टोडा जनजाति  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

toda janajati ki mahilaen, nilagiri pahadiyan

toda janajati dakshin bharat men nilagiri pahadiyon ki ek pashupalak janajati hai. 1960 ke dashak men inaki snkhya lagabhag 800 thi. jo ab behatar svasthy suvidhaon ke karan tezi se badh rahi hai. toda bhasha dravid parivar ki bhasha hai, kintu usamen bad men sabase zyada vikritiyan aee.

avas

toda tin se lekar sat chhoti-chhoti jhopadiyon vali aisi bastiyon men rahate hain, jo charagah dhalanon par door-door bikhari hoti hain. inaki jhopadiyan lakadi ke dhanchon par khadi hoti hai tatha chhaten arddhabelanakar v kamanidar hoti hain.

parnpara

toda log apana parnparagat doodh ka dhndha aur baroo v bans ki vastuon ka vinimay kar nilagiri ke any logon, jaise badaga se anaj, kapada tatha kota se auzar v mitti ke bartan lete hain. toda shavayatra men baja bajane ka kam karunba namak vanavasi karate hain tatha yahi unhen any vanopajon ki apoorti bhi karate hain.

pashupalak

mullimunth toda mandir, nilagiri pahadiyan

toda janajati ka dharm unake lie sabase zyada mahattvapoorn bhaison ke ird-gird kendrit hai. doodh nikalane se lekar pashuon ko namak, chara khilane aur dahi mathane, makkhan nikalane tatha mausam ke anusar charagahon ke badalane tak, sari kriyaon ke sath koee n koee dharmik anushthan juda rahata hai. isake alava, gopalakon ke purohiton ke adesh tatha gaushalaon ke purnanirman, antyeshti sthalon ki chhaton ki marammat adi ke lie bhi anushthan hote hai. ye anushthan tatha vistrit antyeshti kriyaen samajik snpark ke aise avasar hote hain, jab samuday ke lie upayogi bhainson ke prati snket karate hue jatil kavyatmak git rache aur gae jate hain.

vivah

bahupati vivah samany hai; anek purushon, samanyat: bhaiyon ki ek hi patni ho sakati hai. jab bhi koee toda stri garbhavati hoti hai, usake patiyon men se koee ek use anushthanik roop se tir aur kaman ka khilauna bhent karata hai aur usake bachche ka samajik pita hone ki ghoshana karata hai.

khatare

toda charagahon ki bahut si zamin hal hi men any logon dvara kheti ke lie le li gee hai aur usamen se bade hisse par vriksharopan bhi kiya ja chuka hai. isase bhainson ki snkhya kam ho rahi hai, jisase toda snskriti ko khatara utpann ho gaya hai. 20 vin sadi men ek prithakh toda samuday ne (1960 men 187 logon ne) eesaee dharm apana liya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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