भारत की आदिम जातियाँ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

prachin kal se hi bharat men akramanakariyon ke roop men videshiyon ka avagaman hota raha hai. isake parinamasvaroop yahan prajatiy mishran itana adhik hua ki yah kahana bahut kathin hai ki yahan ke mool nivasi kis prajati ke the. bharat ka prajatiy itihas pramanon ke abhav men adhik spasht nahin hai. jo kuchh bhi janakari milati hai, usamen bhi vishvasaniyata aur pramanikata ka abhav paya jata hai.

pragaitihasik jatiyan

bharat ki pragaitihasik yug ki prajatiyon ki janakari hamen prachin sindhu aur narmada ghatiyon ki sabhyataon se milati hai. majoomadar evn guha namak vidvanon ka mat hai ki bhoo-madhy sagariy prajati ke logon ne hi[1], hadappa v mohanajodadon ki sabhyata ka nirman kiya tha, jo sambhavat: samudri marg se bharat men aye honge. dravidon ko uttar se ane vali ary prajati ne haraya aur unhonne yahan apana samrajy sthapit kiya. aryon ne dravidon ko dakshin men khaded diya. yahi karan hai ki uttari bharat men ary prajati aur dravid prajati ki pradhanata hai.

vibhajan

prarambhik kal men bharat men kitane prakar ki jatiyan nivas karati thin, unamen apasi sambangh kis star ke the, adi prashn atyant hi vivadit hain. phir bhi navinatam sarvadhik manyataon men 'daau. bi.es. guha' ka mat hai. bharatavarsh ki prarambhik jatiyon ko chhah bhagon men vibhakt kiya ja sakata hai-

  1. nigrito
  2. proto aaustreliyad
  3. mngolaauyad
  4. bhoomadhyasagariy dravid
  5. pashchimi breki sephal
  6. naaurdik

bharatiy janasnkhya men un kee manav prajatiyon ka sammishran paya jata hai, jo pragaitihasik kal ke poorv se aitihasik kal tak yadakada bharat men pravesh karati rahi hain. eshiya bhookhand ke sudoor dakshin men hind mahasagar par sthit uttar, uttar poorv aur uttar-pashchim men parvatamalaon dvara aveshthit aur dakshin men samudron dvara vilag bharat bhaugolik drishti se ek aisa surakshit pradesh hai, jisamen yadi koee pravesh karana chahe to vah keval parvatiy darron ke dvara athava tatiy bhagon se hi pravesh kar sakata hai. uparyukt bhoo-avasthaon ke phalasvaroop bharat men kafi samay poorv se akar rahane vali prajatiyan nasht n hokar dakshin aur dakshin-poorv ki or hatati geen aur jngalon ne bade pariman men adivasiyon ko apane ank men sthan dekar unhen sarvanash se bachae rakha hai. bharat ki janasnkhya men manav ki samast pramukh prajatiyon ke ve sabhi tattv maujood hain, jo sadharanataya is sima tak any deshon se nahin milate.

rijale ka vargikaran

tattvashastr ke drishtikon se bharatiy prajatiyon ka sarvaprartham vargikaran sar harabart rijale ne san 1901 ki bharatiy janaganana men kiya tha. rijale ke anusar, bharatiy janasnkhya men nimn sat vibhinn manav prajatiyan sammilit hain-

(1) dravidiyan

aitihasik yug ke poorv bharat men dravid namak prajati rahati thi, jinhen bharat ka adivasi kaha ja sakata hai. pichhe se ane vali ary, sithiyan tatha mngol prajatiyon ke sampark se inaki nasl men bada antar a gaya hai. ye bharat ke dakshin men tamilanadu, andhr pradesh, chhota nagapur ka pathar aur madhy pradesh ke dakshini bhagon men rahate hain. malabad ke paniyan, udisa ke juang, poorvi ghat ke kond, chhattisagadh ke gond, nilagiri ke toda, rajasthan aur gujarat ke bhil aur garasiya evn chhota nagapur ke santhal isi prajati ke pratinidh hain. isaka kad chhota aur rng pray: poornat: kala hota hai. inaki ankhen kali, sir lamba tatha ghane balon vala (jo kabhi-kabhi ghungharale bhi hote hain), nak bahut chaudi (jo kabhi-kabhi jadon men dabi huee hoti hai) aur khopadi badi hoti hai. yah prajati bharat ki janasnkhya ka keval 20% hai.

