बड़े भाईसाहब -प्रेमचंद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bade bhaeesahab -premachnd
manasarovar, bhag-1
lekhak munshi premachnd
mool shirshak bade bhaee sahab
mukhy patr bade bhaeesahab, main
kathanak do bhaeeyon ke paraspar sambndh, adhikar aur tatkalin shiksha vyavastha ka sookshm chitran
prakashak dilli pustak sadan
prakashan tithi janavari 01, 2008
ISBN 978-81-88032-23
desh bharat
prishth: 264
bhasha hindi
shaili saral, yatharthavad
vishay nari manobhavon par adharit
vidha kahani
bhag ek
tippani premachnd bahumukhi pratibha snpann sahityakar the. premachnd ki rachanaon men tatkalin itihas bolata hai. premachnd ne kahani aur upanyas donon hi likhe hain. ve bharat ke shreshthatam kahanikar aur upanyasakar ke roop men jane jate hain.

mere bhaee sahab mujhase panch sal bade the, lekin keval tin daraje age. unhonne bhi usi umr men padhana shuroo kiya tha jab maine shuroo kiya tha; lekin talim jaise mahatv ke mamale men vah jaldabaji se kam lena pasnd n karate the. is bhavana ki buniyad khoob mazaboot dalana chahate the jis par alishan mahal ban sake. ek sal ka kam do sal men karate the. kabhi-kabhi tin sal bhi lag jate the. buniyad hi pukhta n ho, to makan kaise payedar bane!
main chhota tha, vah bade the. meri umr nau sal ki thi, vah chaudah sal ‍ke the. unhen meri tnbih[1] aur nigarani ka poora janmasiddh adhikar tha. aur meri shalinata isi men thi ki unake hukm ko qanoon samajhoon.
vah svabhav se bade adhyayanashil the. haradam kitab khole baithe rahate aur shayad dimag ko aram dene ke lie kabhi kaaupi par, kabhi kitab ke hashiyon par chidiyon, kutton, billiyon ki tasviren banaya karate the. kabhi-kabhi ek hi nam ya shabd ya vaky das-bis bar likh dalate. kabhi ek sher ko bar-bar sundar akshar men nakal karate. kabhi aisi shabd-rachana karate, jisamen n koee arth hota, n koee samnjasy! masalan ek bar unaki kaaupi par maine yah ibarat dekhi- speshal, amina, bhaiyon-bhaiyon, dar-asal, bhaee-bhaee, radheshyam, shriyut radheshyam, ek ghnte tak- isake bad ek adami ka chehara bana hua tha. mainne cheshta ki‍ ki is paheli ka koee arth nikaloon; lekin asaphal raha aur unase poochhane ka sahas n hua. vah navin jamat men the, main panchavi men. unaki rachanaon ko samajhana mere lie chhota munh badi bat thi.
mera ji padhane men bilakul n lagata tha. ek ghnta bhi kitab lekar baithana pahad tha. mauqa pate hi haaustal se nikalakar maidan men a jata aur kabhi knkariyan uchhalata, kabhi kagaz ki titaliyan udata, aur kahin koee sathi ‍mil gaya to poochhana hi kya? kabhi charadivari par chadhakar niche kood rahe hain, kabhi phatak par savar, use age-pichhe chalate hue motarakar ka annd utha rahe hain. lekin kamare men ate hi bhaee sahab ka raudr roop dekhakar pran sookh jate. unaka pahala saval hota- ‘kahan the?‘ hamesha yahi saval, isi dhvani men poochha jata tha aur isaka javab mere pas keval maun tha. n jane munh se yah bat kyon n nikalati ki jara bahar khel raha tha. mera maun kah deta tha ki mujhe apana aparadh svikar hai aur bhaee sahab ke lie isake siva aur koee ilaj n tha ki sneh aur rosh se mile hue shabdon men mera satkar karen.

