जीवनसार- प्रेमचंद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Icon-edit.gif is lekh ka punarikshan evn sampadan hona avashyak hai. ap isamen sahayata kar sakate hain. "sujhav"

mera jivan sapat, samatal maidan hai, jisamen kahin-kahin gadhe to hain, par tilon, parvaton, ghane jngalon, gahari ghatiyon aur khandaharon ka sthan nahin hai. jo sajjan pahadon ki sair ke shaukin hain, unhen to yahan nirasha hi hogi. mera janm samvath 1967 men hua. pita dakakhane men klark the, mata marij. ek badi bahin bhi thi. us samay pitaji shayad 20 rupaye pate the. 40 rupaye tak pahunchate-pahunchate unaki mrityu ho gayi. yon vah bade hi vicharashil, jivan-path par ankhen kholakar chalane vale adami the; lekin akhiri dinon men ek thokar kha hi gaye aur khud to gire hi the, usi dhakke men mujhe bhi gira diya. pandrah sal ki avastha men unhonne mera vivah kar diya aur vivah karane ke sal hi bhar bad paralok sidhare. us samay main naven daraje men padhata tha. ghar men meri stri thi, vimata thi, unake do balak the, aur amadani ek paise ki nahin. ghar men jo kuchh leee-poonji thi, vah pitaji ki chh: mahine ki bimari aur kriya-karm men kharch ho chuki thi. aur mujhe araman tha, vakil banane ka aur em0e0 pas karane ka. naukari us jamane men bhi itani hi dushprapy thi, jitani ab hai. daud-dhoop karake shayad das-barah ki koee jagah pa jata; par yahan to age padhane ki dhun thi-panv men lohe ki nahin ashtadhatu ki bediy़an thin aur main chadhऩa chahata tha pahad par!

panv men joote n the. deh par sabit kapade n the. mahngi alag- 10 ser ke jau the. skool se sadhe tin baje chhutti milati thi. kashi ke kvins kalej men padhata tha. hedamastar ne phis maph kar di thi. imtahan sir par tha. aur main bans ke phatak par ek ladake ko padhane jata tha. jadon ke din the. char baje pahunchata tha. padhakar chh: baje chhutti pata. vahan se mera ghar dehat men panch mil par tha. tej chalane par bhi ath baje se pahale ghar n pahunch sakata. aur prat:kal ath hi baje phir ghar se chalana padata tha, kabhi vakt par skool n pahunchata. rat ko bhojan karake kuppi ke samane padhane baithata aur n jane kab so jata. phir bhi himmat bandhe hue tha.

maitrikuleshan to kisi tarah pas ho gaya, par aya sekend divijan men aur kvins kalej men bharati hone ki asha n rahi. fis keval avval daraje vale ki hi muaf ho sakati thi. snyog se usi sal hindoo kalej khul gaya. mainne is naye kalej men padhane ka nishchay kiya. prinsipal the mi0 richardasan. unake makan par gaya. vah poore hindustani vesh men the. kurata aur dhoti pahane pharsh par baithe kuchh likh rahe the. magar mizaj ko tabadil karana itana asan n tha. meri prarthana sunakar-adhi hi kahane paya tha-bole ki ghar men kalej ki batachit nahin karata, qalej men ao. khair, kalej men gaya. mulakat huee; par nirashajanak. fis muaf n ho sakati thi. ab kya karoon? agar pratishthit sipharishen la sakata, to shayad meri prarthana par kuchh vichar hota; lekin dehati yuvak ko shahar men janata hi kaun tha?

roj ghar se chalata ki kahin se sifarish laoon, par barah mil ki mnzil marakar sham ko ghar laut ata. kisase kahoon? koee apana puchhattar n tha.