(2) bharatiy ary

aisa anuman kiya jata hai ki eesa se 2000 varsh poorv ary log madhy eshiya se bharat aye aur inhonne yahan basane vali dravid jati ko dakshin ki or khaded diya. is samay sadharanat: yah prajati pnjab, rajasthan, uttar pradesh aur kashmir men paee jati hai. is prajati ke vartaman sadasy rajapoot, khatri aur jat hain. hinduon ke tin uchch varg (brahman, kshatriy aur vaishy) ary prajati ke hi vnshaj hain. isaka kad lamba, rng gora, sir ooncha, ankhen ghani aur gahari, bhujaen lambi kndhe chaude, kamar aur tangen patali, nak oonchi, nukili aur lambi hoti hai. isake chehare par bharapoor bal hote hain.

(3) mngolaauyad

yah prajati himachal pradesh, nepal aur asam men phaili huee hai. lahul aur kulloo ke kanet, sikkim aur darjiling ke lepcha, nepal ke limb, marmi aur guroong, asam ke bodoo log is prajati ke mukhy pratinidhi hain. inaka kad chhota, sir chauda, nak chaudi, chehara chapata, bhaunhen tedi, rng pila aur sharir par bal kam hote hain.

(4) ary dravidiyan

yah prajati ary aur dravid logon ke sammishran se bani hai. yah uttar pradesh, bihar, jharakhand aur rajasthan ke kuchh bhagon men phaili huee hai. uchch kulon men hindustani brahman aur nimn kulon men harijan isaka pratinidhitv karate hain. in logon ka sir pray: lamba ya madhyam akar ka hota hai. kad vishuddh aryon se kuchh chhota, nak madhyam se chaudi aur rng halka bhoora, gehuna hota hai.

(5) mngol-dravidiyan

yah prajati pashchim bngal aur udisa men paee jati hai. bngali brahman aur bngali kayasth isake mukhy pratinidhi hain. yah prajati dravid aur mngol tattvon se bani hai. uchch vargon men bharatiy ary logon ke rakt ka ansh bhi dekha jata hai. in logon ka kad madhyam aur kabhi-kabhi chhota hota hai. inaka sir chauda aur gol, rng kala, bal ghane aur nak chaudi hoti hai.

(6) sitho-dravidiyan

yah prajati sithiyan aur dravid logon ke sammishran se bani hai. ye log keral, saurashtr, gujarat, kachchh aur madhy pradesh ke pahadi bhagon men phaile hue hain. samaj ke uchch vargon men sithiyan tattv aur nimn vargon men dravid tattv pramukh hain. ye log kad men chhote aur kale rng ke hote hain. inaka sir apekshataya lamba aur nak madhyam hoti hai. inake sir par bal kam hote hain.

(7) turk-eerani

vartaman samay men yah prajati afaganistan aur baloochistan men paee jati hai.

rijale ka vargikaran ab anek karanon se amany ho gaya hai. yah prajatiyon ke sharirik lakshanon par adharit n hokar bhashaon par adharit hai. yah apoorn hai tatha rijale ne bharatiy janasnkhya men nigrito tattv ka koee zikr nahin kiya hai. kintu bharat men dravidon se poorv ki prajatiyon men nigrito tattv ki upasthiti ko mana nahin kiya ja sakata hai.

gyoophrida ka vargikaran

rijale ke pashchath nritatv vigyan ke kee visheshgyon ne bharatiy prajatiyon ka vargikaran karane ki cheshta ki hai, kintu 1931 ki janaganana tak koee bhi uchit aur vaigyanik vargikaran prastut nahin kiya ja saka. gyoophrida ke anusar bharat ki prajatiyon ka vargikaran nimn prakar se hai-

