ऋषि  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

  • 'rishi' shabd ki vyutpatti 'rishi' gatau dhatu se[1] mani jati hai.

rishati prapnoti sarvanh mantran, gyanen pashyati snsar parn va.
rishu + igupadhath kith[2] iti unadisootren inh kinchh.

gatyarthadrishaterdhatornam nivrittiradit:.
yasmadev svaynbhootastasmachchapyrishita smrita॥

  • vayu puran[6] men rishi shabd ke anek arth batae ge hain-

rishityev gatau dhatu: shrutau satye tapasyathh.
etath snniyatastasminh brahmamana s rishi smrit:॥

is shlok ke anusar 'rishi' dhatu ke char arth hote hain-

  • gati,
  • shruti,
  • saty tatha
  • tapash.

brahmaji dvara jis vyakti men ye charon vastuen niyat kar di jayen, vahi 'rishi' hota hai. vayu puran ka yahi shlok matsy puran[7] men kinchit pathabhed se upalabdh hota hai.

durgachary ki nirukti hai- rishirdarshanath.[8] is nirukt se rishi ka vyutpattilabhy arth hai- darshan karane vala, tatvon ki sakshat aparoksh anubhooti rakhane vala vishisht purush. 'sakshatkritadharman rishayo babhooa:'- yask ka yah kathan is nirukti ka pratiphalitarth hai. durgachary ka kathan hai ki kisi mantr vishesh ki sahayata se kiye jane par kisi karm se kis prakar ka phal parinat hota hai, rishi ko is tathy ka poorn gyan hota hai. taittiriy aranyak ke anusar is shabd (rishi) ki vyakhya is prakar hai- 'srishti ke arambh men tapasya karane vale ayonisnbhav vyaktiyon ke pas svaynbhoo brahm (vedabrahm) svayn prapt ho gaya. ved ka is svat: prapti ke karan, svayamev avirbhav hone ke karan hi rishi ka 'rishitv' hai. is vyakhya men rishi shabd ki nirukti 'tudadigan rish gatau' dhatu se mani gayi hai. apaurushey ved rishiyon ke hi madhyam se vishv men avirbhoot hua aur rishiyon ne ved ke varnamay vigrah ko apane divy shrotr se shravan kiya, isilie ved ko shruti bhi kaha gaya hai. adi rishiyon ki vani ke pichhe arth daudata-phirata hai. rishi arth ke pichhe kabhi nahin daudate 'rishinan punaradyanan vachamarthoanudhavati:' (uttar ramacharit, pratham ang). nishkarsh yah hai ki tapasya se pavitr 'antarjyoti sampann mantradrashta vyaktiyon ki hi sngya rishi hai.

  • yah vah vyakti hai, jisane mantr ke svaroop ko yatharth roop men samajha hai. 'yatharth'- gyan pray: char prakar- se hota hai
  1. parampara ke mool purush hone se,
  2. us tattv ke sakshat darshan se,
  3. shraddhapoorvak prayog tatha sakshatkar se aur
  4. ichchhit (abhilashit)-poorn saphalata ke sakshatkar se. atev in char karanon se mantr-sambandhit rishiyon ka nirdesh granthon men milata hai.jaise-
  • kalp ke adi men sarvapratham is anadi vaidik shabd-rashi ka pratham upadesh brahmaji ke hriday men hua aur brahmaji se paramparagat adhyayan-adhyapan hota raha, jisaka nirdesh 'vnsh brahman' adi granthon men upalabdh hota hai. at: samast ved ki parampara ke mool purush brahma (rishi) hain. inaka smaran parameshthi prajapati rishi ke roop men kiya jata hai.
  • isi parameshthi prajapati ki parampara ki vaidik shabdarashi ke kisi ansh ke shabd tattv ka jis rishi ne apani tapashcharya ke dvara kisi vishesh avasar par pratyaksh darshan kiya, vah bhi us mantr ka rishi kahalaya. us rishi ka yah rishitv shabdatattv ke sakshatkar ka karan mana gaya hai. is prakar ek hi mantr ka shabdatattv-sakshatkar anek rishiyon ko bhinn-bhinn roop se ya samoohik roop se hua tha. at: ve sabhi us mantr ke rishi mane gaye hain.
  • kalp granthon ke nirdeshon men aise vyaktiyon ko bhi rishi kaha gaya hai, jinhonne us mantr ya karm ka prayog tatha sakshatkar ati shraddhapoorvak kiya hai.
  • vaidik granthon visheshataya puran-granthon ke manan se yah bhi pata lagata hai ki jin vyaktiyon ne kisi mantr ka ek vishesh prakar ke prayog tatha sakshatkar se saphalata prapt ki hai, ve bhi us mantr ke rishi mane gaye hain.

