प्रेमाश्रम -प्रेमचंद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

premashram -premachnd
premashram upanyas ka avaran prishth
lekhak munshi premachnd
mool shirshak premashram
prakashak vani prakashan
prakashan tithi 1922
ISBN 81-7055-191-9
desh bharat
prishth: 364
bhasha hindi
vishay samajik, yatharthavadi
prakar upanyas

'premashram', jisaka prakashan 1922 ee. men hua tha, munshi premachand ka sarvapratham upanyas hai, jisamen unhonne nagarik jivan aur gramin jivan ka sampark sthapit kiya hai aur rajanitik kshetr men padarpan karate hain. parivaron ki katha ka moh to ve is upanyas men bhi nahin chhod sake, kyonki prabhashnkar rayakamalanand gayatri aur dipti jvalasinh ke parivaron ki katha se hi upanyas ka tana-bana bana gaya hai, to bhi ve jivan ke vyapak kshetr men ate hain. bharatiy svatntrata sngram ki pratham jhanki aur bhaganagat ram-rajy ki sthapana ka svapn 'premashram' ki apani visheshata hai. usaka uddeshy hai- samy siddhant. premashnkar dvara hajipur men sthapit premashram men jivan-maran ke gridh jatil prashnon ki mimansa hoti thi. sabhi log pakshapat aur ahnkar se mukt the. ashram saraly, sntosh aur srivichar ki tapobhoomi ban gaya tha vahan n dhan ki pooja hoti thi aur n dinata pairon tale kuchali jati thi. ashram men sab ek doosare ke mitr aur hitaishi the. manav-kalyan unaka charam lakshy tha. usaka vyavaharik roop hamen upanyas ke 'upasnhar' shirshak ansh men milata hai. lakhanapur ganv men svarth-seva aur maya ka prabhav nahin rah gaya. vahan ab manushy ki manushy ke roop men pratishtha huee hai-ais manushy ki jisake jivan men sukh, shanti, anand aur atmollas hai.

