ho sakata hai muni nahin.[38] isi prakar shoodr poojakachary nahin ho sakata.[39]

agam (shaiv)

agam (shaiv) snpradayon men kuchh, yatha shaiv siddhant snpraday tatha pashupat, varnabhed ko svikar karate hain. pashupatasootr men 'shoodren nabhibhashechch' ka vidhan hai kintu pnchatntr men pashupat tapasvi ke varnan men kaha hai ki shoodr athava chandal bhi dikshit hone par bhasmang - shivasvaroop ho jata hai. kaul[40] to yah manate hain ki 'bhairavichakr men pravisht hone par shoodr bhi dvijati ho jata hai.' svachchhndatntr diksha ke pashchath shoodr ko upavit dharan karane ki vyavastha karata hai.[41]

vaishnavi diksha

(vaishnav) vaishnavi diksha sare varnon ko vihit hai. kintu dikshoparant bhi varnabhed ki sthiti rahati hai. yatha namasnskar men charon varnon ka namant kramash: sharma, varma, gupt aur das[42] hona chahie, pnjagavy kramash: brahman, kshatriy, vaishy aur shoodr[43] ko dena chahie. shoodr ka upavit gunamntr[44] se yukt hota hai, kavachamntr[45] se nahin. shoodron ke lie aniruddh vishesh roop se poojy hai. pancharatr men kuchh shoodr bhakt hue jo snpraday men vishesh pratishthit ho sake. anbal devadasi ka nam vishesh vikhyat hai.

naee

puran

anek amntrak snskar shoodron ko vihit hain. sadharan vriddhi shraddh, pnchamahaygy, vrishotsarg tatha snpoorn poort karm evn puran, mahabharat shravan shoodr kar sakate hain. arsh kram se shoodr kashyapagotriy aur bajasaney shakha ke hain. puranon ki smart vaishnav aur smart shaiv parnpara ke shoodron ko bhi kramash: gopichndan, tulasi aur oodhvnpundr[46] tatha bhasmayukt pundr ev rudraksh mala ka vidhan hai.[47]

mahabharat

shantiparv[48] pakaygy aur poorn patr dakshina ka vidhan shoodron ke lie karata hai. shoodr paijavan ne aindragn ygy kiya tha.

shoodro paijavano nam sahasranan shatn dadau.
aidragnen vidhanen dakshinabhiti n:shrutamh‌..[49]

madhyayug

smart parnpara ke tulasidas shoodr ko 'tadaniy' aur 'vipr avamani shoodr' ko shochaniy manate hue bhakt shoodr ko 'bhuvan bhooshan' bhi manate hain. unhen shoodron ke dvara upavit dharan kar vyasapith par asin ho dvijon ko upadesh dena alochaniy lagata hai.[50] vallabhachary ke pramukh shishy krishnadas shoodr hote hue bhi snpraday men vishesh sammanit the. chhitasvami ke vitthal ke vishay men kaha ki "avaken strisoodradik sabakan brahm snbndh karave." nirguniyan aur snt snpraday men jatibhed many nahin tha. kabir, raidas, sena, pipa is kal ke prasiddh shoodr snt hain. asam ke shnkaradev dvara pravartit mat, pnjab ka sikkh snpraday aur maharashtr ke barakari snpraday ne shoodr mahattv dharmik kshetr men pratishthit kiya. dasanami naga sadhuon ke joona, avahan, nirnjini, annd, mahanirvani, atal, jagan, avaliya, sookhad aur goodad-akhadon men shoodrapravesh ho sakata tha.

samajik sthiti

vats kavash ailoosh, kakshivan or satyakam jabal ki kathaon se gyat hota hai ki shoodr aur dvijon men uttar vaidik kal men vaivahik snbndh ho jaya karata tha yadyapi yah samanyat: achchha nahin mana gaya hoga. vaishy aur shoodron men vivah samany roop se prachalit tha.[51]

bauddh

bhaddasalajatak aur vasavakhattiya ke putravidudabh ki kathaon se gyat hota hai ki bauddh samaj men annapan aur vivah ke snbndh men jatigat vaishamy tha kintu bauddh sngh men yah vibhed svikar nahin tha. suttanipat ke amagndhasootr men buddh ka spasht kathan hai ki kisi ke dvara bhi banae ge bhojan se ashauch nahin hota. mahaparinibban ke thik pahale buddh ne kumbhar putr chunda ke yahan suvakamadav grahan kiya tha. shravasti ke malakar jetthak ki dhita hi mallika thi jo udayan ke sath vivahit huee. kashthahari ki putri[52] aur phalavikreta ki kanya[53] aggamahishi ban sakati thi. lalitavistar aur vajrasootri men pratinidhi bauddh mat ullikhit hai ki shoodra se vivah patak ka karan nahin.