(1) nigrito - nigrito ke antargat dakshini bharatiy vanon men rahane vali kuchh janajatiyan aur andaman dvipasamooh ki ong janajati.
(2) poorv dravid ya astrelaauyad -isake mukhy udaharan vedda, snthal, oran, munda aur has janajatiyan hain. inake sharirik lakshan bhi nigrito ki bhanti hi hote hain.
(3) dravid - dravid prajati dakshini bharat men paee jati hai. isake antargat telugu aur tamil bhasha-bhashi log sammilit kiye ge hain.
(4) oonche kad ki lambe sir vali prajatiyan - jaise nilagiri ke toda aur keral ke kadar.

haidan ka vargikaran

haidan ke anusar bharat mukhyat: tin bhaugolik pradeshon men bnta hai-

  1. himalay pradesh
  2. uttari maidan
  3. dakshin ka pathar

in pradeshon men nimn prajatiyon ke tattv pae jate hain-
(a) himalay pradesh

(1) bharatiy ary - jaise kanet jo himachal pradesh ki kulloo ghati men pae jate hain aur jinamen tibbati rakt ka ansh bhi milata hai.
(2) mngol jaise nepal aur bhootan ke parvatiy bhagon men bhootiya, gurng, gurmi, gurakha aur nebar log milate hain.
(3)parvatiy bhagon men lahul kshetr ke kanet log.

(b) maidani bhagon men do prakar ke log pae jate hain-

(1) kashmir ki ghati, rajasthan aur pnjab men rahane vale jat, goojar, rajapoot, adi, jinaka rng gora, kad lamba, sir lamba, chauda lalat, lamba snkara chehara aur sidhi lambi nak hoti hai.
(2)himalay pradesh men shivalik pradesh ke pahadi log tatha dakshin ki or ke log.

(s) dakshin ke pathar par pae jane vale logon ke lie haidan ne dravid shabd ka upayog kiya hai. yahan inake anusar ye tattv pae jate hain-

(1) poorv dravid-santhal, paniyan, kadar, kurumba, iroola, kannikar, kaundh, bhil, gond, kolari aur munda log isake udaharan hain. ye nate kale se bhoore rng ke laharadar ghungharale bal vale aur chaudi nak vale hote hain.
(2) dravid-malabar tat aur keral ke nivasi, jinamen nayyar, badaga, tiyan, kanari hindoo, ijoovan aur tamil brahman sammilit hain. ye log tamil, telugu, malayalam aur kannad bhasha bolate hain.
(3)dakshini chaude sir vale log bellari se lagakar tirunalavaili zile tak phaile hain. paniyan aur paraba machhue inake pratinidhi hain.
(4)pashchimi chaude sir vale log gujarat se lagakar pashchimi tat par keral men milate hain. nagar brahman, prabhu, maratha, kurg adi inake pratinidhi hain.

eeksataid ka vargikaran

san 1929 men eeksataid ne bharatiyon ka bhautik aur sanskritik donon hi drishtiyon se vargikaran kiya. inake anusar, bharat men char mukhy prajatiyan hain, jinake sat upabhed hain.
(1) vaidid ya prachin bharatiy-van pradeshon ke ati prachin adivasi, jo in shreniyon men bnte hain-

(a)gondid log chhote se madhyam kad, gahare bhoore rng aur ghungharale bal vale hote hain. ye jadoo-tone men vishvas karate hain. inamen onran, oranb aur gond mukhy hain.
(b)malid chhote kad, ghungharale bal vale aur kale bhoore rng ke hote hain. ye adhik asabhy hote hain. kuroomba, iroola, chenchoo, kannikar, malevan aur vedda inake mukhy udaharan hain.

(2) mailenid athava kale bharatiy ek mishrit prajati hai, jo do bhagon men banti gee hai-

(a)dakshin mailenid, bharat ke sudoor dakshini maidanon men kale bhoore rng ke log hain. yanadi inaka mukhy udaharan hai.
(b)kolid dakshin ke uttari van pradeshon ke ati prachin nivasi hain. ye kale bhoore rng ke chhote kad ke hote hain. santhal, khariya, bhuiya, bhoomij aur munda inake udaharan hain.