kathanak

'premashram' ki katha ka sritrapat banaras se bahar mil door lakhanapur ganv se hota hai. zamindar gyanashnkar ki or se shuddh ghi ke lie bayana bntana hai. keval manohar nahin leta. manohar ki ghrishtata zamindar aur usake karinda gaus khan ke lie asahy thi. gyanashnkar to usase bahut naraz hote hain aur is mamale ko lekar apane chacha prabhashnkar tak se bigad jate hai. prabhashnkar purane rees hain, banaras ke aurngabad muhalle men rahate hain aur apane asamiyon ke prati bhi vatsaly bhav rakhate hain. unake bhaee jatashnkar ke putr gyanashnkar ko unaki yah udarata pasand nahin. apane chacha ki niti se prasann n hone ke karan ve prabhashnkar ke daroga putr dayashnkar par chal rahe abhiyog men jara bhi sahayata karane ke lie prastut nahin hain kintu unake mitr dipti jvalasinh ne dayashnkar ko chhod diya. naubat yahan tak pahunchi ki gyanashnkar ne parivar men bntavara kara liya. dipti jvalasinh nyayashil aur dayalu vyakti the. kartavy-palan ki or unaka sadaiv dhyan rahata tha. ve ganv ke daure men begari bnd kara dene ki agya dete hain aur manohar ke putr balaraj ki nirbhikata se prasann hote hain. gyanashnkar atyant svarth-priy aur dhanalolup hai. jab apane sasur ray kamalannd (lakhanoo) ke putr ki mrityu ke samay ve apani patni vidya (ray kamalannd ki chhoti putri) ke sath lakhanoo pahunchate hain to unaki nigah apani vidhava sali gayatri par aur usake dhan-sampatti par bhi padati hai. ray kamalannd bade hi rasik aur anubhavi vyakti hain. ve gyanashnkar niyat turnt tad jate hain. ve yah bhi samajh jate hai ki gyanashnkar ki drishti gayatri aur usaki dhan-sampatti par hi nahin, unaki apani dhan-sampatti par bhi hai. saral-hridaya gayatri gyanashnkar ke pnje men dhire-dhire phnsati jati hai. ve apane uddeshy ki poorti men satat prayatnashil rahate hain. udhar ganv men aye din koee-n-koee atyachar hota rahata hai. gyanashnkar ke bhaee premashnkar bhi amerika se laut ate hain. ve navin arthik, samajik aur rajanitik vicharon s anupranit hokar ghar vapis aye hain. gyanashnkar ko unake vapis ane se hardik prasannata n huee. premashnkar ke videsh-gaman ke phalasvaroop unake jati-bahishkar ya prayashchit ki samasya bhi uthati hai. yahan tak ki premashnkar nirbhik hokar apane marg ka nirman svayn karate hai. ve sab prakar ka arthik lobh chhodakar jan-seva ka marg grahan karate aur hajipur men apana ashram sthapit karate hain. gyanashnkar ko apane bhaee ka samy-siddhant bilkul pasand nahin. premashnkar ne jab paitrik sampatti men apane adhikar ko tilanjali de di to gyanashnkar ko atynt prasannata huee. ve ab gayatri ke yahan gorakhapur ane-jane gale aur apani buddhi, vyavaharikata, prabandh-patuta aur kary-kushalata ke phalasvaroop us par poorn roop se havi hi nahin ho gaye, varanh usaki dharmikata ka anuchit labh uthate hue 'radha-krishnabhav' ki bhakti ka bhi anand uthane lage. isi samay vilasi ka apaman karane ke karan manohar ne sath jakar balaraj dvara gaus khan karinda ki hatya kara di, jisake phalasvaroop sara ganv vipatti men pad gaya. ganvavalon par mukadama chala. premashnkar aur dipti jvalasinh unaki arthik aur qanooni sahayata ke lie katibaddh ho gaye. gyanashnkar ko yah bat bilkul achchhi n lagi. udhar ray kamalanand gyanashnkar ki 'bhakti' ke jal se gayatri ko bachana chahate the. gyanashnkar ne unhen vish dekar mar dalana chaha kintu ray kamalanand apane yog-bal dvara vish ko pacha gaye. ray kamalanand apane ko chetavani deni chahi. yadyapi vidya ko apane pati ki svarthaparata ko kshudrata bilkul n suhati thi to bhi use pati ke naitik charitr ke sambandh men abhi tak koee sandeh natha. isalie ray kamalanand ki chetavani use achchhi n lagi kintu banaras akar jab usane gyanashnkar aur gayatri ka 'bhakti-sambandh' dekha to ankhen khul gayi. gayatri ko to isase atmaglani huee hi, vidya ko bhi atyadhik manasik klesh hua. jab gyanashnkar ne mayashnkar ko gayatri ki god dena chaha tab to usane apane hathon ihalila hi samapt kar di. vidya ki mrityu ne gayatri ke samane sari paristhiti spasht kar di. vah gyanashnkar ki badaniyati aur kroorata se hi avagat n huee varanh vidya ke rakt se apane hi hath sanp kar tirthatan ke lie chali jati hai. vah badarinarayan jana chahati thi, kintu chitrakoot men ek mahatma ki (jo vastav men ray kamalanand the) charcha sunakar vah udhar hi chal padi. vah apane manasik sngharsh ko liye jab pahadi par chadhane ki cheshta kar rahi thi, us samay pair phisal jane ke karan parvat ke gahan gart men girakar mrityu ko prapt ho gayi. premashnkar aur dipti jvalasinh ne irphan ali vakil, aur daau. priyanath chopada ki sahayata se ganv valon ki raksha ki, yadyapi manohar ne jel hi men atmahatya kar li thi. itana hi, nahin, irphan ali aur da. priyanath chopada jaise atm-seviyon ke hriday men premashnkar apane sneh aur tyag se parivartan upasthit kar dete hain. ijad husen bhi, jo pahale hindoo-muslim ittihad ke bahane apana hi svarth sadhate the, premashnkar ke vyaktitv se prabhavit ho sachaee aur eeman ka marg grahan karate hain. shraddha, jo apani jad aur mithya dharmikata ke karan apane pati se kati-kati rahati hai, ab unaki seva tyag, snyam, sadhana, paropakar-vyastata adi ko prayashchit ka asali roop samajh kar pati ke charanon ki sachchi upasika ban sachamuch shraddha aur anurag ki devi ban jati hai. prabhashnkar ka putr dayashnkar vairagy dharan kar leta hai. un ke do any putr tejashnkar aur padmashnkar asani se samriddh ho jane ki akanksha se prerit ho bhairav-mntr jagane ke prayatn men apana-apana ant kar dalane hain. mithya vishvas aur kushiksha ne do jivan-pushpon ko apane pairon tale kuchal diya. mayashnkar prarambh se hi sntosh aur tyag ki bhavana lie hue tha. premashnkar ke snrakshan men rahane ke karan usake ye snskar aur bhi dridh ho gaye. apane tilakotsav ke samay usane jo bhashan diya, usamen dinon ke kalyan, karttavy-palan, nyay, dharm, durbalon ke ansuon ki or hi adhik dhyan diya gaya tha. usane jamindari-unmoolan aur sahakarika ke bhav vyakt kiye the. gyanashnkar ne apane jivan bhar ki ashaon par pani phirate dekh gnga men doobakar atmahatya kar li.

ant men premashram ke sadasyon ke sath premashnkar aur mayashnkar dinon ki raksha aur unake jivan ko sukhamay banane men dattachitt rahate hain. rajasabha ke sadasyon ke roop men bhi ve jan-seva ki bhavana se hi prerit hote hain. ganv men ramarajy ki sthapana kar ve divy anand ka anubhav karate hain. vividh sudharon, saphaee, shiksha, achchhi krishi ke lie achchhe bij ki vyavastha ki jati hai. ve praja ke trasti ban jate hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh


dhirendr, varma “bhag- 2 par adharit”, hindi sahity kosh (hindi), 360.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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