मुक्तिधन -प्रेमचंद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Icon-edit.gif is lekh ka punarikshan evn sampadan hona avashyak hai. ap isamen sahayata kar sakate hain. "sujhav"

bharatavarsh men jitane vyavasay hain, un sabamen len-den ka vyavasay sabase labhadayak hai. am taur par sood ki dar 25 ru. saikada salana hai. prachur sthavar ya jngam sampatti par 12 ru. saikade salana sood liya jata hai, isase kam byaj par rupaya milana prayah asnbhav hai. bahut kam aise vyavasay hain, jinamen 15 ru. saikade se adhik labh ho aur vah bhi bina kisi jhnjhat ke. us par najarane ki rakam alag, likhayi, dalali alag, adalat ka kharcha alag. ye sab rakamen bhi kisi n kisi tarah mahajan hi ki jeb men jati hain. yahi karan hai ki yahan len-den ka dhndha itani taraqqi par hai. vakil, daauktar, sarakari karmachari, zamindar koee bhi jisake pas kuchh falatoo dhan ho, yah vyavasay kar sakata hai. apani poonji ka sadupayog ka yah sarvottam sadhan hai. lala daoodayal bhi isi shreni ke mahajan the. vah kachahari men mukhtaragiri karate the aur jo kuchh bachat hoti thi, use 25-30 rupaye saikada varshik byaj par utha dete the. unaka vyavahar adhikatar nimn shreni ke manushyon se hi rahata tha. uchch varn valon se vah chaukanne rahate the, unhen apane yahan phatakane hi n dete the. unaka kahana tha (aur pratyek vyavasayi purush usaka samarthan karata hai) ki brahman, kshatriy ya kayasth ko rupaye dene se yah kahin achchha hai ki rupaya kuen men dal diya jay. inake pas rupaye lete samay to bahut sampatti hoti hai; lekin rupaye hath men ate hi vah sari sampatti gayab ho jati hai. us par patni, putr ya bhaee ka adhikar ho jata hai athava yah prakat hota hai ki us sampatti ka astitv hi n tha. inaki qanooni vyavasthaon ke samane bade-bade nitishastri ke vidvanh bhi munh ki kha jate hain.

lala daoodayal ek din kachahari se ghar a rahe the. raste men unhonne ek vichitr ghatana dekhi. ek musalaman khada apani goo bech raha tha, aur kee adami use ghere khade the. koee usake hath men rupaye rakhe deta tha, koee usake hath se goo ki pagahiya chhinane ki cheshta karata tha; kintu vah garib musalaman ek bar un grahakon ke munh ki or dekhata tha aur kuchh soch kar pagahiya ko aur bhi mazaboot pakad leta tha. goo mohani-roop thi. chhoti-si garadan, bhari putthe aur doodh se bhare hue than the. pas hi ek sundar, balishth bachhada goo ki gardan se laga hua khada tha. musalaman bahut kshubdh aur dukhi maloom hota tha. vah karun netron se goo ko dekhata aur dil masos kar rah jata tha. daoodayal goo ko dekhakar rijh gaye. poochha- kyon ji, yah goo bechate ho ? kya nam hai tumhara ?

musalaman ne daoodayal ko dekha to prasannamukh unake samip jakar bola- han hajoor, bechata hoon.

daoo.- kahan se laye ho ? tumhara nam kya hai ?

mus.- nam to hai rahaman. pachauli men rahata hoon.

daoo.- doodh deti hai ?

mus.- han hajoor, ek bela men tin ser duh lijiye. abhi doosara hi to bet hai. itani sidhi hai ki bachcha bhi duh le. bachche pair ke pas khelate rahate hain, par kya majal ki sir bhi hilave.

daoo.- koee tumhen yahan pahachanata hai.

mukhtar sahab ko shubaha hua ki kahin chori ka mal n ho.

mus.- nahin, hajoor, garib adami hoon, meri kisi se jan-pahachan nahin hai.

daoo.- kya dam mangate ho ?

rahaman ne 50 ru. batalaye. mukhtar sahab ko 30 ru. ka mal jncha. kuchh der tak donon or se mol-bhav hota raha. ek ko rupayon ki garaj thi aur doosare ko goo ki chah. sauda patane men koee kathinaee n huee. 35 ru. par sauda tay ho gaya.

