श्राद्ध  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

shraddh vishay soochi
shraddh    parichay    pitri paksh    pitri ka arth    vishad varnan    pindadan    niyam    vidhi    sthan    mahatta    shraddh aur grahan    vaigyanik pahaloo    ahuti    visajarn
Warning-sign-small.png yah lekh pauranik grnthon athava manyataon par adharit hai at: isamen varnit samagri ke vaigyanik praman hone ka ashvasan nahin diya ja sakata. vistar men dekhen asvikaran
shraddh
shraddh karm men pooja karate brahman
any nam pitri paksh
anuyayi sabhi hindoo dharmavalambi
uddeshy shraddh poorvajon ke prati sachchi shraddha ka pratik hain. pitaron ke nimitt vidhipoorvak jo karm shraddha se kiya jata hai, usi ko 'shraddh' kahate hain.
prarambh vaidik-pauranik
tithi bhadrapad shukl paksh ki poornima se sarvapitri amavasya arthat ashvin krishn paksh amavasya tak
anushthan shraddh-karm men pake hue chaval, doodh aur til ko mishrit karake 'pind' banate hain, use 'sapindikaran' kahate hain. pind ka arth hai sharir. yah ek parnparik vishvas hai ki har pidhi ke bhitar matrikul tatha pitrikul donon men pahale ki pidhiyon ke samanvit 'gunasootr' upasthit hote hain. yah pratikatmak anushthan jin jin logon ke gunasootr (jins) shraddh karane vale ki apani deh men hain, unaki tripti ke lie hota hai.
snbndhit lekh pitri paksh, shraddh ke niyam, anvashtaka krity, ashtaka krity, anvahary shraddh, shraddh visarjan, pitri visarjan amavasya, tarpan, madhyavarsh krity, matamah shraddh, pitar, shraddh aur grahan, shraddh karane ka sthan, shraddh ki ahuti, shraddh ki kotiyan, shraddh ki mahatta, shraddh prapautr dvara, shraddh phalasoochi, shraddh varjana, shraddh vidhi, pindadan, gaya, nasik, adity devata aur rudr devata
any janakari brahm puran ke anusar shraddh ki paribhasha- 'jo kuchh uchit kal, patr evn sthan ke anusar uchit (shastranumodit) vidhi dvara pitaron ko lakshy karake shraddhapoorvak brahmanon ko diya jata hai', shraddh kahalata hai.

shraddh poorvajon ke prati sachchi shraddha ka pratik hain. pitaron ke nimitt vidhipoorvak jo karm shraddha se kiya jata hai, usi ko 'shraddh' kahate hain. hindoo dharm ke anusar, pratyek shubh kary ke prarambh men mata-pita, poorvajon ko namaskar ya pranam karana hamara kartavy hai, hamare poorvajon ki vnsh parampara ke karan hi ham aj yah jivan dekh rahe hain, is jivan ka annd prapt kar rahe hain. is dharm men, rishiyon ne varsh men ek paksh ko pitripaksh ka nam diya, jis paksh men ham apane pitareshvaron ka shraddh, tarpan, mukti hetu vishesh kriya snpann kar unhen ardhy samarpit karate hain. yadi kisi karan se unaki atma ko mukti pradan nahin huee hai to ham unaki shanti ke lie vishisht karm karate hai, jise 'shraddh' kahate hain.

shraddh ek parichay

brahm puran ne shraddh ki paribhasha is prakar ki hai, 'jo kuchh uchit kal, patr evn sthan ke anusar uchit (shastranumodit) vidhi dvara pitaron ko lakshy karake shraddhapoorvak brahmanon ko diya jata hai, vah shraddh kahalata hai.[1]

pind ka arth

shraddh-karm men pake hue chaval, doodh aur til ko mishrit karake pind banate hain, use 'sapindikaran' kahate hain. pind ka arth hai sharir. yah ek parnparik vishvas hai, jise vigyan bhi manata hai ki har pidhi ke bhitar matrikul tatha pitrikul donon men pahale ki pidhiyon ke samanvit 'gunasootr' upasthit hote hain. chaval ke pind jo pita, dada, paradada aur pitamah ke shariron ka pratik hain, apas men milakar phir alag bantate hain. yah pratikatmak anushthan jin jin logon ke gunasootr (jins) shraddh karane vale ki apani deh men hain, unaki tripti ke lie hota hai.