(3) indid ya navin bharatiy-ye log adhik vikasit evn khule maidanon men rahane vale hain. ye nimn bhagon men vibhajit hain-

(a)gresail indid pit varn, patali nak aur badi ankhon vale log jo paitrik parivar ko manane vale hain, jaise bngali adi.
(b)uttari indid halke bhoore rng vale, jo prarambh se hi paitrik parivar ke manane vale hain, jaise toda evn rajapoot log.

(4) poorv mngol vayanad zile ke palayan log.

hattan ka vargikaran

hattan ne bharatiy prajatiyon ke bare men apana vargikaran prastut kiya hai. inake anusar bharat men kisi bhi prajati ka mool sthan nahin hai. sabhi prajatiyan yahan bahar se ayi hain. apane ane ke kram ke anusar vibhinn prajatiyan ye hain-

  1. nigrito -nigrito prajati bharat ki prachinatam prajati hai jo apane mool sthan maileneshiya se asam, myanmar, andaman-nikobar aur malabar men phaili, kintu ab isake avashesh hamen bharat ke mukhy bhag par prapt nahin hote.
  2. proto-astrelaauyad nigrito logon ke bad bharat men ae. inaka mool-sthan philistin tha. yahin se ye pashchim ki or se bharat men aye. inaki tvacha ka rng chaaukalet jaisa kala hota hai tatha khopadi lambi. inake avashesh anek janajatiyon men vidyaman hain.
  3. poorv-bhoomadhyasagariy prajati poorvi yoorop se bharat ki or ayi hai. inamen kuchh ka sir lamba aur kuchh ka chauda hota hai. madhy bharatiy pradesh men gujarat, madhy pradesh hote hue pashchimi bngal tak is prajati ka vistar paya jata hai. ise sinchaee aur kheti karane ka gyan tha.
  4. adhik vikasit bhoomadhyasagariy prajati bharat men akar dravid prajati bas gee. ye adhik lambe aur gore rng vale hain. yahi log uttari bharat men pnjab aur gnga ki oopari ghati men phaile hain. is prajati ko dhatuon ke prayog tatha nagar basane ki kala ka gyan tha. sambhavat: inhonne hi sindhu ghati ki sabhyata ka vikas kiya tha.
  5. alpain ya poorv-vaidik jo gujarat aur pashchim bngal men milate hain.
  6. naaurdik ya vaidik ary jo yooropiy staipi pradesh se lagabhag do hazar varsh poorv bharat men aye aur pnjab, rajasthan evn gnga ki oopari ghati men bas gaye.
  7. mngol uttari-poorvi bhagon se akar bharat ke poorvi bhagon men, bngal aur indoneshiya men phailakar bas ge.

guha ka vargikaran

sabase mukhy aur sarvamany vargikaran daauktar guha dvara (1931 ki janaganana riport men) prastut kiya gaya hai.[2]

daauktar guha ka vargikaran nimn prakar hai-

  1. nigrito
  2. proto astrelaauyad ya poorv-dravid
  3. mngolaauyad : poorv-mngol, lambe sir vale, chaude sir vale, tibbati mngol.
  4. bhoomadhyasagariy : prachin bhoomadhyasagariy, bhoomadhyasagariy, poorvi log.
  5. pashchimi chaude sir vale athava elpo-dinarik : elpinaauyad, dinarik, arminaauyad.
  6. naaurdik