kee dinon ke bad ek sifarish mili. ek thakur indranarayan sinh hindoo kalej ki prabandhakarini sabha men the. unase jakar roya. unhen mujh par daya a gayi. sifarishi chiththi de di. us samay mere anand ki sima n rahi. khush hota hua ghar aya. doosare din prinsipal se milane ka irada tha; lekin ghar pahunchate hi mujhe jvar a gaya. aur do saptah se pahale n hila. nim ka kadha pite-pite nak men dam a gaya. ek din dvar par baitha tha ki mere purohitaji a gaye. meri dasha dekhakar samachar poochha aur turant kheton men jakar ek jad khod laye aur use dhokar sat dane kali mirch ke sath pisavakar mujhe pila diya. usane jadoo sa asar kiya. jvar chadhऩe men ghante hi bhar ki der thi. is aushadh ne, manon jakar usaka gala hi daba diya. mainne panditaji se bar-bar us jadi ka nam poochha, par unhonne n bataya. kaha-nam bata dene se usaka asar jata rahega.

ek mahine bad main phir mi0 richardasan se mila aur sifarishi chiththi dikhaee. prinsipal ne meri taraph tivr netron se dekhakar poochha-itane dinon kahan the?

‘bimar ho gaya tha.’

‘kya bimari thi?’

main is prashn ke lie taiyar n tha. agar jvar batata hoon to shayad sahab mujhe jhootha samajhen. jvar meri samajh men halaki-si chiz thi, jisake lie itani lambi gairahajiri anavashyak thi. koee aisi bimari batani chahie, jo apani kashtasadhyata ke karan daya ko bhi ubhare. us vakt mujhe aur kisi bimari ka nam yad n aya. thakur indranarayan sinh se jab main sifarish ke lie mila tha, to unhonne apane dil ki dhadaqan ki bimari ki charcha ki thi. vah shabd mujhe yad a gaya.

mainne kaha-pailapiteshan aph hart sar!

sahab ne vismit hokar meri or dekha aur kaha-ab tum bilakul achchhe ho?

‘ji han!’

‘achchha, pravesh-patr bharakar lao.’

mainne samajha beda par hua. pharm liya, khanapuri ki aur pesh kar diya. sahab us samay koee klas le rahe the. tin baje mujhe pharm vapas mila. us par likha tha-isaki yogyata ki janch ki jay.

yah nee samasya upasthit huee. mera dil baith gaya. angreji ke siva aur kisi vishay men pas hone ki mujhe asha n thi. aur bijaganit aur rekhaganit se to rooh kanpati thi. jo kuchh yad tha, vah bhi bhool-bhal gaya tha; lekin doosara upay hi kya tha? bhagy ka bharosa karake klas men gaya aur apana pharm dikhaya. prophesar sahab bngali the angreji padha rahe the. vashingatan irving ka ‘ripivan vinkil’ tha. main pichhe ki katar men jakar baith gaya aur do-hi-char minit men mujhe gyat ho gaya ki prophesar sahab apane vishay ke gyata hain. ghanta samapt hone par unhonne aj ke path par mujhase kee prashn kiye aur farm par ‘santoshajanak’ likh diya.

doosara ghanta bijaganit ka tha. isake prophesar bhi bngali the. mainne apana farm dikhaya. nee snsthaon mns pray: vahi chhatr ate hain, jinhen kahin jagah nahin milati. yahan bhi yahi hal tha. klason men ayogy chhatr bhare hue the. pahale rele men jo aya, vah bharati ho gaya. bhookh men sag-pat sabhi ruchikar hota hai. ab pet bhar gaya tha. chhatr chun-chunakar liye jate the. in prophesar sahab ne ganit men meri pariksha li aur main phel ho gaya. farm par ganit ke khane men ‘asantoshajanak’ likh diya.