rahaman ne sauda to chuka diya; par ab bhi vah moh ke bndhan men pada hua tha. kuchh der tak soch men dooba khada raha, phir goo ko liye mnd gati se daoodayal ke pichhe-pichhe chala. tab ek adami ne kaha- abe ham 36 ru. dete hain. hamare sath chal.

rahaman- nahin dete tumhen; kya kuchh jabaradasti hai ?

doosare adami ne kaha- hamase 40 ru. le le, ab to khush hua ?

yah kahakar usane rahaman ke hath se gay ko le lena chaha; magar rahaman ne hami n bhari. akhir un sabane nirash hokar apani rah li.

rahaman jab jara door nikal gaya, to daoodayal se bola- hajoor, ap hindoo hain ise lekar ap palenge, isaki seva karenge. ye sab kasaee hain, inake hath main 50 ru. ko bhi kabhi n bechata. ap bade mauke se a gaye, nahin to ye sab jabaradasti se goo ko chhin le jate. badi bipat men pad gaya hoon sarakar, tab yah gay bechane nikala hoon. nahin to is ghar ki lakshmi ko kabhi n bechata. ise apane hathon se pala-posa hai. kasaiyon ke hath kaise bech deta ? sarakar, ise jitani hi khali denge, utana hi yah doodh degi. bhains ka doodh bhi itana mitha aur gadha nahin hota. hajoor se ek araj aur hai, apane charavahe ko dant dijiyega ki ise mare-pite nahin.

daoodayal ne chakit ho kar rahaman ki or dekha. bhagavanh ! is shreni ke manushy men bhi itana saujany, itani sahridayata hai ! yahan to bade-bade tilak tripundadhari mahatma kasaiyon ke hath guen bech jate hain; ek paise ka ghata bhi nahin uthana chahate. aur yah garib 5 ru. ka ghata sahakar isalie mere hath goo bech raha hai ki yah kisi kasaee ke hath n pad jay. garibon men bhi itani samajh ho sakati hai !

unhonne ghar akar rahaman ko rupaye diye. rahaman ne rupaye ganth men bandhe, ek bar phir goo ko prem-bhari ankhon se dekha aur daoodayal ko salam karake chala gaya.

rahaman ek garib kisan tha aur garib ke sabhi dushman hote hain. zamindar ne ijafa-lagan ka dava dayar kiya tha. usi ki javabadehi karane ke lie rupayon ki zaroorat thi. ghar men bailon ke siva aur koee sampatti n thi. vah is goo ko pranon se bhi priy samajhata tha; par rupayon ki koee tadabir n ho saki, to vivash hokar gay bechani padi.

2

pachauli men musalamanon ke kee ghar the. abaki kee sal ke bad haj ka rasta khula tha. pashchaty mahasamar ke dinon men rah bnd thi. ganv ke kitane hi stri-purush haj karane chale. rahaman ki boodhi mata bhi haj ke lie taiyar huee. rahaman se boli- beta, itana sabab karo. bas mere dil men yahi ek araman baki hai. is araman ko liye hue kyon duniya se jaoon; khuda tumako is neki ki saza (phal) dega. matribhakti graminon ka vishisht gun hai. rahaman ke pas itane rupaye kahan the ki haj ke lie kafi hote; par mata ki agya kaise talata ? sochane laga, kisi se udhar le loon. kuchh abaki ookh perakar de doonga, kuchh agale sal chuka doonga. allah ke phajal se ookh aisi huee ki kabhi n huee thi. yah man ki dua hi ka phal hai. magar kisase loon ? kam se kam 200 ru. hon, to kam chale. kisi mahajan se jan-pahachan bhi to nahin hai. yahan jo do-ek baniye len-den karate hain, ve to asamiyon ki garadan hi retate hain. chaloon, lala daoodayal ke pas. in sabase to vahi achchhe hain. suna hai, vade par rupaye lete hain, kisi tarah nahin chhodate, loni chahe divar ko chhod de, dimak chahe lakadi ko chhod de par vade par rupaye n mile, to vah asamiyon ko nahin chhodate. bat pichhe karate hain, nalish pahale. han, itana hai ki asamiyon ki ankh men dhool nahin jhonkate, hisab-kitab saf rakhate hain. kee din vah isi soch-vichar men pada raha ki unake pas jaoon ya n jaoon. agar kahin vade par rupaye n pahunche, to ? bina nalish kiye n manenge. ghar-bar, bail-badhiya, sab nilam kara lenge. lekin jab koee vash n chala, to harakar daoodayal ke hi pas gaya aur rupaye karz mange.