nigrito

bharatiy janasnkhya men nigrito tattv ka samavesh ek sndigdh aur vivadaspad vishay mana jata hai. vastavik nigrito prajati philipin, nyoogini, andaman dvip aur maleshiya pray:dvip ke semang aur sakaee logon ke roop men milati hai. bharat men in logon ki upasthiti ke bare men nishchayatmak roop se nahin kaha ja sakata. laipik ke anusar, bharat men nigrito jati ka ansh dakshin bharat ke adivasiyon men paya jata hai. travanakor-kochin ke kadar aur puliyan aur vayanad ki prachin janajatiyan aur iroola logon ke sir par pray: un jaise bal dekhe jate hain to nritattvashastr ke drishtikon se nigro rakt ko ingit karate hain. kintu tharstan mahoday ne uparokt mat ka khndan kiya hai. isake viparit, gyoophrida roojiri ka vichar hai ki dakshin bharat ki janajatiyon men paye jane vale nigrito aj bhi vidyaman hain. prajatiy drishti se ye log shrilnka ke vedda, sumatra ke batin aur sulabesi ke tola logon se sambandhit hai. is mat ko haidan ne bhi svikar kiya hai ki yadyapi dakshin men nigrito prajati hone ki shnka ki jati hai, kintu isaki vastavik satyata abhi gyat nahin hai.[3]

vidvanh kathan

daauktar guha ne kadar aur kuchh any pahadi jatiyon men nigrito tattv ko svikar kiya hai. daauktar sarakar ke anusar, rajamahal pahadiyon ki adim jatiyon men ghungharale bal pae jate hain. daauktar hattan ne in sab tathyon par vichar karane ke uparant likha hai ki bharatiy pray:dvip ke sabase poorv ke nivasi sambhavat: nigro jati ke hi the, kintu bad men unaka shighrata se hyas hota chala gaya. yadyapi ve andaman dvip men aj bhi vartaman hain, parantu bharatiy bhoomi par unake bahut kam ansh shesh hain. sudoor dakshin ke vanon ke kadar aur yoorali logon men yadakada chhote kad, ghungharale bal aur nigro akriti ke log dekhe jate hain, jo vastav men bharat men nigrito prajati ke avashesh ko spasht karate hain.[4] gyoophrida bharat aur faras ki khadi ke bich nigrito logon ki upasthiti aitihasik kal ke poorv manate hain.

bngal ki khadi, maleshiya pray:dvip, phiji dvipasamooh, nyoogini, dakshin bharat aur dakshini arab men nigrito athava anshik nigro logon ki upasthiti yah man lene ko prerit karati hai ki kisi poorv-aitihasik kal men nigrito log eshiya mahadvip ke bahut bade bhag visheshakar dakshini bhag ko ghere hue the. bad men poorv-dravidon aur dravidon ke ane par (jo unase adhik shaktishali the) in logon ki samapti ho gee athava ve unamen vilin ho ge. vartaman samay men ye log kahin-kahin par avashesh roop men pae jate hain. nigrito tattv mukhyat andaman dvip vasiyon men milata hai.[5] yah asam, poorvi bihar ki rajamahal ki pahadiyon men bhi hain. inake any pratinidhi angami, naga, bangadi, iroola, kadar, pulayan, muthuvan aur kannikar, adi hain. profesar kin kadar, muthuvan, paniyan, semang, oranv aur astreliyaee adivasiyon ko un logon ki santan manate hain, jo kisi samay sampoorn bharat men nivas karate the. ye log hi sabase pahale maleshiya se bharat ki or bngal ki khadi ke dvar se ghuse aur uttar men himalay parvat ki talahati tatha dakshin men pray:dvip par phail ge.[6] in logon ki mukhy visheshata yah hai ki ye kad men bahut chhote hote hain. inaka sir chhota, kintu lalat ubhara hua hota hai. inake bal sundar aur oon jaise chhalledar hote hain. ye rng men kale hote hain. sir ki banavat gol se lagakar lambi athava madhyam hoti hai. inake hath-pair komal hote hain. chehara chhota, nak chapati aur chaudi, matha age ki or nikala hua, bhaun ki haddiyan sapat aur dadi chhoti aur honth mote aur mude hue hote hain.