shraddh ke niyam

dainik pnch ygyon men pitri ygy ko khas bataya gaya hai. isamen tarpan aur samay-samay par pindadan bhi sammilit hai. poore pitripaksh bhar tarpan adi karana chahie. is dauran koee any shubh kary ya naya kary athava pooja-path anushthan sambandhi naya kam nahin kiya jata. sath hi shraddh niyamon ka vishesh palan karana chahie. parantu nity karm tatha devataon ki nity pooja jo pahale se hoti a rahi hai, usako band nahin karana chahie.

shraddh ke vaigyanik pahaloo

shraddh karate shraddhalu

janm evn mrityu ka rahasy atyant goodh hai. vedon men, darshan shastron men, upanishadon evn puranon adi men hamare rishiyon-manishiyon ne is vishay par vistrit vichar kiya hai. shrimadabhagavat men bhi spasht roop se bataya gaya hai ki janm lene vale ki mrityu aur mrityu ko prapt hone vale ka janm nishchit hai. yah prakriti ka niyam hai. sharir nasht hota hai magar atma kabhi bhi nasht nahin hoti hai. vah pun: janm leti hai aur bar-bar janm leti hai. is pun: janm ke adhar par hi karmakand men shraddhadi karm ka vidhan nirmit kiya gaya hai. apane poorvajon ke nimitt di gee vastuen sachamuch unhen prapt hoti hain ya nahin, is vishay men adhikansh logon ko sndeh hai. hamare poorvaj apane karmanusar kis yoni men utpann hue hain, jab hamen itana hi nahin maloom to phir unake lie die ge padarth un tak kaise pahunch sakate hain? kya ek brahman ko bhojan karane se hamare poorvajon ka pet bhar sakata hai? n jane is tarah ke kitane hi saval logon ke man men uthate honge. vaise in prashnon ka sidhe-sidhe uttar dena sambhav bhi nahin hai, kyonki vaigyanik mapadandon ko is srishti ki pratyek vishayavastu par lagoo nahin kiya ja sakata. duniya men aisi kee baten hain, jinaka koee praman n milate hue bhi un par vishvas karana padata hai.

shraddh-karm ki snkshipt vidhi

pindadan karate shraddhalu
  • shraddh divas se poorv divas ko buddhiman purush shrotriy adi se vihit brahmanon ko 'pitri-shraddh' tatha ‘vaishv-dev-shraddh’ ke lie nimntrit karen.
  • pitri-shraddh ke lie samarthyanusar ayugm tatha vaishv-dev-shraddh ke lie yugm brahmanon ko nimntrit karana chahie.
  • nimntrit tatha nimntrak krodh, strigaman tatha parishram adi se door rahe.

pitri ka arth

'pitri' ka arth hai 'pita', kintu 'pitar' shabd jo do arthon men prayukt hua hai:-

  1. vyakti ke age ke tin mrit poorvaj
  2. manav jati ke prarambh ya prachin poorvaj jo ek prithakh lok ke adhivasi ke roop men kalpit hain.[2]

taparn

pooja archana karate shraddhalu

avahan, poojan, namaskar ke uparant tarpan kiya jata hai. jal men doodh, jau, chaval, chandan dal kar tarpan kary men prayukt karate hain. mil sake, to gnga jal bhi dal dena chahie. tripti ke lie tarpan kiya jata hai. svagarsth atmaon ki tripti kisi padarth se, khane-pahanane adi ki vastu se nahin hoti, kyonki sthool sharir ke lie hi bhautik upakaranon ki avashyakata padati hai. marane ke bad sthool sharir samapt hokar, keval sookshm sharir hi rah jata hai. sookshm sharir ko bhookh-pyas, sardi-garmi adi ki avashyakata nahin rahati, usaki tripti ka vishay koee, khady padarth ya had-mans vale sharir ke lie upayukt upakaran nahin ho sakate. sookshm sharir men vicharana, chetana aur bhavana ki pradhanata rahati hai, isalie usamen utkrisht bhavanaon se bana antahkaran ya vatavaran hi shantidayak hota hai.