main itana hatash hua ki farm lekar phir prinsipal ke pas n gaya. sidha ghar chala aya. ganit mere lie gaurishnkar ki choti thi. kabhi us par n chadh saka. ‘intaramidiet’ men do bar ganit men phel hua aur nirash hokar imtahan dena chhod diya. das-barah sal ke bad jab ganit ki pariksha men akhtiyari ho gayi tab mainne doosare vishay lekar use asani se pas kar liya. us samay tak yoonivarsiti ke is niyam ne, kitane yuvakon ki akankshaon ka khoon kiya, kaun kah sakata hai. khair main nirash hokaraghar to laut aya; lekin padhane ki lalasa abhi tak bani huee thi. ghar baithakar kya karata? kisi tarah ganit ko sudharoon aur kalej men bharati ho jaoon, yahi dhun thi. isake lie shahar men rahana zaroori tha. snyog se ek vakil sahab ke ladaqon ko padhane ka kam mil gaya. panch rupaye vetan thahara mainne do rupaye men apana gujar karake tin rupaye ghar par dene ka nishchay kiya. vakil sahab ke astabal ke oopar ek chhoti-si kachchi kothari thi. usi men rahane ki agya le li! ek tat ka tukada bichha diya! bazar se ek chhota sa laimp laya aur shahar men rahane laga. ghar se kuchh baratan bhi laya. ek vakt khichadi paka leta aur baratan dho-manjakar laibreri chala jata. ganit to bahana tha, upanyas adi padha karata. pandit ratananath dar ka ‘phasana-e-azad’ unhin dinon padha. ‘chandrakanta-santati’ bhi padhi. bnkim baboo ke urdoo anuvad, jitane pustakalay men mile, sab padh dale. jin vakil sahab ke ladaqon ko padhata tha, unake sale mere sath maitrikuleshan men padhate the. unhin ki sifarish se mujhe yah pad mila tha. unase dosti thi, isalie jab zaroorat hoti, paise udhar le liya karata tha. vetan milane par hisab ho jata tha. kabhi do rupaye hath ate, kabhi tin. jis din vetan ke do-tin rupaye milate, mera snyam hath se nikal jata. pyasi trishna halavaee ki dookan ki or khinch le jati. do-tin ane paise khakar hi uthata. usi din ghar jata aur do-dhaee rupaye de ata. doosare din se phir udhar lena shuroo kar deta; lekin kabhi-kabhi udhar mangane men bhi snkoch hota aur din-ka-din niraharavrat rakhana pad jata.

is tarah char-panch mahine bite. is bich ek bajaj se do-dhaee rupaye ke kapade liye the. roj udhar se nikalata tha. use mujh par vishvas ho gaya tha. jab mahine-do-mahine nikal gaye aur main rupaye n chuka saka, to mainne udhar se nikalana hi chhod diya! chakkar dekar nikal jata. tin sal ke bad usake rupaye ada kar saka. usi jamane men shahar ka ek beladar mujhase hindi padhane aya karata tha. vakil sahab ke pichhavade usaka makan tha. ‘jan lo bhaiya’ usaka sakhun takiya tha. ham log use ‘jan lo bhaiya’ hi kaha karate the. ek bar mainne usase bhi ath ane paise udhar liye the. vah paise usane mujhase mere ghar ganv men jakar panch sal bad vasool kiye. meri ab bhi padhane ki ichchha thi; lekin din-din nirash hota jata tha. ji chahata tha, kahin naukari kar loon. par naukari kaise milati hai aur kahan milati hai, yah n janata tha.

jadon ke din the. pas ek kaudi n thi. do din ek-ek paise ka chabena khakar kate the. mere mahajan ne udhar dene se inakar kar diya tha, ya snkochavash main usase mang n saka tha. chirag jal chuke the. main ek bukaselar ki dookan par ek kitab bechane gaya tha. chakravarti ganit ki kunji thi. do sal hue kharidi thi. ab tak use bade jatan se rakhe hue tha; par aj charon or se nirash hokar mainne use bechane ka nishchay kiya. kitab do rupaye ki thi; lekin ek par sauda thik hua. main rupaya lekar dookan se utara hi tha ki ek badi-badi moonchhon vale saumy purush ne, jo us dookan par baithe hue the, mujhase poochha-tum kahan padhate ho?

mainne kaha-padhata to kahin nahin hoon; par asha karata hoon ki kahin nam likha loonga.

‘maitrikuleshan pas ho?’

‘ji han.’

‘naukari karane ki ichchha to nahin hai?’

‘naukari kahin milati hi nahin.’

vah sajjan ek chhote-se skool ke hedamastar the. inhen ek sahakari adhyapak ki zaroorat thi. atharah rupaye vetan tha. mainne svikar kar liya. atharah rupaye us jamane meri nirasha-vyathit kalpana ki oonchi-se-oonchi udan se bhi oopar the. main doosare din hedamastar sahab se milane ka vada karake chala, to panv zamin par n padate the. yah sanh 1899 ki bat hai. paristhitiyon ka samana karane ko taiyar tha aur ganit men atak n jata, to avashy age jata; par sabase kathin paristhiti yoonivarsiti ki manovigyan-shoonyata thi, jo us samay aur usake kee sal bad tak us dakoo ka-sa vyavahar karati thi, jo chhote-bade sabhi ko ek hi khat par sulata hai.