sabhyata

nigrito logon ki sabhyata bahut avikasit dasha men thi. ye poorv-pashan yug ki sabhyata lekar bharat ae the. patthar, haddi ke anagadh hathiyar tatha tir-kaman ke sivay inhen any kisi hathiyar ka gyan nahin tha. kheti, mitti ke bartan banana tatha bhavan-nirman ka bhi inhen gyan nahin tha. ye log guphaen banakar rahate the aur bhojan ke lie vastuen ekatrit karane ka kam karate the. kheti karana inhen n ata tha, kintu ye log vat vriksh ki pooja karate the. is pooja ka uddeshy sntan prapt karana tatha mritakon ko sadagati pradan karana tha. bharatiy snskriti men vat vriksh ki pooja ka chalan evn guphaon ka nirman inhin logon ki den hai. 

proto-astrelaauyad

ye sambhavat: bharat men ane vali doosari prajati adi-dravid thi. yadyapi inake adi poorvaj philistin men dekhe ja sakate hain, parantu bharat men ye kab aur kaise ae, yah abhi bhi gyat nahin hai. kintu bharat ki vartaman janajatiyon men in prajati ka ansh hi sarvadhik hai. yah prajati bharat men sare hi desh men milati hai. in logon men shrilnka ke vedda, astreliyaee aur maleshiyaee logon ke rng, chehare aur balon, adi men itani samanata paee jati hai ki usase yah spasht hai ki ye charon ek hi prajati ke vnshaj hain. bharat men ye log bahar se ae hain athava bharat se hi ye bahar ke deshon men pahunche hain, yah abhi bhi vivadaspad hai. ye astreliyaee logon se bahamilate-julate hain. at: inhen adi-dravid nam diya gaya hai. vastavik astreliyaee logon ki nak chehare se pichaki huee, chhati majaboot aur sharir par ghane bal hote hain, jo bharatiy janajatiyon men nahin dekhe jate, kintu dakshin bharat ke chenchoo malayan, kuroomba, yarooba, munda, kol, santhal aur bhil samoohon men aise bahut se log pae jate hain, jinamen uparyukt visheshataen hain. anusoochit jatiyan pradhanat: isi prajati se bani huee mani jati hain. ye log kad men nate aur gahare bhoore athava kale rng ke hote hain. inaka sir lamba aur nak chaudi, chapati ya pichaki huee hoti hai. inake bal ghungharale aur onth mote aur mansal mude hue hote hain.

mngolaauyad

is prajati ka adi sthan iravati nadi ki ghati, chin, tibbat aur mngoliya ko mana jata hai. yahin se eesa ke poorv pratham shatabdi ke madhy ye log bharat ae aur dhire-dhire uttari-poorvi bngal ke maidan aur asam ki pahadiyon tatha maidanon men ghusate chale ge. yadyapi uttar aur uttar-poorv ke kathin sthal margon ne unake yahan badi matra men pravesh men rode atakae, parantu phir bhi ve nirantar age badhate rahe. yahi karan hai ki bharat ke uttari-poorvi bhagon men nepal, asam aur poorvi kashmir men tin prakar ke mngol log pae jate hain. mngol prajati any prajatiyon se in baton men bhinn hai-inaka munh chapata aur gal ki haddiyan ubhari huee hoti hain. ankhen badam ki akriti ki hoti hain. chehare aur sharir par bal kam hote hain. inaka kad chhote se madhyam tak tatha sir chauda aur rng pilapan liye hue hota hai.

mngol samooh men tin prajatiyan hain-
(a) poorvi-mngolaauyad bahut hi prachin prajati hai. yah shighrata se pahachani nahin jati. sir ki banavat, nak aur rng se hi inhen pahachana ja sakata hai. yah do shreniyon men bnti hai-

(1) mngol prajati, jisaka kad sadharan, nak sadharan kintu kam oonchi, chehare aur sharir par balon ka abhav, ankhen tirachhi ya mod adhik nahin, chehara chapata aur chhota, rng gahare se halka bhoora hota hai. lambe sir vali yah prajati up-himalay pradesh, asam aur myanmar ki sima par rahane vale, adi logon (jaise-naga, miri, bondo adi) men bahut hi adhik payi jati hai.
(2) is samooh ki doosari prajati chaude sir vali hai. bangla desh men chitaganv parvatiy adivasi (jaise chakamas) isi shreni ke hain. kalimpong ki lepcha jati bhi isi samooh men sammilit hai. inaka sir chauda, rng kala aur nak madhyam akar ki hoti hai. chehara chhota aur chapata hota hai. isake sir ke bal sidhe, parantu kuchh ghungharale pravritti lie hote hain.

