कंजर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

knjar ek ghumakkad kabila hai jo snpoorn uttar bharat ki gramy aur nagariy janasnkhya men chhitaraya hua hai. ye snbhavat: dravid mool ke hain. 'knjar' shabd ki utpatti snskrit 'kanan-char' se huee bhi bataee jati hai. vaise bhasha, nam, snskriti adi men uttar bharatiy pravrittiyan knjaron men itani balavati hain ki unaka mool dravid manana vaigyanik nahin jan padata. knjaron tatha sansiya, haboora, beriya, bhat, nat, bnjara, jogi aur baheliya adi any ghumakkad kabilon men paryapt sanskritik samanata milati hai.

itihas

ek kinvadnti ke anusar knjar divy poorvaj 'man' guru ki sntan hain. man apani patni nathiya knjarin ke sath jngal men rahata tha. man guru ke puravritt ko aitihasikata ka put bhi diya gaya hai, jaisa us akhyan se vidit hai jisamen man dilli sultan ke darabar men shahi pahalavan ko kushti men harata hai. knjaron ka kabili sngathan visham hai. ve bahut se antirvivahi (endogaimas) vibhagon aur bahirvivahi (eksogaimas) upavibhagon ke nam 1891 ki janaganana men darj kie ge 106 knjar upavibhagon ke nam hindoo aur 6 ke nam musalamani the. knjaron ka vibhajan peshevar vibhagon men hua hai, jaisa unake jallad, koonchabnd, patharakat, dachhabnd adi vibhagiy namon se spasht hota hai.[1]

vivah

knjaron men vayask vivah prachalan hai. yadyapi striyon ko vivahapoorv yaun svachchhndata paryapt matra men prapt hoti hai, tathapi vivah ke pashchath‌ unase poorn pativrata ki apeksha ki jati hai. strin evn purush donon ke vivahetar yaun snbndh hey samajhe jate hain aur dndasvaroop vnchit pati ko adhikar hota hai ki vah aparadhi purush ki n keval snpatti varanh sntan bhi hastagat kar le. vivah vadhoomooly dekar hota hai. rakam ka bhugatan do kiston men hota hai, ek vivah ke samay aur doosari sntonatpatti ke pashchath‌. parnparagat vivahon ke atirikt palayan vivah (mairij baee elopament) ka bhi chalan hai. agyatavas se lautane par yugm poore ganv ko bhoj par amntrik kar vaidh pati patni ka pad prapt kar sakata hai. vidhava vivah snbhav hai aur vidhava adhikatar apane avivahit devar se byahi jati hai.[1]

vyavasay

peshevar namadhari hone par bhi knjaron ne kisi vyavasay vishesh ko nahin apanaya. kuchh samay poorv tak ye yajamani karate the aur ganv valon ka manornjan karane ke badale dhan aur maveshiyon ke roop men varshik dan pate the. pratyek knjar parivar ki yajamani men kuchh ganv ate the jahan ve utsav aur vishesh avasaron par nach gakar ganv valon ka manornjan karate the. inamen se kuchh parivar ganv ki goojar, mina aur any jatiyon ke parnparagat charan aur vnshavali sngrahakarta ka kam karate the. chhipakali, sanda, sanp aur giddh ki khal se vishesh prakar ka tel nikalakar ye use du:sadhy rogon ki dava kahakar bechate hain. bhikh mangane vali knjar striyan pray: snbhrant krishak mahilaon ko apani baton phnsakar banjhapan tatha any stri rogon ki dava bechati hain aur hath dekhakar bhagy batati hain. kuchh knjar striyan bhikh mangane ke sath-sath veshyavritti bhi karati thin. kintu vartaman knjar apane parnparagat dhndhon ko chhod arthik drishti se adhik labhadayak peshon ki or akrisht ho rahe hain.[1]

veshabhoosha evn khan-pan

veshabhoosha men knjar goojaron ke sadrish hote hain. inaki striyan musalaman striyon ki bhanti lahnge ki bajaya lnba kurata aur pajama pahanati hain. khan-pan men ye kabile jau, bajare, knd, mool, phal se lekar chhipakali, giragit aur medhak ka mans tak khate hain.

visheshataen

  • ‘knjar’ shabd ki utpati ‘kananachar’ athava ’kanakachar’ se huee hai jisaka arth hai ‘jngalon men vicharan karane vala’.
  • jhalavad , baran, kota or udayapur zilon men nivas karate hain.
  • knjaron ki kabili pnchayat shaktishali aur sarvamany sabha hai. sabhy samaj ki drishti se peshevar aparadhi mane jane vale knjaron men bhi kabili niyamon ke ullnghan ki kadi saja milati hai. aparadh svikriti ke nirale aur yatanapoorn dhng apanae jate hain.
  • pati mangana– ye aparadh karane se poorv eeshvar ka ashirvad lete hai. usako pati mangana kaha jata hai.
  • hakam raja ka pyala – ye hakam raja ka pyala pikar kabhi jhooth nahin bolate hai.
  • in logon ke gharon men bhagane ke lie pichhe ki taraph khidaki hoti hai parantu daravaze par kivad nahin hote hai.
  • knjar kabili devi-devataon ke sath hindoo devi devataon ki bhi manauti karate hain.
  • ye log hanuman aur chauth mata ki pooja karate hai.
  • vipatti padane par kabili devata 'alamundi' aur 'asapal' ke krodh-shaman-hetu bakare, suar aur murge ki bali di jati hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 knjar (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 19 disambar, 2013.

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