daoo.- tumhin ne to mere hath goo bechi thi n ?

rahaman- han hajoor !

daoo.- rupaye to tumhen de doonga, lekin main vade par rupaye leta hoon. agar vada poora n kiya, to tum jano. phir main jara bhi riayat n karoonga. batao kab doge ?

rahaman ne man men hisab lagakar kaha- sarakar, do sal ki miyad rakh len.

daoo.- agar do sal men n doge, to byaj ki dar 32 ru. saikade ho jayagi. tumhare sath itani murauvat karoonga ki nalish n karoonga.

rahaman- jo chahe kijiega. hajoor ke hath men hi to hoon.

rahaman ko 200 ru. ke 180 ru. mile. kuchh likhaee kat gee, kuchh najarana nikal gaya, kuchh dalali men a gaya. ghar aya, thoda-sa gud rakha hua tha, use becha aur stri ko samajha-bujhakar mata ke sath haj ko chala.

3

miyad gujar jane par lala daoodayal ne takaja kiya. ek adami rahaman ke ghar bhejakar use bulaya aur kathor svar men bole- kya abhi do sal nahin poore hue ! lao, rupaye kahan hain ?

rahaman ne bade din bhav se kaha- hajoor, badi gardish men hoon. amman jab se haj karake ayi hain, tabhi se bimar padi huee hain. rat-din unhin ki dava-daroo men daudate gujarata hai. jab tak jiti hain hajoor kuchh seva kar loon, pet ka dhndha to zindagi-bhar laga rahega. abaki kuchh phasil nahin huee hajoor. ookh pani bina sookh gayi. san khet men pade-pade sookh gaya. dhone ki muhalat n mili. rabi ke lie khet jot n saka, parati pade hue hain. allah hi janata hai, kis musibat se din kat rahe hain. hajoor ke rupaye kaudi-kaudi ada karoonga, sal-bhar ki aur muhalat dijie. amman achchhi huee aur mere sir se bala tali.

daoodayal ne kaha- 32 rupaye saikade byaj ho jayaga.

rahaman ne javab diya- jaisi hajoor ki maraji.

rahaman yah vada karake ghar aya, to dekha man ka antim samay a pahuncha hai. pran-pida ho rahi hai, darshan bade the, so ho gaye. man ne bete ko ek bar vatsaly drishti se dekha, ashirvad diya aur paralok sidhari. rahaman ab tak garadan tak pani men tha, ab pani sir par a gaya.

is vakt padosiyon se kuchh udhar lekar daphan-kafan ka prabndh kiya, kintu mrit atma ki shanti aur paritosh ke lie zakat aur fatihe ki zaroorat thi, qabr banavani zaroori thi, biradari ka khana, garibon ko khairat, quran ki talavat aur aise kitane hi snskar karane paramavashyak the.

matri-seva ka isake siva ab aur kaun-sa avasar hath a sakata tha. mata ke prati samast sansarik aur dharmik karttavyon ka ant ho raha tha. phir to mata ki smriti-matr rah jayagi, snkat ke samay phariyad sunane ke lie. mujhe khuda ne samarthy di hoti, to is vakt kya kuchh n karata; lekin ab kya apane padosiyon se bhi gaya-gujara hoon !

usane sochana shuroo kiya, rupaye laoon kahan se ? ab to lala daoodayal bhi n denge. ek bar unake pas jakar dekhoon to sahi, kaun jane, meri bipat ka hal sunakar unhen daya a jay. bade adami hain, kripadrishti ho gayi, to sau-do-sau unake lie kaun badi bat hai.

is bhanti man men soch-vichar karata hua vah lala daoodayal ke pas chala. raste men ek-ek qadam mushkil se uthata tha. kaun munh lekar jaoon ? abhi tin hi din hue hain, sal-bhar men pichhale rupaye ada karane ka vada karake aya hoon. ab jo 200 ru. aur mangooga, to vah kya kahenge. main hi unaki jagah par hota to kabhi n deta. unhen zaroor sndeh hoga ki yah adami niyat ka bura hai. kahin dutkar diya, ghudakiyan din, to ? poochhen, tere pas aisi kaun-si badi jayadad hai, jis par rupaye ki thaili de doon, to kya javab doonga ? jo kuchh jayadad hai, vah yahi donon hath hain. usake siva yahan kya hai ? ghar ko koee sent bhi n poochhega. khet hain, to zamindar ke, un par apana koee kaboo hi nahin. bekar ja raha hoon, vahan dhakke khakar nikalana padega, rahi-sahi abaroo bhi mitti men mil jayagi.

parantu in nirashajanak shnkaon ke hone par bhi vah dhire-dhire age badha chala jata tha, jaise koee anath vidhava thane phariyad karane ja rahi ho.

lala daoodayal kachahari se akar apane svabhav ke anusar naukaron par bigad rahe the- dvar par pani kyon nahin chhidaka, baramade men kursiyan kyon nahin nikal rakhin ? itane men rahaman samane jakar khada ho gaya.

lala sahab jhallaye to baithe the rusht hokar bole- tum kya karane aye ho ji ? kyon mere pichhe pade ho. mujhe is vakt batachit karane ki phurasat nahin hai.

rahaman kuchh n bol saka. yah dant sunakar itana hatash hua ki ulate pairon laut pada. huee n vahi bat ! yahi sunane to main aya tha ? meri akal par patthar pad gaye the!

daoodayal ko kuchh daya a gayi. jab rahaman baramade ke niche utar gaya, to bulaya, jara narm hokar bole- kaise aye the ji ! kya kuchh kam tha ?

rahaman- nahin sarakar, yon hi salam karane chala aya tha.

daoo.- ek kahavat hai- salame rostaee begaraj nest- kisan bina matalab ke salam nahin karata. kya matalab hai kaho.

rahaman phoot-phootakar rone laga. daoodayal ne atakal se samajh liya. isaki man mar gayi. poochha- kyon rahaman, tumhari man sidhar to nahin gayin ?

rahaman- han hajoor, aj tisara din hai.

daoo.- ro n, rone se kya fayada ? sabr karo, eeshvar ko jo mnjoor tha, vah hua. aisi maut par gam n karana chahie. tumhare hathon unaki mitti thikane lag gayi. ab aur kya chahie ?

rahaman- hajoor, kuchh araj karane aya hoon, magar himmat nahin padati. abhi pichhala hi pada hua hai, aur ab kis munh se mangoon ? lekin allah janata hai, kahin se ek paisa milane ki ummed nahin aur kam aisa a pada hai ki agar n karoon, to zindagi-bhar pachhatava rahega. apase kuchh kah nahin sakata. age ap malik hain. yah samajhakar dijie ki kuen men dal raha hoon. jinda rahoonga to ek-ek kaudi may sood ke ada kar doonga. magar is ghadi nahin n kijiega.

daoo.- tin sau to ho gaye. do sau phir mangate ho. do sal men koee sat sau rupaye ho jaynge. isaki khabar hai ya nahin ?

rahaman- garibaparavar ! allah de, to do bighe ookh men panch sau a sakate hain. allah ne chaha, to miyad ke andar apaki kaudi-kaudi ada kar doonga.

daoodayal ne do sau rupaye phir de diye. jo log unake vyavahar se parichit the, unhen unaki is riayat par bada ashchary ho raha tha.

