ग़बन -प्रेमचंद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(ग़बन se punarnirdeshit)
gaban -premachnd
gaban upanyas ka avaran prishth
lekhak munshi premachnd
mool shirshak gaban
prakashak rajapal end sans
prakashan tithi 1930
ISBN 81-7028-336-1
desh bharat
prishth: 256
bhasha hindi
vishay samajik, yatharthavadi
prakar upanyas
premachnd ka upanyas 'gaban' sanh 1930 ee. men prakashit hua. madhyavargiy jivan aur manovritti ka jitana saphal chitran premachand ne 'gaban' men kiya hai, utana unake sahity men anyatr nahin milata. aupanyasik kala ki drishti se bhi yah unaki ek sundar rachana hai.

kathanak

isamen do kathanak hain - ek prayag se sambaddh aur doosara kolakata se sambaddh. donon kathanak jalapaki madhyasthata dvara jod die gaye hain. kathanak men anavashyak ghatanaon aur vistar ka abhav hai. prayag ke chhote se ganv ke zamindar ke mukhtar mahashay dinadayal aur manaki ki ikalauti putri jalapa ko bachapan se hi abhooshanon, visheshat: chandrahar ki lalasa lag gayi thi. vah svapn dekhati thi ki vivah ke samay usake lie chandrahar zaroor chadhega. jab usaka vivah kachahari men naukar munshi dayanath ke bekar putr ramanath se hua to chadhave men aur gahane to the, chandrahar n tha. isase jalapa ko ghor nirasha huee.

prayag se sambaddh

dinadayal aur dayanath donon ne apani- apani bisat se zyada vivah men kharch kiya. dayanath ne kachahari men rahate hue rishvat ki kamaee se munh mod rakha tha. putr ke vivah men ve karz se lad gaye. dayanath to chandrahar bhi chadhana chahate the lekin unaki patni jageshvari ne unaka prastav radd kar diya tha. jalapa ki ek sakhi shahajadi use chandrahar prapt karane ke lie aur uttejit karati hai. jalapa chandrahar ki tek lekar hi sasural gayi. ghar ki halat to khasta thi, kintu ramanath ne jalapa ke samane apane gharane ki badi shan mar rakhi thi. karz utarane ke lie jab pita ne jalapa ke kuchh gahane chupake se lane ke lie kaha to ramanath kuchh manasik sngharsh ke bad abhooshanon ka sandook chupake se uthakar unhen de ate hai aur jalapa se chori ho jane ka bahana kar dete hain kintu apane is kapatapoorn vyavahar se unhen atmaglani hoti hai, visheshat: jab ki ve apani patni se atyadhik prem karate hain. jalapa ka jivan to kshubdh ho uthata hai. ab ramanath ko naukari ki chinta hoti hai. ve apane shatarnj ke sathi vidhur aur chungi men naukari karane vale ramesh baboo ki sahayata se chungi men tis rupaye ki masik naukari pa jate hain. jalapa ko ve apana vetan chalis rupaye batate hain. isi samay jalapa ko apani mata ka bheja hua chandrahar milata hai, kintu daya men diya hua dan samajhakar vah use svikar nahin karati. ab ramanath men jalapa ke lie gahane banavane ka hausala paida hota hai. is hausale ko ko ve saraphon ke karz se lad jane par bhi poora hai. indubhooshan vakil ki patni ratan ko jalapa ke jadaoo kngan bahut achchhe lagate hain. vaise hi kngan lane ke lie vah ramanath ko 600 rupaye deti hai. sarraph in rupayon ko karjakhate men jamakar ramanath ko kngan udhar dene se inkar kar deta hain. ratan knganon ke lie barabar takaza karati rahati hai. ant men vah apane rupaye hi vapas lane ke lie kahati hai. usake rupaye vapas karane ke khyal se ramanath chungi ke rupaye hi ghar le ate hain. unaki anupasthiti men jab ratan apane rupaye mangane ati hain to jalapa unhin rupayon ko uthakar de deti hain. ghar ane par jab ramanath ko pata laga to unhen badi chinta huee. gaban ke mamale men unaki saza ho sakati thi. sari paristhiti ka spashtikaran karate hue unhonne apani patni ke nam ek patr likha. ve use apani patni ko dene ya n dene ke bare men soch hi rahe the, ki vah patr jalapa ko mil jata hain. use patr padhate dekhakar unhen itani atm- glani hoti hai ki ve ghar se bhag jate hain jalapa apane gahane bechakar chungi ke rupaye lauta deti hai. isake pashchath katha kalakatte ki or mudati hai.