jain

'shoodr bhojan shushrusha narakay bhavedidamh‌'[54] pratinidhi jain mat hai. kintu sadhuon ko oonch nich ke bhed karane ka nishedh tha.[55] isi prakar 'shoodra shoodren' vodhavy nanya[56] vivah ka prachalit vichar tha, kintu shoodraon ka uchch varn men snbhavat: vivah hota tha. malakar ki putri bani huee padmavati se raja dntivahan ka vivah karaknd maharaj kathanak vrihatkatha kosh[57] men varnit hai.

dharmasootr smriti

pad se utpann hone ke karan padaparicharya shoodron ka vishisht vyavasay hai. dvijon ke sath asan, shayan vak aur path men samata ki ichchha rakhane vala shoodr dndy hai.[58] dvijon ke prati akrosh karane par shoodr ko sharirik dnd diya ja sakata hai. kam umr ka ary vriddh shoodr se bhi pranam ka adhikari hai. shoodr ke sath brahman ka vivah nishiddh aur any dvijon ka aprashast hai.[59] manu ke anusar shoodron ko asur vivah paddhati vishesh roop se vihit hai.[60]

rajanitik sthiti

taittariy snhita men rajyabhishek ke avasar par brahman, kshatriy, vaishy aur jany (shoodr) kramash: parn, audunbar, ashvatth aur nigrodh ke ghat se raja ka abhishek karate hain. yudhishthir ke rajyabhishek men[61] 'manyashoodr' amntrit the. virat ki 'mntrisabha' 'vipr rajany vishasashoodraka' thi.[62] bhishm ka anushasan hai ki raja ki mntrisabha men char pragalbh satvik brahman, das athava ath shastrapani kshatriy, 21 snpann vaishy aur 3 vinit shoodr hon.[63] pashchimottar men abhir aur nishadon ke prativesh men shoodron ka snbhavat: ek ganarajy bhi tha.[64] manu[65] dayodoras, taaulmi, hvenasang[66] shoodr rajy ka ullekh karate hain.[67] ke anusar 'saurashtr avnti-shoodr-arbud-marubhoomi' par vraty dvij, abhir aur shoodr shasan karenge. mrichchhakatik ka ant hi shoodraraj ke abhishek se hota hai. mudraon tatha abhilekhon se anek shoodr rajaon tatha rajyadhikaron ka pata milata hai.

arthik sthiti

uttar vaidik kal men shoodr ki sthiti das athava sarph ki thi (vaidik indeks) athava nahin,[68] is vishay men nishchit nahin kaha ja sakata. vah karmakar aur paricharya karane vala varg tha. sarvamegh, ashvamedh aur ekah ke avasar par 'bhoomishoodravarjy' dan ke niyam se yah anumit kiya ja sakata hai ki shoodr ke oopar svamittv nahin mana jata tha.

bauddh vanh‌may

bauddh vanh‌may men vadthaki, knbhar (lohar), chammakar, chittakar[69] adi ki shreniyon ka ullekh hai. inake 'jetthak' aur 'pamus' raha karate the.

jain vanh‌may

bauddh sahity ki 'hin jati' aur 'hin sipp' saman hi jain vanh‌may men 'ary sipp' aur 'anary sipp' ka bhed hai. aryashilp men darji, tntuvay, chhatrakar ityadi tatha anary shilpiyon men chamar, naee ki ginati thi.

vyavaharagat

dharmasootr, arthashastr aur smritiyon se shoodr snbndhi vyavahar gyat hota hai. samajik vaishamy ke karan samanyat: chaturvarnaparak dndasamata prachalit nahin thi. vakparushy aur strisngrahan men saman aparadhon ke lie brahman, kshatriy, shoodr ke lie vibhinn dndon ka vidhan tha.[70]


inhen bhi dekhen: hindoo dharm, varn vyavastha, jati, jat, kayasth, vaishy, brahman evn kshatriy