4

kheti ki halat anath balak ki-si hai. jal aur vayu anukool hue to anaj ke dher lag gaye. inaki kripa n huee, to lahalahate hue khet kapati mitr ki bhanti daga de gaye. ola aur pala, sookha aur badh, tiddi aur lahi, dimak aur andhi se pran bache to phasal khalihan men ayi. aur khalihan se ag aur bijali donon hi ka bair hai. itane dushmanon se bachi to phasal nahin to phaisala ! rahaman ne kaleja todakar mehanat ki. din ko din aur rat ko rat n samajha. bivi-bachche dilojan se lipat gaye. aisi ookh lagi ki hathi ghuse, to sama jay. sara ganv danton tale ungali dabata tha. log rahaman se kahate- yar, abaki tumhare pau-barah hain. hare darje sat sau kahin nahin gaye. abaki beda par hai. rahaman socha karata abaki jyon hi gud ke rupaye hath aye, sab-ke-sab le jakar lala daoodayal ke kadamon par rakh doonga. agar vah usamen se khud do-char rupaye nikalakar denge, to le loonga, nahin to abaki sal aur chooni-chokar khakar kat doonga.

magar bhagy ke likhe ko kaun mita sakata hai. agahan ka mahina tha; rahaman khet ki meth par baitha rakhavali kar raha tha. odhane ko keval ek purane gadhe ki chadar thi, isalie ookh ke patte jala diye the. sahasa hava ka ek aisa jhonka aya ki jalate hue patte udakar khet men ja pahunche. ag lag gayi. ganv ke log ag bujhane daude; magar ag ki lapaten tootate taron ki bhanti ek hisse se udakar doosare sir par ja pahunchati thin, sare upay vyarth hue. poora khet jalakar rakh ka dher ho gaya aur khet ke sath rahaman ki sari abhilashaen nasht-bhrasht ho gayin. garib ki kamar toot gayi. dil baith gaya. hath-panv dhile ho gaye. parosi huee thali samane se chhin gayi. ghar aya, to daoodayal ke rupayon ki fikr sir par savar huee. apani kuchh fikr n thi. bal-bachchon ki bhi fikr n thi. bhookhon marana aur nnge rahana to kisan ka kam hi hai. fikr karz ki. doosara sal bit raha hai. do-char din men lala daoodayal ka adami ata hoga. use kaun munh dikhaoonga ? chalakar unhin se chirauri karoon ki sal-bhar ki muhalat aur dijie. lekin sal-bhar men to sat sau ke nau sau ho jayenge. kahin nalish kar di, to hazar hi samajho. sal-bhar men aisi kya hun baras jayagi. bechare kitane bhale adami hain, do sau rupaye uthakar de diya. khet bhi to aise nahin ki bai-rihan karake abaroo bachaoon. bail bhi aise kaun-se taiyar hain ki do-char sau mil jayn. adhe bhi to nahin rahe. ab ijjat khuda ke hath hai. main to apani-si karake dekh chuka.

subah ka vakt tha. vah apane khet ki med par khada apani tabahi ka drishy dekh raha tha. dekha, daoodayal ka chaparasi kndhe par latth rakhe chala a raha hai. pran sookh gaye. khuda, ab too hi is mushkil ko asan kar. kahin ate-hi-ate galiyan n dene lage. ya allah kahan chhip jaoon ?

chaparasi ne samip akar kaha- rupaye lekar dena nahin chahate ? miyad kal gujar gayi. janate ho n sarakar ki ? ek din ki bhi der huee aur unhonne nalish thoki. bebhav ki padegi.

rahaman kanp utha. bola- yahan ka hal to dekh rahe ho n ?

chaparasi- yahan hal-haval sunane ka kam nahin. ye chakame kisi aur ko dena. sat sau rupaye le chalo aur chupake se ginakar chale ao.

rahaman- jamadar, sari ookh jal gayi. allah janata hai, abaki kaudi-kaudi bebak kar deta.

chaparasi- main yah kuchh nahin janata. tumhari ookh ka kisi ne theka nahin liya. abhi chalo sarakar bula rahe hain.

yah kahakar chaparasi usaka hath pakad kar ghasitata hua chala. garib ko ghar men jakar pagadi bandhane ka mauqa n diya.

5

panch kos ka rasta kat gaya, aur rahaman ne ek bar bhi sir n uthaya. bas, rah-rahakar ‘ya ali mushkilakusha !’ usake munh se nikal jata tha. use ab is nam ka bharosa tha. yahi jap himmat ko snbhale hue tha, nahin to shayad vah vahin gir padata. vah nairashy ki us dasha ko pahunch gaya tha, jab manushy ki chetana nahin upachetana shasan karati hai.

daoodayal dvar par tahal rahe the. rahaman jakar unake kadamon par gir pada aur bola- khudabnd, badi bipat padi huee hai. allah janata hai kahin ka nahin raha.

daoo.- kya sab ookh jal gayi ?

rahaman- hajoor sun chuke hain kya ? sarakar jaise kisi ne khet men jhadoo laga di ho. ganv ke oopar ookh lagi huee thi garibaparavar, yah daivi aphat n padi hoti, to aur to nahin kah sakata, hajoor se urin ho jata.

daoo.- ab kya salah hai ? dete ho ya nalish kar doon.

rahaman- hajoor malik hain, jo chahen karen. main to itana hi janata hoon ki hajoor ke rupaye sir par hain aur mujhe kaudi-kaudi deni hai. apani sochi nahin hoti. do bar vade kiye, donon bar jhootha pada. ab vada n karoonga jab jo kuchh milega, lakar hajoor ke kadamon par rakh doonga. mihanat-majoori se, pet aur tan katakar, jis tarah ho sakega apake rupaye bharoonga.

daoodayal ne muskarakar kaha- tumhare man men is vakt sabase badi kaun-si arajoo hai ?

rahaman- yahi hajoor, ki apake rupaye ada ho jayn. sach kahata hoon hajoor allah janata hai.

daoo.- achchha to samajh lo ki mere rupaye ada ho gaye.

rahaman- are hajoor, yah kaise samajh loon, yahan n doonga, to vahan to dene padenge.

daoo.- nahin rahaman, ab isaki fikr mat karo. main tumhen ajamata tha.

rahaman- sarakar, aisa n kahen. itana bojh sir par lekar n maroonga.

daoo.- kaisa bojh ji, mera tumhare oopar kuchh ata hi nahin. agar kuchh ata bhi ho, to mainne maph kar diya; yahan bhi, vahan bhi. ab tum mere ek paise ke bhi denadar nahin ho. asal men mainne tumase jo karz liya tha, vahi ada kar raha hoon. main tumhara karjadar hoon, tum mere karjadar nahin ho. tumhari goo ab tak mere pas hai. usane mujhe kam se kam ath sau rupaye ka doodh diya hai ! do bachhade naphe men alag. agar tumane yah goo kasaiyon ko de di hoti, to mujhe itana fayada kyonkar hota ? tumane us vakt panch rupaye ka nukasan uthakar goo mere hath bechi thi. vah sharaphat mujhe yad hai. us ehasan ka badala chukana meri takat se bahar hai. jab tum itane garib aur nadan hokar ek goo ki jan ke lie panch rupaye ka nukasan utha sakate ho, to main tumhari sauguni haisiyat rakhakar agar char-panch sau rupaye maph kar deta hoon, to koee bada kam nahin kar raha hoon. tumane bhale hi janakar mere oopar koee ehasan n kiya ho, par asal men vah mere dharm par ehasan tha. mainne bhi to tumhen dharm ke kam hi ke lie rupaye diye the. bas ham-tum donon barabar ho gaye. tumhare donon bachhade mere yahan hain, ji chahe lete jao, tumhari kheti men kam ayenge. tum sachche aur sharif adami ho, main tumhari madad karane ko hamesha taiyar rahoonga. is vakt bhi tumhen rupayon ki zaroorat ho, to jitane chaho, le sakate ho.

rahaman ko aisa maloom hua ki usake samane koee pharishta baitha hua hai. manushy udar ho, to pharishta hai; aur nich ho, to shaitan. ye donon manavi vrittiyon hi ke nam hain. rahaman ke munh se dhanyavad ke shabd bhi n nikal sake. badi mushkil se ansuon ko rokakar bola- hajoor ko is neki ka badala khuda dega. main to aj se apane ko apaka gulam hi samajhoonga.

daoo.- nahin ji, tum mere dost ho.

rahaman- nahin hajoor, gulam.

daoo.- gulam chhutakara pane ke lie jo rupaye deta hai, use muktidhan kahate hain. tum bahut pahale ‘muktidhan’ ada kar chuke. ab bhoolakar bhi yah shabd munh se n nikalana.

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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