‘is tarah angrezi padhoge, to zindagi-bhar padhate rahoge aur ek harf n ayega. angrezi padhana koee hnsi-khel nahin hai ki jo chahe padh le, nahin, aira-gaira natthoo-khaira sabhi angrezi ke vidvanh ho jate. yahan rat-din ankhen phodani padati hai aur khoon jalana padata hai, tab kahin yah vidha ati hai. aur ati kya hai, han, kahane ko a jati hai. bade-bade vidvanh bhi shuddh angrezi nahin likh sakate, bolana to door raha. aur main kahata hoon, tum kitane ghongha ho ki mujhe dekhakar bhi sabak nahin lete. main kitani mehanat karata hoon, tum apani ankhon dekhate ho, agar nahin dekhate, jo yah tumhari ankhon ka kasoor hai, tumhari buddhi ka kasoor hai. itane mele-tamashe hote hai, mujhe tumane kabhi dekhane jate dekha hai, roj hi kriket aur haauki maich hote hain. main pas nahin phatakata. hamesha padhata rahata hoon, us par bhi ek-ek daraje men do-do, tin-tin sal pada rahata hoon phir tum kaise asha karate ho ki tum yon khel-kud men vaqt, gnvakar pas ho jaoge? mujhe to do hi tin sal lagate hain, tum umr-bhar isi daraje men pade sadate rahoge. agar tumhen is tarah umr gnvani hai, to behatar hai, ghar chale jao aur maje se gulli-dnda khelo. dada ki gadhi kamaee ke rupaye kyon barabad karate ho?’

main yah latad sunakar ansoo bahane lagata. javab hi kya tha. aparadh to mainne kiya, latad kaun sahe? bhaee sahab upadesh ki kala men nipun the. aisi-aisi lagati baten kahate, aise-aise sookti-ban chalate ki mere jigar ke tukade-tukade ho jate aur himmat chhoot jati. is tarah jan todakar mehanat karane ki shakti main apane men n pata tha aur us nirasha men jara der ke lie main sochane lagata- kyon n ghar chala jaoon. jo kam mere boote ke bahar hai, usamen hath dalakar kyon apani zindagi kharab karoon. mujhe apana moorkh rahana mnjoor tha; lekin utani mehanat ! mujhe to chakkar a jata tha. lekin ghnte-do ghnte bad nirasha ke badal phat jate aur main irada karata ki age se khoob ji lagakar padhoonga. chatapat ek taim-tebil bana dalata. bina pahale se naksha banaye, bina koee skim taiyar kiye kam kaise shuroo karoon? taim-tebil men, khel-kood ki mad bilakul ud jati. prat:kal uthana, chh: baje munh-hath dho, nashta kar padhane baith jana. chh: se ath tak angrezi, ath se nau tak hisab, nau se sadhe nau tak itihas, ‍phir bhojan aur skool. sadhe tin baje skool se vapas hokar adha ghnta aram, char se panch tak bhoogol, panch se chh: tak gramar, adha ghnta hostal ke samane tahalana, sadhe chh: se sat tak angrezi kampozishan, phir bhojan karake ath se nau tak anuvad, nau se das tak hindi, das se gyarah tak vividh vishay, phir vishram.

magar taim-tebil bana lena ek bat hai, us par amal karana doosari bat. pahale hi din se usaki avahelana shuroo ho jati. maidan ki vah sukhad hariyali, hava ke vah halke-halke jhonke, phutabal ki uchhal-kood, kabaddi ke vah danv-ghat, baaulibaaul ki vah teji aur phurati mujhe agyat aur anivary roop se khinch le jati aur vahan jate hi main sab kuchh bhool jata. vah janaleva taim- tebil, vah ankhaphod pustaken kisi ki yad n rahati, aur phir bhaee sahab ko nasihat aur phajihat ka avasar mil jata. main unake saye se bhagata, unaki ankhon se door rahane ki cheshta karata. kamare me is tarah dabe panv ata ki unhen khabar n ho. unaki najar meri or uthi aur mere pran nikale. hamesha sir par ek nngi talavar-si latakati maloom hoti. phir bhi jaise maut aur vipatti ke bich men bhi adami moh aur maya ke bndhan men jakada rahata hai, main phatakar aur ghudakiyan khakar bhi khel-kood ka tiraskar n kar sakata.