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  • vidhushekhar bhattachary : 'di stets aauvh‌ shoodraz in enshient indiya', vishvabharati traimasik 1924 tatha shoodr, indiyan entikveri 1951
  • ramasharan sharma : 'stadiz in enshient indiya, dilli 1958
  • bi.ar. anbedakar : 'hoo var di shoodraj', bnbee, 1946
  • alphrade hillebrant : 'brahman shoodraz', bresalau 1896

pathak, vishuddhannd “khand 11”, hindi vishvakosh, 1969 (hindi), bharatadiskavari pustakalay: nagari pracharini sabha varanasi, 291-293.

  1. vedantasootr- 1, 44, 33
  2. atharvaved 19, 32, 8
  3. ramasharan sharma pri. 163-164
  4. gautam dharmasootr 12, 5
  5. vayupuran 1, 8, 158
  6. vedantasootr 1, 3, 34
  7. vedantasootr- 1, 44, 33
  8. vedantasootr- 3, 95
  9. vakaranagel, drashtavy ramasharan sharma, pri. 35
  10. rigved 10, 92, 2
  11. pnchavinsh brahman 5, 1, 6-10
  12. vajasaneyi snhita 31, 11
  13. mahabharat 12, 73, 4-8
  14. vayu puran1, 8, 155-59, vishnu puran1, 6, dharmasootr- vasishth dharm sootr 4, 2, smritiyon men (manu,, 1, 31) shuddh athava samishr roop se prapt hota hai. brahman grnthon (shatapath brahman 14, 4, 2, 23, brihadaranyak 1, 4, 11
  15. vayupuran 9, 194-195, vishnu 1, 6, 5-6 bhi
  16. dighani. 1,90 aur 100
  17. acharam sootrachoorni 4, 5, 6 adipuran, 16, 148
  18. hatvadasyoonh‌ pr ary varn mavath‌
  19. priyn sarvasy pashyat ut shoodraryay
  20. arthath‌ 19, 32, 8 vajasaneyi snhita men
  21. 2.4.10
  22. 4.3.93
  23. mahabharat vanaparv, 297.60
  24. paninikalin bharat |lekhak: vasudevasharan agraval |prakashak: chaukhamba vidyabhavan, varanasi-1 |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 92-93 |
  25. vajas. sn. 30, 5
  26. kathak sn. 30, 7, 1
  27. aitarey brahman 7, 294
  28. atharvaved 19, 32, 8
  29. brihaddevata 4, 25-26
  30. pnchavinsh brahman 14, 11, 17
  31. pnchavinsh 14, 6, 6
  32. rigved 10, 30, 34
  33. gautamadharmasootr 12, 4
  34. ashvaghosh ki vajrasoochi prishth 5
  35. utradhyayan sootr 12, 1, 2
  36. uvasagadasao pri. 204
  37. nitikavyamrit 8, 12
  38. pravachanasar 3, yashastilak 8, 43
  39. dharmasngrah shravakachary 9, 145-146
  40. kularnav tntr, 8, 96
  41. kularnav tntr- 4, 67, 75
  42. paramasnhita, 17, 13-14
  43. jayakhy 15, 187-88
  44. paramasnhita 17, 4
  45. satvat 19, 53-54
  46. sknd, vaishnav, margashirsh mahatmy 2, 21-29
  47. devi bhagavat 12, 7, 10
  48. shantiparv 60, 38
  49. shantiparv 60, 38
  50. nas, uttarakand
  51. taittariy sn. 7, 4, 19, 3
  52. kattahar jatak
  53. jatak 3, 14
  54. brihatkatha kosh 30, 13
  55. uvasagadasao pri. 181-84
  56. adipuran 26, 247
  57. vrihatkatha kosh 145-147
  58. gautam dharmasootr 12, 5
  59. manu. 3, 16, 19
  60. manu. 3, 24
  61. mahabharat 14, 90, 24-35
  62. virat 9, 25
  63. shantiparv, mahabharat, 86, 7-9
  64. sabha. 29, 8-9
  65. manu 4, 61
  66. vatars, 2 pri. 252
  67. vishnupuran 4, 25, 18
  68. ramasharan sharma pri. 163-164
  69. jatak 6, pri. 22 aur 427
  70. gautam, dharmasootr 12, 1

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah