गोथ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

goth ek mishrit prachin jarman bhasha bolane vali tyootan athava jarman jati, jisane eesa ke pranrabhik sadiyon men yoorapiy itihas par, vishesh roop se roman samrajy ko nasht kar, paryapt prabhav dala. apane prachinatam yugon men yah jati vishchula nadi ki bich ki ghati men basi huee thi, jo snbhavat: svidan ki or se aee thi aur jisane poorvi pomeraniyamen phailakar bndal jati ke pas pados ko jit liya tha.

itihas

gothon ka shasan kabilaee hone ke bavajood rajasattatmak tha. unaka prachin sahity men pahala ullekh eesa ki pranrabhik sadiyon men hi milata hai, jabaki un par unaka raja maroboduas raj karata tha. tisari sadi eesavi men ve danoob nadi ki nichali ghati men bhi dhave bolane lage aur is prakar romanon se jab tab takarane lage. roman samrat gordiyan ne unhen ek bar parast kar 'gothoram vijayi' upadhi dharan ki thi; par samrat desiyas ko nishchay unhonne mar dala tha aur samrat gonlas ko to unhonne varshik kar dene ko bhi majaboor kiya. anek takkaron ke bad samrat konstantin ne gothon ko harakar unake raja ariyarik se sndhi kar li. gothon ke itihas ke un pranrabhik dinon men sabase prasiddh raja haramanarik hua, jisaka nam jarman khyaton men amar ho gaya hai.[1]

gothon ke prasiddh itihasakar jeradaniz ka kahana hai ki us raja ne dakshini roos men basane vali anek jatiyon par vijay prapt ki. usake shasan ki sima pashchim men holstain tak pahunch gee thi. chauthi sadi eesavi ke hoonon ke hamalon ka, apani matribhoomi vishchula ki ghati men anek goth viron ne samana kar, amarakirti arjit ki. svayn raja haramanarik ne hoonon ke akraman ki chot n sah sakane ke karan 370 ee. ke lagabhag atmaghat kar liya.

shakhaen

gothon ke sadharanat: do ang mane jate hain, jinamen se poorv men rahane vale 'ostrogoth' kahalate the aur pashchim ke rahane vale 'vijigoth'. inhin pashchimi gothon ne apane raja alorik ke netritv men pashchimi roman samrajy ki ridh tod di thi. chauthi sadi eesavi se gothon ki poorvi-pashchimi donon shakhaon ke itihas alag ho jate hain. us sadi ke chauthe charan ke arnbh men hi roman samrajy men pashchimi goth ghus ae aur samrat valens ko marakar adriyanopul ki prasiddh ladaee unhonne jiti. isake bad romanon tatha gothon men sndhi ho gee, jisase goth roman sena men badi snkhya men bharati kie ge. samrat thiyodosiyara mahanh ki 395 ee. men mrityu ke bad goth romanon se jhagadakar alag ho ge aur unhonne alarik ko apana raja chuna. alarik ka yash usaki vijayon ke sath roman samrajy men phail chala. kalantar men vah roman samraton ka vidhata bana aur ek bar to amar nagar rom tak usake charanon men lot gaya.[1]

samrajy vistar

alarik ke uttaradhikari ataulf ne rom ke sahayak ke roop men gothon par raj kiya, yadyapi yadi vah chahata to roman samrajy ke ek bade bhag par adhikar kar sakata tha. usane samrat thiyodosiyas ki poti se vivah kiya aur kuchh ajab n tha ki yadi unaka beta thiyodosiyas jivit rahata to vah romanon evn gonthon ka snyukt samrat hota. 415 ee. men barsilona men ataulf ki hatya ho gee aur agali pidhi ke goth pradesh jitakar romanon ke havale karate ge. panchavin sadi ke madhy attila hoon ke mukabile thiyodorik pratham ke netritv men goth romanon ke phir mitr ban ge. par unake utsah ka bandh toot gaya, jab unhonne dekha ki unhin ki jati ke goth hoonon ke jhnde ke niche unase lad rahe hain. thiyodorik 451 ee. men yuddh men mara gaya aur pashchimi tatha poorvi goth phir ek doosare se bahut door hat ge. dhire-dhire gaaul aur spen men unake raj kayam hue aur dhire-dhire roman snskriti svikar kar pashchimi goth kaitholik eesaee ho ge.

thiyodorik mahan

poorvi gothon ne attila hoon ke marate hi phir apani ajadi kayam ki. panchavin sadi ke ant men poorvi gothon ke itihas men prasiddh inaka mahanh raja thiyodorik hua. thiyodorik mahanh bhi pashchimi gothon ki hi bhanti pashchimi samrajy ka kabhi mitr bana, kabhi shatru bana. roman samrajy ke prati usaki rajaniti chahe jaisi bhi rahi ho, vah ant tak apani jati ka rashtriy vir aur raja bana raha. 493 ee. tak poorvi gothon ki satta itali, sisili, dalameshiya adi par poornat: sthapit ho gee. is kal tak phir ek bar thiyodorik ki kanya ka pashchimi gothon ke raja alarik dvitiy se vivah hone ke pashchath‌ poorvi gothon ke raja alarik dvitiy se vivah hone ke pashchath‌ poorvi aur pashchimi gothon men mitrabhav sthapit hua aur agali pidhi men to jaise donon rajy snyukt ho ge. is kal tak poorvi gothon ka samrajy atynt vistrit ho gaya tha.[1]

thiyodorik ka shasan barbar n hokar sabhy tha, jisane gothon ke netritv ke sath roman samrajy ki prabhuta pashchim men bhogi. poorvi aur pashchimi gothon ke riti rasm, achar vyavahar, ek-doosare se bhinn the, par donon angon men pratyek ke anukool vidhi vyavahar adi ki disha men acharan karata tha. thiyodorik ki mrityu (526) ke bad poorvi aur pashchimi goth phir prithakh ho ge. amalarik pashchimi gothon par raj karane laga aur athalarik poorvi gothon par. shighr hi poorvi gothon ki satta mit gee.

pashchimi gothon ki shakti ka utkarsh

pashchimi gothon ka rajy spen men dirghakal tak bana raha aur roman samrajy ko nasht karane men dhire-dhire saphal hota raha. lyovigild (568-586) ka shasan kal pashchimi gothon ki shakti ka vishesh utkarsh ka tha. usane apane rajy ki simaen paryapt badha li thin aur goth samnton ki shakti apane netritv men sngathit kar li. agali pidhi men gothon ke raja ne apani jati ki adhikatar snkhya ke sath kaitholik eesaee dharm svikar kar liya, jisase yah jati adhikatar roman prabhav men sarvash: a gee. 711 men arab ke musalamanon ki chot se pashchimi gothon ke rajy ka sada ke liye lop ho gaya.[1]


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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 goth (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 14 aprail, 2014.

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