2

salana imtahan hua. bhaee sahab phel ho gaye, main pas ho gaya aur daraje men pratham aya. mere aur unake bich keval do sal ka antar rah gaya. ji men aya, bhaee sahab ko ade hathon loon- apaki vah ghor tapasya kahan gayi? mujhe dekhie, maje se khelata bhi raha aur daraje men avval bhi hoon. lekin vah itane du:khi aur udas the ki mujhe unase dili hamadardi huee aur unake ghav par namak chhidakane ka vichar hi lajjaspad jan pada. han, ab mujhe apane oopar kuchh abhiman hua aur atmasamman bhi badha. bhaee sahab ka vah rob mujh par n raha. azadi se khel–kood men sharik hone laga. dil mazaboot tha. agar unhonne phir meri phajihat ki, to saf kah doonga- apane apana khoon jalakar kaun-sa tir mar liya. main to khelate-koodate daraje men avval a gaya. jaban se yah hekadi jatane ka sahas n hone par bhi mere rng-dhng se saf zahir hota tha ki bhaee sahab ka vah atnk ab mujh par nahin hai. bhaee sahab ne ise bhanp liya- unaki sahaj buddhi badi tivr thi aur ek din jab main bhor ka sara samay gulli-dnde ki bhent karake thik bhojan ke samay lauta, to bhaee saib ne mano talavar khinch li aur mujh par toot pade- dekhata hoon, is sal pas ho gaye aur daraje men avval a gaye, to tumhen dimag ho gaya hai; magar bhaeejan, ghamnd to bade-bade ka nahin raha, tumhari kya hasti, hai, itihas men ravan ka hal to padha hi hoga. usake charitr se tumane kaun-sa upadesh liya? ya yon hi padh gaye? mahaj imt‍han pas kar lena koee chiz nahin, asal chiz hai buddhi ka vikas. jo kuchh padho, usaka abhipray samajho. ravan bhoomndal ka svami tha. aise rajaon ko chakravarti kahate hain. ajakal angrezon ke rajy ka vistar bahut badha hua hai, par inhe chakravarti nahin kah sakate. snsar men anekon rasht़hr angrezon ka adhipaty svikar nahin karate. bilkul svadhin hain. ravan chakravarti raja tha. snsar ke sabhi mahip use kar dete the. bade-bade devata usaki gulami karate the. ag aur pani ke devata bhi usake das the; magar usaka ant kya hua? ghamnd ne usaka nam-nishan tak mita diya, koee use ek chilloo pani denevala bhi n bacha. adami jo kukarm chahe kare; par abhiman n kare, itaraye nahin. abhiman kiya aur din-duniya se gaya.

shaitan ka hal bhi padha hi hoga. use yah abhiman hua tha ki eeshvar ka usase badhakar sachcha, bhakt koee hai hi nahin. ant men yah hua ki svarg se narak men dhakel diya gaya. shaheroom ne bhi ek bar ahnkar kiya tha. bhikh mang-mangakar mar gaya. tumane to abhi keval ek daraja pas kiya hai aur abhi se tumhara sir phir‍ gaya, tab to tum age badh chuke. yah samajh lo ki tum apani mehanat se nahin pas hue, andhe ke hath bater lag gayi. magar bater keval ek bar hath lag sakati hai, bar-bar nahin. kabhi-kabhi gulli-dnde men bhi andha-chot nishana pad jata hai. usase koee saphal khiladi nahin ho jata. saphal khiladi vah hai, jisaka koee nishan khali n jay. mere phel hone par n jao. mere daraje men aoge, to danto pasina a jayaga. jab alajabara aur jyometri ke lohe ke chane chabane padenge aur ingalistan ka itihas padhana padega! badashahon ke nam yad rakhana asan nahin. ath-ath henari hi gujare hai. kaun-sa kand kis henari ke samay hua, kya yah yad kar lena asan samajhate ho? henari sataven ki jagah henari athavan likha aur sab nnbar gayab! saphachat. siphar bhi n milega, siphar bhi! ho kis khyal men! darajano to jems hue hain, darajano viliyam, kodiyon charls! dimag chakkar khane lagata hai. andhi rog ho jata hai. in abhagon ko nam bhi n judate the. ek hi nam ke pichhe doyam, soyam, chaharum, pnjum lagate chale gaye. muchhase poochhate, to das lakh nam bata deta. aur jametri to bas khuda ki panah! a b j ki jagah a j b likh diya aur sare nnbar kat gaye. koee in nirdayi mumatahinon se nahin poochhata ki akhir a b j aur a j b men kya farq hai aur vyarth ki bat ke lie kyon chhatron ka khoon karate ho. dal-bhat-roti khayi ya bhat-dal-roti khayi, isamen kya rakha hai; magar in parikshako ko kya paravah! vah to vahi dekhate hain, jo pustak men likha hai. chahate hain ki ladake akshar-akshar rat dalen. aur isi ratnt ka nam shiksha rakh chhoda hai aur akhir in be-sir-pair ki baton ke padhane se kya fayada?

is rekha par vah lnb gira do, to adhar lnb se duguna hoga. poochhie, isase prayojan? duguna nahin, chauguna ho jay, ya adha hi rahe, meri bala se, lekin pariksha men pas hona hai, to yah sab khuraphat yad karani padegi. kah diya- ‘samay ki pabndi’ par ek nibndh likho, jo char pannon se kam n ho. ab ap kapi samane khole, kalam hath men liye, usake nam ko roie. kaun nahin janata ki samay ki pabndi bahut achchhi bat hai. isase adami ke jivan men snyam a jata hai, doosaron ka us par sneh hone lagata hai aur usake karobar men unnati hoti hai; lekin is jara-si bat par char panne kaise likhen? jo bat ek vaky men kahi ja sake, use char panne men likhane ki zaroorat? main to ise himakat samajhata hoon. yah to samay ki kiphayat nahin, balki usaka durupayog hai ki vyarth men kisi bat ko thoons diya. ham chahate hain, adami ko jo kuchh kahana ho, chatapat kah de aur apani rah le. magar nahin, apako char panne rngane padenge, chahe jaise likhie. aur panne, bhi poore phulaskep akar ke. yah chhatron par atyachar nahin to aur kya hai? anarth to yah hai ki kaha jata hai, snkshep men likho. samay ki pabndi par snkshep men ek nibndh likho, jo char pannon se kam n ho. thik! snkshep men char panne hue, nahin shayad sau-do sau panne likhavate. tej bhi daudiye aur dhire-dhire bhi. hai ulti bat ya nahin? balak bhi itani-si bat samajh sakata hai, lekin in adhyapakon ko itani tamij bhi nahin. us par dava hai ki ham adhyapak hai. mere daraje men aoge lala, to ye sare papad belane padenge aur tab ate-dal ka bhav maloom hoga. is daraje men avval a gaye ho, to zamin par panv nahin rakhate. isalie mera kahana manie. lakh phel ho gaya hoon, lekin tumase bada hoon, snsar ka mujhe tumase zyada anubhav hai. jo kuchh kahata hoon, use ‍ girah bandhie nahin pachhataiyega.

skool ka samay nikat tha, nahin eeshvar jane, yah upadesh-mala kab samapt hoti. bhojan aj mujhe niahsvad-sa lag raha tha. jab pas hone par yah tiraskar ho raha hai, to phel ho jane par to shayad pran hi le lie jayn. bhaee sahab ne apane daraje ki padhaee ka jo bhaynkar chitr khincha tha; usane mujhe bhayabhit kar diya. kaise skool chhodakar ghar nahin bhaga, yahi tajjub hai; lekin itane tiraskar par bhi pustakon men meri aruchi jyon -ki-tyon bani rahi. khel-kood ka koee avasar hath se n jane deta. padhata bhi tha, magar bahut kam. bas, itana ki roj ka task poora ho jay aur daraje men jalil n hona pade. apane oopar jo vishvas paida hua tha, vah phir lupt‍ ho gaya aur ‍‍phir choron ka-sa jivan katane laga.