shraddh ki mahatta

sootrakal (lagabhag ee. poo. 600) se lekar madhyakal ke dharmashastrakaron tak sabhi logon ne shraddh ki mahatta evn usase utpann kalyan ki prashnsa ke pul bandh diye hain. apastamb dharmasootr[3] ne adholikhit soochana di hai- 'purane kal men manushy evn dev isi lok men rahate the. dev log ygyon ke karan (puraskarasvaroop) svarg chale gaye, kintu manushy yahin par rah gaye. jo manushy devon ke saman ygy karate hain ve paralok (svarg) men devon evn brahma ke sath nivas karate hain. tab (manushyon ko pichhe rahate dekhakar) manu ne us krity ko arambh kiya jise shraddh ki sngya mili hai, jo manav jati ko shrey (mukti ya anand) ki or le jata hai. is krity men pitar log devata (adhishthata) hain, kintu brahman log (jinhen bhojan diya jata hai) ahavaniy agni (jisamen ygyon ke samay ahutiyan di jati hain) ke sthan par mane jate hain."

shraddh ki ahuti

ahutiyon ke vishay men bhi mat matantar hain. kathak grihyasootr[4], jaiminiy grihyasootr[5] evn shankhayan grihyasootr[6] ne kaha hai ki tin vibhinn ashtakaon men siddh (pake hue) shak, mans evn apoop (pooa ya roti) ki ahutiyan di jati hain. kintu par. grihyasootr[7] evn khadiragrihyasootr[8] ne pratham ashtaka ke lie apoopon (pooon) ki[9] evn antim ke lie siddh shakon ki vyavastha di hai. khadiragrihyasootr[10] se gay ki bali hoti hain ashvalayan grihyasootr[11], gobhilagrihyasootr[12], kaushik[13] evn baudhayan grihyasootr[14] ke mat se isake kee vikalp bhi hain–gay ya bhend ya bakare ki bali dena; sulabh jngali mans ya mudh-til yukt mans ya genda, hiran, bhainsa, sooar, shashak, chitti vale hiran, rohit hiran, kabootar ya titar, sarng evn any pakshiyon ka mans ya kisi boodhe lal bakare ka mans; machhaliyan; doogh men paka hua chaval (lapasi ke saman), ya bina pake hue ann ya phal ya mool, ya sona bhi diya ja sakata hai, athava gayon ya sandon ke lie keval ghas khilayi ja sakati hai. ya vedgy ko pani rakhane ke lie ghade diye ja sakate hain, ya 'yah main ashtaka ka sampadan karata hoon' aisa kahakar shraddhasambandhi mntron ka uchcharan kiya ja sakata hai.

vishad varnan

shraddh snbndhi sahity vishal hai. vaidik snhitaon se lekar adhunik tikaon evn nibandhon tak men shraddh ke vishay men vishad varnan prapt hota hai. puranon men shraddh ke vishay men sahasron shlok hain. vaidik snhitaon evn brahman granthon, grihyasootron evn dharmasootron se lekar arambhik smritigranthon yatha manu evn yagyvalky ki smritiyon tak, tadanantar pratinidhi puran evn medhatithi, vigyaneshvar tatha aparark ki tikaon dvara upasthit vivechanon se lekar madhyakalik nibandhon tak ka varnan hai. pauranik kal men katipay shakhaon ki or snket milate hain.[15] smritiyon evn mahabharat[16] ke vachanon tatha sootron, manu, yagyvalky evn any smritiyon ki tikaon ke atirikt shraddh sambandhi nibandhon ki snkhya apar hai. is vishay men keval nimnalikhit nibandhon ki (kal ke anusar vyavasthit) charcha hogi–shraddhakalpataru, aniruddh ki haralata evn pitridayita, smrityarthasar, smritichandrika, chaturvargachintamani (shraddh prakaran), hemadri[17], rudradhar ka shraddhavivek, madanaparijat, shraddhasar (nrisinhaprasad ka ek bhag), govindanand ki shraddhakriyakaumudi, raghunandan ka shraddhatatv, shraddhasaukhy[18], vinayak urph nand pandit ki shraddhakalpalata, nirnayasindhu, nilakanth ka shraddhamayookh, shraddhaprakash (viramitroday ka ek bhag), divakar bhatt ki shraddhachandrika, smritimuktaphal (shraddh par), dharmasindhu evn mitakshara ki tika–balabhatti. shraddhasambandhi vishad varnan upasthit karate samay, kahin-kahin avashyakatanusar samany vichar bhi upasthit kiye jayenge.