(b) tibbati mngolaauyad log lambe kad, chaude sir aur halke rng ke hote hain. chaudi chapati nak, lamba chapata munh aur sharir par balon ka abhav inaki any visheshataen hain. ye log sikkim men pae jate hain. ye tibbat ki or se bharat men aye mane jate hain. mngol prajati ne bharat ki snskriti par bada prabhav dala hai. doodh, chay, kagaz, chaval, supari ki kheti, samoohik gharon ki pratha, sidhinuma kheti, sher ka shikar karana, adi ka prayog karana inhin logon ki den hai.

bhoomadhyasagari ya dravid jati

bharat ke adivasiyon men tin pramukh prajatiyon (nigrito, poorv-dravid aur mngol) ke tattv hi adhik hain. inake atirikt sadharan janasnkhya mukhyat: bhoomadhyasagariy, elpo-dinarik aur naaurdik prajatiyon se bani hai. inake atirikt sadharan samooh sabase bada hai. is prajati ki koee ek kism nahin varanh anek kismen hain, jo lambe sir, kale rng aur apani oonchaee dvara pahachani jati hai. bharat men is prajati ki tin kismen milati hain.

(a) prachin bhoomadhyasagariy log kale ya gahare bhoore rng aur lambe sir vale hote hain. lamba chehara, lahariyedar bal, chaudi nak, madhyam kad aur chehare aur sharir par kam bal adi inaki any visheshataen hain. dakshin bharat ke telugu aur tamil brahmanon men is prajati ka atyadhik prabhav dekha jata hai.

(b) bhoomadhyasagariy prajati ko hi bharat ki sindhu ghati sabhyata ko janm dene ka shrey hai. 2500 eesa poorv ke lagabhag jab ary bhasha-bhashi akramanakari uttari eerak se eeran hote hue gnga ke maidan men ae to ye log idhar-udhar phailate ge. aj uttari bharat ki janasnkhya men yahi tattv sabase adhik vidyaman hai. is prajati ke log pnjab, kashmir, rajasthan aur uttar pradesh men phaile hue hain. madhy pradesh ke maratha aur uttar pradesh, keral, maharashtr aur malabar ke brahman is jati ke pratinidhitv svaroop hain. ye log madhyam se lekar lambe kad ke hote hain. inaki nak snkari, parantu dadhi unnat hoti hai. chehara aur sir pray: lamba aur kala rng athava bhoora hota hai. sharir par ghane bal, badi khuli ankhen, ankhon ka rng gahara bhoora tatha kala, laharadar bal athava patala sharir inaki any visheshataen hain.

is prajati ne sindhu ghati sabhyata ko apanaya aur unnat kiya. vartaman bharatiy dharm aur snskriti ka adhikansh inhin logon ke dvara nirmit hai. samany palatu pashu, yatayat, vastr tatha abhooshan, bhavan nirman kala, eeton ka prayog aur shaharon ki rachana adi inhin logon dvara prachalit kie ge hain. bharatiy lipi aur khagolashastr men bhi inaka mahattvapoorn yogadan raha hai.

(s) poorvi athava saimetik prajati ka udabhav sthan tarki aur arab raha hai. yahan se yah prajati bharat ki or aee. yah prajati bhoomadhyasagariy prajati se bahut kuchh milati-julati hai, kintu isaki nak ki banavat men thoda antar paya jata hai. in logon ki nak lambi aur natodar hoti hai. bharat men ye log pnjab, rajasthan aur pashchimi uttar pradesh men pae jate hain.