2

mainne pahale-pahal 1907 men galpen likhani shuroo kin. daktar ravindranath ki kee galpen mainne angreji men padhi thin aur unaka urdoo anuvad urdoo patrikaon men chhapavaya tha. upanyas to mainne 1901 hi se likhana shuroo kiya. mera ek upanyas 1902 men nikala aur doosara 1904 men; lekin galp 1907 se pahile mainne ek bhi n likhi. meri pahali kahani ka nam tha, ‘snsar ka sabase anamol ratn’. vah 1907 men, ‘jamana’ men chhapi. usake bad mainne char-panch kahaniyan likhin. panch kahaniyon ka sngrah ‘soje vatan’ ke nam se 1909 men chhapa. us samay bng-bhng ka andolan ho raha tha. kangres men garm dal ki srishti ho chuki thi. in panchon kahaniyon men svadesh-prem ki mahima gaee gayi thi.

us vakt main shiksha-vibhag men sab dipti insapektar tha aur hamirapur zile men tainat tha. pustak ko chhape chh: mahine ho chuke the. ek din main rat ko apani ravati men baitha hua tha ki mere nam jiladhish ka paravana pahuncha, ki mujhase turant milo. jadon ke din the. sahab daure par the. mainne bailagadi jutavaee aur raton-rat 30-40 mil tay karake doosare din sahab se mila. sahab ke samane ‘soje vatan’ ki ek prati rakhi huee thi. mera matha thanaka. us vakt main ‘navabaray’ ke nam se likha karata tha. mujhe isaka kuchh-kuchh pata mil chuka tha ki khuphiya pulis is kitab ke lekhak ki khoj men hai. samajh gaya, un logon ne mujhe khoj nikala aur isi ki javabadehi karane ke lie mujhe bulaya gaya hai.

sahab ne mujhase poochha-yah pustak tumane likhi hai?

mainne svikar kiya.

sahab ne mujhase ek-ek kahani ka ashay poochha aur ant men bigadaqar bole-tumhari kahaniyon men ‘sidishan’ bhara hua hai. apane bhagy ko bakhano ki angreji amaladari men ho. mugalon ka rajy hota, to tumhare donon hath kat liye jate. tumhari kahaniyan ekangi hain, tumane angreji sarakar ki tauhin ki hai, adi. phaisala yah hua ki main ‘soje vatan’ ki sari pratiyan sarakar ke havale kar doon aur sahab ki anumati ke bina kabhi kuchh n likhoon. mainne samajha, chalo sasta chhoote. ek hazar pratiyan chhapi thin. abhi mushkil se 300 biki thin. 700 pratiyan mainne ‘jamana karyalay’ se mngavakar sahab ki seva men arpan kar din.

mainne samajha tha, bala tal gayi; kintu adhikariyon ko itani asani se santosh n ho saka. mujhe bad ko maloom hua ki sahab ne is vishay men zile ke any karmachariyon se paramarsh kiya. suparintedent pulis, do dipti kalektar aur dipti insapektar-jinaka main matahat tha meri takadir ka phaisala karane baithe. ek dipti kalektar sahab ne galpon se uddharan nikalakar siddh kiya ki inamen adi se ant tak sidishan ke siva aur kuchh nahin hai. aur sidishan bhi sadharan nahin; balki snkramak. pulis ke devata ne kaha-aise khataranak adami ko zaroor sakht saza deni chahie. dipti-insapektar sahab mujhase bahut sneh karate the. is bhay se ki kahin muamala tool n pakad le, unhonne yah prastav kiya ki vah mitrabhav se mere rajanitik vicharon ki thah len aur us kameti men riport pesh karen. unaka vichar tha, ki mujhe samajha den aur riport men likh den, ki lekhak keval qalam ka ugr hai aur rajanitik andolan se usaka koee sambandh nahin hai. kameti ne unake prastav ko svikar kiya. halanki pulis ke devata us vakt bhi paintare badalate rahe.

sahasa kalektar sahab ne dipti insapektar se poochha-apako asha hai ki vah apase apane dil ki baten kah dega?