3

phir salana imtahan hua, aur kuchh aisa snyog hua ki main ‍‍‍‍‍‍phi‍r pas hua aur bhaee sahab phir ‍phel ho gaye. mainne bahut mehanat n ki par n jane kaise daraje men avval a gaya. mujhe khud acharaj hua. bhaee sahab ne pranantak parishram kiya tha. kors ka ek-ek shabd chat gaye the; das baje rat tak idhar, char baje bhor se ubhar, chh: se sadhe nau tak skool jane ke pahale. mudra kantihin ho gayi thi, magar bechare phel ho gaye. mujhe un par daya ati thi. natija sunaya gaya, to vah ro pade aur main bhi rone laga. apane pas hone vali khushi adhi ho gayi. main bhi phel ho gaya hota, to bhaee sahab ko itana du:kh n hota, lekin vidhi ki bat kaun tale.

mere aur bhaee sahab ke bich men ab keval ek daraje ka antar aur rah gaya. mere man men ek kutil bhavana uday huee ki kahin bhaee sahab ek sal aur phel ho jayn, to main unake barabar ho jaoon, ‍phir vah kis adhar par meri phajihat kar sakenge, lekin mainne is kamine vichar ko dil‍ se balapoorvak nikal dala. akhir vah mujhe mere hit ke vichar se hi to dantate hain. mujhe us vakt apriy lagata hai avashy, magar yah shayad unake upadeshon ka hi asar ho ki main danadan pas hota jata hoon aur itane achchhe nnbaron se.

ab bhaee sahab bahut kuchh narm pad gaye the. kee bar mujhe dantane ka avasar pakar bhi unhonne dhiraj se kam liya. shayad ab vah khud samajhane lage the ki mujhe dantane ka adhikar unhen nahin raha; ya raha to bahut kam. meri svachchhndata bhi badhi. main unaki sahishnuta ka anuchit labh uthane laga. mujhe kuchh aisi dharana huee ki main to pas hi ho jaoonga, padhoon ya n padhoon meri takadir balavan hai, isalie bhaee sahab ke dar se jo thoda-bahut padh liya karata tha, vah bhi bnd hua. mujhe kanakaue udane ka naya shauq paida ho gaya tha aur ab sara samay patngabaji ki hi bhent hota tha, phir bhi main bhaee sahab ka adab karata tha, aur unaki najar bachakar kanakaue udata tha. manjha dena, kanne bandhana, patng toornament ki taiyariyan adi samasyathen ab guptau roop se hal ki jati thin. bhaee sahab ko yah sndeh n karane dena chahata tha ki unaka samman aur lihaz meri najaro se kam ho gaya hai.

ek din sndhya samay hostal se door main ek kanakaua lootane betahasha dauda ja raha tha. ankhen asaman ki or thin aur man us akashagami pathik ki or, jo mnd gati se jhoomata patan ki or chala ja raha tha, mano koee atma svarg se nikalakar virakt man se naye snskar grahan karane ja rahi ho. balakon ki ek poori sena lag gayi; aur jhadadar bans liye unaka sva‍gat karane ko daudi a rahi thi. kisi ko apane age-pichhe ki khabar n thi. sabhi mano us patng ke sath hi akash men ud rahe the, jahan sab kuchh samatal hai, n motarakaren hain, n tram, n gadiyan.

sahasa bhaee sahab se meri muthabhed ho gayi, jo shayad bazar se laut rahe the. unhoaune vahin mera hath pakad liya aur ugr bhav se bole- in bazari laundo ke sath dhele ke kanakaue ke lie daudate tumhenn sharm nahin ati? tumhen isaka bhi kuchh lihaz nahin ki ab nichi jamat men nahin ho, balki athavin jamat men a gaye ho aur mujhase keval ek daraja niche ho. akhir adami ko kuchh to apani pojishan ka khyal karana chahie. ek jamana tha ki ki log athavan daraja pas karake nayab tahasiladar ho jate the. main kitane hi midalachiyon ko janata hoon, jo aj avval daraje ke dipti majistret ya suparitendent hai. kitane hi athavin jamat vale hamare lidar aur samachar-patron ke snpadak hai. bade-bade vidvanh unaki matahati men kam karate hai aur tum usi athaven daraje men akar bazari laundon ke sath kanakaue ke lie daud rahe ho. mujhe tumhari is kamakali par du:kh hota hai. tum jahin ho, isamen shak nahin; lekin vah jehan kis kam ka, jo hamare atmalagaurav ki hatya kar dale? tum apane din men samajhate honge, main bhaee sahab se mahaj ek darja niche hoon aur ab unhen mujhako kuchh kahane ka hak nahin hai; lekin yah tumhari galati hai. main tumase panch sal bada hoon aur chahe aj tum meri hi jamat men a jao- aur parikshakon ka yahi hal hai, to nissndeh agale sal tum mere samakaksh ho jaoge aur shayad ek sal bad tum mujhase age nikal jao- lekin mujhamen aur tumamen jo panch sal ka antar hai, use tum kyan, khuda bhi nahin mita sakata. main tumase panch sal bada hoon aur hamesha rahoonga. mujhe duniya ka aur zindagi ka jo tajaraba hai, tum usaki barabari nahin kar sakate, chahe tum em. e., di. phil. aur di. lith‍. hi kyon n ho jao. samajh kitaben padhane se nahin ati hai. hamari amman ne koee daraja pas nahin kiya, aur dada bhi shayad panchavi-chhathi jamaat ke age nahin gaye, lekin ham donon chahe sari duniya ki vidya padh le, amman aur dada ko hamen samajhane aur sudharane ka adhikar hamesha rahega. keval isalie nahin ki ve hamare janmabhadata hai, balki isalie ki unhen duniya ka hamase zyada tajaraba hai aur rahega. amerika men kis tarah ki rajy -vyivasthan hai aur athaven henari ne kitane vivah kiye aur akash men kitane nakshatr hai, yah bate chahe unhen n maloom ho, lekin hajaron aisi baten hain, jinaka gyan unhen hamase aur tumase zyada hai.