ukt nirdeshon ko dhyan men rakhane ke sath yah bhi samajh lena chahiye ki ek hi mantr ko ukt charon prakar se ya ek hi prakar se dekhane vale bhinn-bhinn vyakti rishi hue hain. phalat: ek mantr ke anek rishi hone men paraspar koee virodh nahin hai, kyonki mantr rishiyon ki rachana ya anubhooti se sambandh nahin rakhata; apitu rishi hi us mantr se bahirng roop se sambaddh vyakti hai.

prakar

ved, gyan ka pratham pravakta; parokshadarshi, divy drishti vala. jo gyan ke dvara mntron ko athava snsar ki charam sima ko dekhata hai, vah rishi kahalata hai. usake sat prakar hain-

  1. vyas adi maharshi
  2. bhel adi paramarshi
  3. kanv adi devarshi
  4. vasishth adi brahmarshi
  5. sushrut adi shrutarshi
  6. rituparn adi rajarshi
  7. jaimini adi kandarshi

ratnakosh men bhi kaha gaya hai-

sapt brahmarshi-devarshi-maharshi-paramarshay:.
kandarshishch shrutarshishch rajarshishch kramavara:..

arthat- brahmarshi, devarshi, maharshi, paramarshi, kandarshi, shrutarshi, rajarshi ye saton kram se avar hain.

samanyat: vedon ki richaon ka sakshatkar karane vale log rishi kahe jate the. rigved men pray: poorvavarti gayakon evn samakalin rishiyon ka ullekh hai. prachin rachanaon ko uttaradhikar men prapt kiya jata tha evn rishi parivaron dvara unako naya roop diya jata tha. brahmanon ke samay tak richaon ki rachana hoti rahi. rishi, brahmanon men sabase uchch evn adaraniy the tatha unaki kushalata ki tulana pray: tvashta se ki gee hai. jo svarg se utare mane jate the. nisndeh rishi vaidikakalin kulon, rajasabhaon tatha sambhrant logon se sambandhit hote the. kuchh rajakumar bhi samay-samay par richaon ki rachana karate the, unhen rajanyarshi kahate the. ajakal usaka shuddh roop rajarshi hai. sadharanataya mntr ya kavyarachana brahmanon ka hi kary tha. mntr rachana ke kshetr men kuchh mahilaon ne bhi rishipad prapt kiya tha.

paravarti sahity men rishi richaon ke sakshatkar karane vale mane gaye hain, jinaka sngrah snhitaon men hua. pratyek vaidik sukt ke ullekh ke sath ek rishi ka nam ata hai. rishiban pavitr poorv kal ke prati nidhi hain tatha sadhu mane gaye hain. unake karyon ko devataon ke kary ke tuly mana gaya hai. rigved men kee sthanon par unhen sat ke dal men ullikhit kiya gaya hai.

brihadaranyak upanishad

brihadaranyak upanishad men unake nam gautam, bharadvaj, vishvamitr, jamadagni, vasishth, kashyap evn atri bataye gaye hain.

rigved

rigved men kuts, atri, rebh, agasty, kushik, vasishth, vyashv, tatha any nam rishiroop men ate hain.

atharvaved

atharvaved men aur bhi badi talika hai. jisamen angira, agasti, jamadagni, atri, kashyap, vasishth, bharadvaj, gavishthir, vishvamitr, kuts, kakshivant, kanv, medhatithi, trishok, ushana kavy, gautam tatha mudagal ke nam sammilit hain.

vaidik kal

vaidik kal men kaviyon ki pratiyogita ka bhi prachalan tha. ashvamedh ygy ke ek mukhy ang 'brahmedy' (samasyapoorti) ka yah ek ang tha. upanishad kal men bhi yah pratiyogita prachalit rahi. is kary men sabase prasiddh the yagyvalky, jo videh ke raja janak ki rajasabha men rahate the.

rishigan trikalgy mane gaye hain. unake dvara prastut kiye gaye sahity ko arshey kaha jata hai. yah vishvas hai ki kaliyug men rishi nahin hote, at: is yug men n to nayi shruti ka sakshatkar ho sakata hai aur n nayi smritiyon ki rachana. unaki rachanaon ka keval anuvad bhasha aur tika hi sambhav hai.

chitrashikhandi rishi

  • sapt rishiyon ka samoohik nam hai.
  • pancharatr shastr sat chitrashikhandi rishiyon dvara snkalit hain, jo snhitaon ka poorvavarti evn unaka pathapradarshak hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. siddhant kaumudi sootr-snkhya-1827 ke anusar
  2. 4/119
  3. vayu puran, 7/75
  4. matsy puran, 145/83
  5. brahmand puran, 1/32/87
  6. 59/79
  7. adhyay 145, shlok 81
  8. nirukt 2/11

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