‘ap mitr banakar usaka bhed lena chahate hain. yah to mukhabiri hai. main ise kaminapan samajhata hoon.’

dipti sahab apratibh hokar hakalate hue bole-main to huzoor ke hukm ..... sahab ne bat kati-nahin, yah mera hukm nahin hai. main aisa hukm nahin dena chahata. agar pustak ke lekhak ka sidishan sabit ho sake, to khuli adalat men mukadama chalaie, nahin dhamaki dekar chhod dijie. ‘munh men ram, bagal men chhuri’ mujhe pasand nahin.

jab yah vrittant dipti insapektar sahab ne kee din pichhe khud mujhase kaha, to mainne poochha-kya ap sachamuch meri mukhabiri karate?

vah hnsakar bole-asambhav! koee lakh rupaye bhi deta, to n karata. main to keval adalati karravaee rokana chahata tha, aur vah ruk gayi. mukadama adalat men ata, to saza ho jana yakini tha. yahan apaki pairavi karane vala bhi koee n milata; magar sahab hain sharif adami.

mainne svikar kiya-bahut hi shariph.

3

main hamirapur hi men tha ki mujhe pechish ki shikayat paida ho gayi. garmi ke dinon men dehaton men koee hari tarakari milati n thi. ek bar kee din tak lagatar sookhi ghuniyan khani padin. yon main ghuniyon ko bichchhoo samajhata hoon aur tab bhi samajhata tha; lekin n-jane kyonkar yah dharana man men ho gayi ki ajavain se ghuniyan ka badipan jata rahata hai. khoob ajavain kha liya karata. das-barah din tak kisi tarah ka kasht n hua. mainne samajha, shayad bundelakhand ki pahadi jalavayu ne meri durbal pachan shakti ko tivr kar diya; lekin ek din pet men dard hua aur sare din main machhali ki bhanti tadapata raha. phnkiyan lagayin; magar dard n kam hua. doosare din se pechish ho gayi; mal ke sath anv ane laga; lekin dard jata raha.

ek mahina bit chuka tha. main ek kasbe men pahuncha, to vahan ke thanedar sahab ne mujhase thane men hi thaharane aur bhojan karane ka agrah kiya. kee din se moong ki dal khate aur pathy karate-karate oob utha tha. socha kya haraj hai, aj yahin thaharo. bhojan to svadisht milega! thane men hi adda jama diya. darogaji ne jaminkand ka salan pakavaya, pakaudiy़an, dahi-bade, pulav. mainne ehatiyat se khaya-jaminkand to mainne keval do phanken khayin; lekin kha-pikar jab thane ke samane darogaji ke phoos ke bngale men leta, to do-dhaee ghante ke bad pet men phir dard hone laga. sari rat aur agale din-bhar karahata raha. sode ki do botalen pine ke bad kai huee, to jakar chain mila. mujhe vishvas ho gaya, yah jaminkand ki karastani hai. ghuniyan se pahale meri kutti ho chuki thi. ab jaminkand se bhi bair ho gaya. tabase in donon chijon ki soorat dekhakar main kanp jata hoon. dard to phir jata raha; par pechish ne adda jama diya. pet men chaubison ghante tanav bana rahata. aphara hua karata. snyam ke sath char-panch mil tahalane jata, vyayam karata, pathy se bhojan karata, koee-n-koee aushadhi bhi khaya karata; kintu pechish talane ka nam n leti thi, aur deh bhi ghulati jati thi. kee bar kanapur akar dava karayi, ek bar mahine-bhar prayag men daktari aur ayurvedik aushadhiyon ka sevan kiya; par koee fayada nahin.