shraddhon ki phalasoochiyan

snkranti par kiya gaya shraddh anant kal tak ke lie sthayi hota hai, isi prakar janm ke din evn katipay nakshatron men shraddh karana chahie. apastamb dharmasootr[19], anushasan parv[20], vayu puran[21], yagyvalky[22], brahm puran[23], vishnu dharmasootr[24], koorm puran[25], brahmand puran[26] ne krishn paksh ki pratipada tithi se amavasya tak kiye gaye shraddhon ke phalon ka ullekh kiya hai.

grahan ke samay chhoot

vishnupad mndir, gaya

apastamb dharmasootr[27], manu[28], vishnudharmasootr[29], koorm puran[30], brahmand puran[31], bhavishy puran[32] ne ratri, sndhya (godhooli kal) ya jab soory ka turat uday hua ho tab–aise kalon men shraddh sampadan mana kiya hai. kintu chandragrahan ke samay chhoot di hai. apastamb dharmasootr ne itana jod diya hai ki yadi shraddh sampadan aparanhn men arambh hua ho aur kisi karan se der ho jae tatha soory doob jae to karta ko shraddh sampadan ke shesh krity doosare din hi karane chahie aur use darbhon par pind rakhane tak upavas karana chahie.

shraddh karane ka sthan

manu[33] ne vyavastha di hai ki karta ko prayas karake dakshin ki or dhaloo bhoomi khojani chahie, jo ki pavitr ho aur jahan par manushy adhikatar n jate hon. us bhoomi ko gobar se lip dena chahie, kyonki pitar log vastavik svachchh sthalon, nadi-taton evn us sthan par kiye ge shraddh se prasann hote hain, jahan par log bahudha kam hi jate hain. yagyvalky[34] ne snkshipt roop se kaha hai ki shraddh sthal chaturdik se avrit, pavitr evn dakshin ki or dhaloo hona chahie. shnkh[35] ka kathan hai–'bailon, hathiyon evn ghodon ki path par, oonchi bhoomi ya doosare ki bhoomi par shraddh nahin karana chahie.' koorm puran[36] men aya hai–van, puny parvat, tirthasthan, mandir–inake nishchit svami nahin hote aur ye kisi ki vaiyaktik sampatti nahin hain.