ye log nav pashan yug ki sabhyata lekar bharat ae the. ye pattharon ko ghisakar unake dharadar aujar banate the. kudali se khodakar kheti karate the, kumhar ke chak se mitti ke gol ghade, bartan adi banate the. ye vastuen bharat ko in logon ki den mani jati hain. is prajati ki bhasha ke anek shabd bharat ki prachalit bhashaon men pae jate hain. dhan, kela, nariyal, baingan, pan, supari, niboo, jamun, kapas adi isi prajati ki den hain. isi prajati ne hathi ko palatoo banaya. sanskritik kshetr men bhi isi prajati ne bharat ko anek baten di hain. pan-supari ka vyavahar tatha mahotsav men sindoor aur haldi ka upayog isi prajati se kiya gaya hai. punarjanm ka vichar, brahmand aur srishti ki utpatti sambandhi kee dantakathaen, patthar ko devata banakar poojana, nag, magar, bandar adi pashuon ki pooja, vastuon ke varjan ka vichar adi sab adi-dravidon ki den hain. chandrama ke hisab se tithi ka pariganan bhi isi sabhyata ki den hai.

bharatiy snskriti ko inaki den bahut adhik hai. mitti ke bartan banana, tir-kaman chalana, deshi naven banana, mor, ghode, tattoo adi pashuon ko palana, ganne ke ras se shakkar banana, kaudi ke anusar pratyek vastu ko bis ki snkhya se ginana, vivah adi avasar par knkum aur haldi ka prayog karana bhi inhonne bharat ko diya hai. pashan yug ki smriti ko banae rakhane ke lie patthar ko devata manakar unaki pooja karana, use sindoor aur chandan lagana, usake sammukh dhoop-dip jalana, ghnta-ghadiyal bajana, usake samaksh nach-gan karana, moorti ko bhog lagana aur usake oopar chadhe bhog ko prasad ke roop men bantana. ye sabhi bharat ko inhin logon ki den hai. inake samay striyan kam thin, at: inhonne yahan ki striyon se vivah kar unaki snskriti ko bhi apana liya. shivaling ki pooja bhi arambh ho gee. yog kriyaen, davaiyon ka upayog, nagar nirman ki sabhyata, uchch shreni ki kheti karane ke dhng, sudhare dhng ki naven, yuddh men pravinata, vastr bunana evn katana, aujaron ka nipunata se prayog, sarp aur pashuon evn vrikshon ki atmaon ki pooja, matri shakti ka adar, vivah ke riti-rivaj bhi inhin logon ki den hai.

pashchimi chaude sir vali prajati

ye prajati bharat men madhy eshiyaee parvaton se pashchim ki or se aee hai. inako elponayad, dinarik aur araminayad tin bhagon men banta gaya hai. inake ye nam yoorop men jis pradesh se ye sambandhit hain, us adhar par rakhe gaye hain.

(a) elponayad prajati ke mool log yoorop ke madhy men alps parvat ke as pas badi snkhya men pae jate hain. ye log madhyam chhote kad ke hote hain. inake kndhe chaude, chhati gahari, tangen lambi aur chaudi aur anguliyon chhoti hoti hain. inaka sir aur chehara gol aur nak patali aur nukili hoti hai. rng bhoomadhyasagariy logon se halka aur sharir mota aur majaboot bana hota hai. sharir aur chehare par bal bahutayat se hote hain. sambhavat: yah log dakshini baloochistan se sindh, saurashtr, gujarat aur maharashtr hokar karnatak, tamilanadu, shrilnka aur gnga ke sahare bngal men pahunche. yah prajati saurashtr (kathi), gujarat (baniya), bngal (kayasth) maharashtr, kannad, tamilanadu, bihar aur gnga ke delta men poorvi uttar pradesh men paee jati hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. jinhen ham dravid kahate hain
  2. B.S.Guha, “Racial affinities of the peoples of India”, Census of India, 1931, Vol.1, Pt. III, 1935, An Outline of Racial Ethnology of India, 1934, and his Racial Elements in Indian Population, 1944
  3. A.C.Haddon, Races of Man, p.107
  4. J.H.Hutton, Census of India Report, Vol. 1, 1931, p. 460
  5. R.H.Lowie, Primitive Society, p. 303
  6. A.Keane, Man-Past and Present.

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