daiv n kare, aj main bimar ho jaoon, to tumhare hath-panv phool jaynge. dada ko tar dene ke siva tumhen aur kuchh n soojhega; lekin tumhari jagah par dada hon, to kisi ko tar n den, n ghabarayen, n badahavas hon. pahale khud maraj pahachanakar ilaj karenge, usamen saphal n hue, to kisi daktar ko bulayenge. bimari to khair badi chiz hai. ham-tum to itana bhi nahin janate ki mahine bhar ka kharch mahine bhar kaise chale. jo kuchh dada bhejate hain, use ham bis-baees tak kharch kar dalate hain aur paise-paise ko mohataj ho jate hain. nashta bnd ho jata hai, dhobi aur naee se munh churane lagate hain; lekin jitana aj ham aur tum kharch kar rahe hain, usake adhe men dada ne apani umr ka bada bhag ijjat aur nekanami ke sath nibhaya hai aur ek kutunb ka palan kiya hai, jisamen sab milakar nau adami the. apane hedamast r sahab hi ko dekho. em.e. hain ki nahin; aur yahan ke em.e. nahin, aauksaphord ke. ek hazar rupaye pate hain, lekin unake ghar intajam kaun karata hai? unaki boodhi man. hedamastar sahab ki digri yahan akar bekar ho gayi. pahale khud ghar ka intajam karate the. kharch poora n padata tha. karajadar rahate the. jab se unaki mataji ne prabndh apane hath men le liya hai, jaise ghar men lakshmi a gayi hain. to bhaeejan, yah garoor dil se nikal dalo ki tum mere samip a gaye ho aur ab svatntr ho. mere dekhate tum berah nahin chal paoge. agar tum yon n manoge, to main (thappad dikhakar) isaka prayog bhi kar sakata hoon. main janata hoon, tumhen meri baten zahar lag rahi hain...

main unaki is nayi yukti se nat-mastak ho gaya. mujhe aj sachamuch apani laghuta ka anubhav hua aur bhaee sahab ke prati mere man men shraddha utpann huee. mainne sajal ankhon se kaha- haragij nahin. ap jo kuchh pharama rahe hain, vah bilakul sach hai aur apako kahane ka adhikar hai.

bhaee sahab ne mujhe gale laga liya aur bole- main kanakaue udane ko mana nahin karata. mera ji bhi lalachata hai, lekin kya karoon, khud berah chaloon to tumhari raksha kaise karoon? yah kartavy bhi to mere sir par hai!

snyog se usi vakt ek kata hua kanakaua hamare oopar se gujara. usaki dor latak rahi thi. ladakon ka ek gol pichhe-pichhe dauda chala ata tha. bhaee sahab lnbe hain hi, uchhalakar usaki dor pakad li aur betahasha hostal ki taraph daude. main pichhe-pichhe daud raha tha.

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. chetavani, tarjan, dant dapat, taqid

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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