oopar jayen


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. deshe kale ch patre ch shraddhaya vidhina ch yath. pitrinuddishy viprabhyon dattn shraddhamudahratamh.. brahmapuran (shraddhaprakash, prishth 3 evn 6; shraddhakalpalata, prishth 3; para. ma. 1|2, prishth 299). mita. (yagy. 1|217) men aya hai–'shraddhn namtadaniyasy tatsyaniyasay va dravyasy pretoddeshen shraddhaya tyag:.' shraddhakalpataru (prishth 4) men aisa kaha gaya hai–'eten pitrinuddishy dravyotyago brahmanasvikaranaparyantn shraddhasvaroopn pradhanamh.' shraddhakriyakaumudi (prishth 3-4) ka kathan hai–'kalpatarulakshanamayyanurvaday sannyasinamatmashraddhe devashraddhe sanakadishraddhe chavyapte:.' shridattakrit pitribhakti men aya hai–'atr kalpatarukar: pitrinuddishy dravyapato brahmanasvikaranaparyanti hi shraddhamityah tadayuktamh.' dipakalika (yagyvalkyasmriti 1|128) ne kalpataru ki bat mani hai. shraddhavivek (prishth 1) ne is prakar kaha hai–'shraddhn nam vedavodhitapatrambhanapoorvakapramitapitradidevatoddeshyako dravyatyagavishesh:.' shraddhaprakash (prishth 4) ne is prakar kaha hai–'atrapastambadisakalavachanaparyalochanaya pramitamatroddeshyakannatyagavisheshasy brahmanadyadhikakaran pratipattyayngakasy shraddhapadarthatvn pratiyayate.' shraddhavivek ka kathan hai ki 'dravyatyag' ved ke shabdon dvara vihit (vedabodhat) hai aur tyagi huee vastu supatr brahman ko (patralambhanapoorvak) di jati hai. shraddhaprakash men 'pratipatti' ka arth hai ygy men prayukt kisi vastu ki antim parinati, jaisa ki darshapoornamas ygy men 'sah shakhaya prastarn praharati' namak vaky aya hai. yahan 'shakhapraharan' 'pratipattikarm' hai (jaimini. 4|2|10-13) n ki arthakarm. isi prakar ahitagni ke sath usake ygypatron ka dah pratipattikarm hai (jahan tak ygypatron ka sambandh hai).
  2. yah drishtikon yadi bharopiy (indo yooropiyan) nahin hai to kam se kam bharat parasy (indo eeraniyan) to hai hi. prachin parasi shastr phravashiyon (phravashis=angrezi bahuvachan} ke vishay men charcha karate hain, jo arambhik roop men prachin hindoo granthon men prayukt 'pitri' ya prachin romakon (romavasiyon) ka 'menas' shabd hai. ve mrit logon ke amar evn adhishthata devata the. kramash: 'phravashi' ka arth vistrit ho gaya aur usamen devata tatha prithvi evn akash jaisi vastuen bhi sammilit ho gayin, arthath pratyek men phravashi paya jane laga.
  3. apastamb dharmasootr (2|7|16|1-3
  4. kathak grihyasootr (61|3
  5. jaiminiy grihyasootr (2|3
  6. shankhayan grihyasootr (3|12|2
  7. par. grihyasootr (3|3
  8. khadiragrihyasootr (3|3|29-30
  9. isi se gobhilagri. 3|10|9 ne ise apoopashtaka kaha hai
  10. khadiragrihyasootr (3|4|1
  11. ashvalayan grihyasootr (2|4|7-10
  12. gobhilagrihyasootr (4|1|18-22
  13. kaushik (138|2
  14. baudhayan grihyasootr (2|11|51|61
  15. skandapuran (nagarakhand, 215|24-25) men aya hai–drishyante bahavo bheda dvijanan shraddhakarmani. shraddhasy bahavo bheda: shakhabhedairvyavasthita:..
  16. yatha–anushasanaparv, adhyay 87-92
  17. bibliothika indika mala, 1716 prishthon men
  18. todaranand ka ek bhag
  19. apastamb dharmasootr (2|7|16|8-22
  20. anushasan parv (87
  21. vayu puran (99|10-19
  22. yagyvalky (1|262-263
  23. brahm puran (220|15|21
  24. vishnu dharmasootr (78|36-50
  25. koorm puran (2|20|17-22
  26. brahmand puran(3|17|10-22
  27. apastamb dharmasootr (7|17|23-25
  28. manu (3|280
  29. vishnudharmasootr (77|8-9
  30. koorm puran (2|16|3-4
  31. brahmand puran (3|14|3
  32. bhavishy puran (1|185|1
  33. manu (2|206-207
  34. yagyvalky (1|227
  35. shnkh (para. ma. 1|2, prishth 303; shra. pr. prishth 140; smritich., shra., prishth 385
  36. koorm puran (2|22|17

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

shrutiyan

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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