गांधार महाजनपद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(गंधार se punarnirdeshit)

any snbndhit lekh


pauranik 16 mahajanapadon men se ek. pakistan ka pashchimi tatha afaganistan ka poorvi kshetr. ise adhunik kndahar se jodane ki galati kee bar log kar dete hain jo ki vastav men is kshetr se kuchh dakshin men sthit tha. is pradesh ka mukhy kendr adhunik peshavar aur asapas ke ilake the. is mahajanapad ke pramukh nagar the - purushapur (adhunik peshavar) tatha takshashila isaki rajadhani thi . isaka astitv 600 eesa poorv se 11vin sadi tak raha. kushan shasakon ke dauran yahan bauddh dharm bahut phala phoola par bad men muslim akraman ke karan isaka patan ho gaya.

prachin nam

gandhar mahajanapad

gandhar, thailaind ya syam ke uttari bhag men sthit yunnas ka prachin bharatiy nam hai. chini itihas–grnthon se soochit hota hai. ki dvitiy shati ee. poo. men hi is pradesh men bharatiyon ne upanivesh basa lie the aur ye log bngal- asam tatha brahmadesh ke vyaparik sthalamarg se yahan pahunche the. 13vin shati tak yunnan ka bharatiy nam gndhar hi prachalit tha, jaisa ki tatkalin musalaman lekhak rashiduddin ke varnan se soochit hota hai. is pradesh ka chini nam nanachaon tha. 1253 ee. men chin ke samrat kubalakhan ne gndhar ko jitakar yahan ke hindoo rajy ki samapti kar di.


is pradesh ka ullekh mahabharat aur ashok ke shilalekhon men milata hai. mahabharat ke anusar dhritarashtr ki rani aur duryodhan ki mata gandhari gndhar ki rajakumari thin. ajakal yah pakistan ke ravalapindi aur peshavar zilon ka kshetr hai. takshashila aur pushkalavati yahin ke prasiddh nagar the. ashok ke samrajy ka ang rahane ke bad kuchh samay yah pharas ke aur kushan rajy ke antargat raha. yah poorv aur pashchim ke sanskritik sngam ka sthal tha aur yahan kala ki 'gandhar shaili' ka janm hua.


sindhu nadi ke poorv aur uttarapashchim ki or sthit pradesh. vartaman afaganistan ka poorvi bhag bhi isamen sammilit tha. rigved men gndhar ke nivasiyon ko gndhari kaha gaya hai tatha unaki bhedo ke oon ko saraha gaya hai aur atharvaved men gndhariyon ka moojavaton ke sath ullekh hai-

'upop me paramrish ma men dabhranimanyatha:,

sarvahamasmi romasha gndharinamivavika'[1]

'gndharimyon moojavadbhyodh gebhyo magadhebhy:

praishyanh janamiv shevadhin takmann paridadmasin [2]

atharvaved men gndhariyon ki ganana avamanit jatiyon men ki gee hai kintu paravarti kal men gndharavasiyon ke prati madhyadeshiyon ka drishtikon badal gaya aur gndhar men bade vidvanh pnditon ne apana nivas-sthan banaya. takshashila gndhar ki lokavishrut rajadhani thi.


buddh ki pooja karate hue indr aur brahma, kala snsthan shikago

chhandogy upanishad men uddalak-aruni ne gndhar ka, sadguru vale shishy ke apane antim lakshy par pahunchane ke udaharan ke roop men ullekh kiya hai. jan padata hai ki chhandogy ke rachayita ka gndhar se vishesh roop se parichay tha.


shatapath brahman [3] tatha anugami vakyon men uddalak aruni ka udichyon ya uttari desh (gndhar) ke nivasiyon se snbndh bataya gaya hai. panini ne jo svayn gndhar ke nivasi the, takshashila ka [4] ullekh kiya hai. aitihasik anushruti men kautily ko takshashila mahavidyalay ka hi ratn bataya gaya hai. valmiki ne ramayan [5] men gndharvadesh ki sthiti gandhar vishay ke antargat bataee gee hai. kaikay desh is ke poorv men sthit tha. kekay-naresh yudhajit ke kahane se ayodhyapati ramachndr ji ke bhaee bharat ne gndharv desh ko jitakar yahan takshashila aur pushkalavati nagariyon ko basaya tha.


mahabharat kal men gndhar desh ka madhyadesh se nikat snbndh tha. dhritarashtr ki patni gndhari, gndhar ki hi rajakanya thi. shakuni isaka bhaee tha. jatakon men kashmir aur takshashila-donon ki sthiti gndhar men mani gee hai. jatakon men takshashila ka anek bar ullekh hai. jatakakal men yah nagari mahavidyalay ke roop men bharat bhar men prasiddh thi. puranon men [6] gndhar nareshon ko druhayu ka vnshaj mana. vayu puran men gndhar ke shreshth ghodon ka ullekh hai.


anguttaranikay ke anusar buddh tatha poorv-buddhakal men gndhar uttari bharat ke solah janapadon men pariganit tha. sikandar ke bharat par akraman ke samay gndhar men kee chhoti-chhoti riyasaten thin, jaise abhisar, takshashila adi. maury samrajy men snpoorn gndhar desh sammilit tha. kushan samrajy ka bhi vah ek ang tha. kushan kal men hi yahan ki nee rajadhani purushapur ya peshavar men banaee gee. is kal men takshashila ka poorv gaurav samapt ho gaya tha. gupt kal men gndhar shayad gupton ke samrajy ke bahar tha kyonki us samay yahan yavan, shak adi bahyadeshiyon ka adhipaty tha.


7vin shati ee. men gndhar ke anek bhagon men bauddh dharm kafi unnat tha. 8vin-9vin shatiyon men musalamanon ke utkarsh ke samay dhire-dhire yah desh unhin ke rajanitik tatha sanskritik prabhav men a gaya. 870 ee. men arab senapati yakoob eles ne afaganistan ko apane adhikar men kar liya lekin isake bad kafi samay tak yahan hindoo tatha bauddh anek kshetron men rahate rahe. alaptagin aur subuktagin ke hamalon ka bhi unhonne samana kiya. 990 ee. men lamagan (prachin lnpak) ka qila unake hathon se nikal gaya aur isake bad kaphiristan ko chhodakar sara afaganistan musalamanon ke dharm men dikshit ho gaya.

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. rigved 1,126,18;
  2. atharvaved 5,22,14 .
  3. shatapath brahman 12,4,1
  4. shatapath brahman 4,3,93
  5. ramayan uttar- 101,11
  6. matsy puran, 48, 6 vayu puran, 99,9

snbndhit lekh

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