tab mainne tabadala karaya. chahata tha rohelakhand; par pataka gaya basti ke zile men, aur halaka vah mila jo nepal ki taraee hai. saubhagy se vahin mera parichay sv0 pn0 mannan dvivedi gajapuri se hua, jo domariyagnj men tahasiladar the. kabhi-kabhi unake sath sahity-charcha ho jati thi; lekin yahan akar pechish aur badh gayi. tab mainne chh: mahine ki chhutti li; aur lakhanoo ke medikal kalej se nirash hokar kashi ke ek hakim se ilaj karane laga. tin-char mahine bad kuchh thoda-sa fayada to maloom hua, par bimari jad se n gayi. jab phir basti men pahuncha to vahi halat ho gayi. tab mainne daure ki naukari chhod di aur basti haeeskool men skool-mastar ho gaya. phir yahan se tabadil hokar gorakhapur pahuncha. pechish poorvavat jari rahi. yahan mera parichay mahavir prasadaji poddar se hua jo sahity ke marmgy, rashtr ke sachche sevak aur bade hi udyogi purush hain. mainne basti se hi ‘sarasvati’ men kee galpen chhapavayin thin. poddaraji ki prerana se mainne phir upanyas likha aur ‘sevasadan’ ki srishti huee. vahin mainne praivet bi0e0 bhi pas kiya. ‘sevasadan’ ka jo adar hua, usase utsahit hokar mainne ‘premashram’ likh dala aur galpen bhi barabar likhata raha.

kuchh mitron ki, visheshakar poddaraji ki salah se mainne jal-chikitsa arambh ki; lekin tin-char mahine ke snan aur pathy ka mere durbhagy se yah parinam hua ki mera pet badh gaya aur mujhe rasta chalane men bhi durbalata maloom hone lagi. ek bar kee mitron ke sath mujhe ek jine par chadhऩe ka avasar pada. aur log dhadadhadate hue chale gaye, par mere panv hi n uthate the. badi mushkil se hathon ka sahara lete hue oopar pahuncha. usi din mujhe apani kamazori ka yatharth gyan hua. samajh gaya, ab thode dinon ka aur mehaman hoon, jal-chikitsa band kar di.

ek din sandhya samay ‘urdoo bazar’ men shri dasharathaprasadaji dvivedi, sampadak ‘svadesh’ se meri bhent ho gayi. kabhi-kabhi unase bhi sahity-charcha hoti rahati thi. unhonne meri pili soorat dekhakar khed ke sath kaha-babooji, ap to bilakul pile pad gaye hain, koee ilaj karaie.

mujhe apani bimari ka zikr bura lagata tha. main bhool jana chahata tha ki main bimar hoon. jab do-char mahine hi ka zindagi se nata hai, to kyon n hnsakar maroon? mainne chidhaqar kaha-mar hi to jaoonga bhee, ya aur kuchh! main maut ka svagat karane ko taiyar hoon. dvivediji bechare lajjit ho gaye. mujhe pichhe se apani ugrata par bada khed hua. yah 1921 ki bat hai. asahayog andolan joron par tha. jaliyanvala bag ka hatyakand ho chuka tha. unhin dinon mahatma gandhi ne gorakhapur ka daura kiya. gajimiyan ke maidan men ooncha pletapharm taiyar kiya gaya. do lakh se kam jamav n tha. kya shahar, kya dehat, shraddhalu janata daudi chali ati thi. aisa samaroh mainne apane jivan men kabhi n dekha tha. mahatmaji ke darshanon ka yah pratap tha, ki mujh-jaisa mara hua adami bhi chet utha. usake do hi char din bad mainne apani 20 sal ki naukari se istipha de diya.

ab dehat men chalakar kuchh prachar karane ki ichchha huee. poddaraji ka dehat men ek makan tha. ham aur vah donon vahan chale gaye aur charkhe banavane lage. vahan jane ke ek hi saptah bad meri pechish kam hone lagi. yahan tak ki ek mahine ke andar mal ke sath anv ana band ho gaya. phir main kashi chala aya aur apane dehat men baithakar kuchh prachar aur kuchh sahity-seva men jivan ko sarthak karane laga. gulami se mukt hote hi main nau sal ke jirn rog se mukt ho gaya.

is anubhav ne mujhe kattar bhagyavadi bana diya hai. ab mera dridh vishvas hai ki bhagavanh ki jo ichchha hoti hai vahi hota hai, aur manushy ka udyog bhi ichchha ke bina saphal nahin hota.

Icon-edit.gif is lekh ka punarikshan evn sampadan hona avashyak hai. ap isamen sahayata kar sakate hain. "sujhav"

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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