kalakatte se sambaddh

kalakatte men ramanath apane hitaishi devidin khatik ke yahan kuchh dinon tak gupt roop se rahane ke bad chay ki dukan khol lete hain. ve apani vastavikata chhipae rahate hain. ek din jab ve natak dekhakar laut rahe the, pulis unhen shubahe men pakad leti hai. ghabarahat men ramanath apane gaban adi ke bare men sari katha suna dete hain. pulisavale apani tahakikat dvara unhen nirdosh pate hue bhi nahin chhodate aur unhen krantikariyon par chal rahe ek muqadamen ke gavah ke roop men pesh kar dete hain. jel- jivan se bhayabhit hone ke karan ramanath pulisavalon ki bat man lete hain. pulis ne unhen ek bngale men bade aram se rakha aur zohara namak ek veshya unake manornjan ke lie niyukt ki gayi. udhar jalapa ratan ke paramarsh se shatarnj- sambandhi 50/- ka ek vigyapan prakashit karati hai. jis vyakti ne vah vigyapan jita, vah ramanath hi the aur isase jalapa ko maloom ho gaya ki ve kalakatte men hain. khojate- khojate vah devidin khatik ke yahan pahunch jati hai aur ramanath ko pulis ke kuchakr se nikalane ki asaphal cheshta karati hai. ratan bhi unhin dinon apane boodhe pati ka ilaj karane ke lie kalakatte ati hai. pati ki mrityu ke bad vah jalapa ki sahayata karane men kisi prakar ka snkoch prakat nahin karati. krantikariyon ke viruddh gavahi dene ke pashchath unhen jalapa ka ek patr mila, jisane unake bhav badal diye. unhonne jaj ke samane sari vastavikata prakat kar di, jisase usako vishvas ho gaya ki niraparadh vyaktiyon ko dand diya gaya hai. jaj ne apana pahala nirnay vapas le liya. ramanath, jalapa, johara adi vapas akar prayag ke samip rahane lage.

upasnhar

jalapa ke karan ramanath men atm- samman ka phir se uday ho jata hai. zohara veshya- jivan chhodakar seva- vrat dharan karati hai. ramanath aur jalapa bhi seva- marg ka anusaran karate hain. johara ne apani seva, atm- tyag aur saral svabhav se sabhi ko mugdh kar liya tha. ratan mrityu ko prapt huee. ek bar prayag ke samip gnga men doobate hue yatri ko bachate samay bhi bah gayi. ramanath ne koshish ki ki use bachane lie age badh jay. jalapa bhi pani men kood padi thi. ramanath age n badh sake. ek shakti age khinchati thi, ek pichhe. age ki shakti men anurag tha, nirasha thi, balidan tha. bandhan ne rok liya. kalakatte men johara vilas ki vastu thi. prayag men usake ghar ke prani- jaisa vyavahar hota tha. dayanath aur rameshvari ko yah kah kar shant kar diya gaya tha ki vah devidin ki vidhava bahoo hai. johara men atmashuddhi ki jyoti jagamaga uthi thi. apani kshin asha leye ramanath aur jalapa ghar laut gaye. unaki ankhon ke samane johara ki tasvir khadi ho jati thi.

alochana

  • prasiddh alochanakar daau. namavar sinh ke anusar - 'gaban' upanyas ki alochana karate hue 'premachnd ki kala' shirshak nibndh men jainendr kumar ne likha hai ki '
    bat ko aisa sulajhakar kahane ki adat main nahin janata, mainne aur kahin dekhi hai. badi se badi bat ko bahut ulajhan ke avasar par aise sulajhakar thode se shabdon men bharakar, kuchh is tarah kah jate hain, jaise yah goodh, gahari, apratyaksh bat unake lie nity-prati ghareloo vyavahar ki jani pahachani chiz ho. unaki qalam sab jagah pahunchati hai, lekin andhere se andhere men bhi vah kabhi dhokha nahin deti. vah vahan bhi saralata se apana marg banati chali jati hai. spashtata ke maidan men premachnd avijay hain. unaki bat nirnit, khuli, nishchit hoti hai.'[1]
  • gady sahity ki vartaman gati : tritiy utthan men varnit hai -
premachnd ki si chalati aur patron ke anuroop rng badalanevali bhasha bhi pahale nahin dekhi gee thi. ant:prakriti ya shil ke uttarottar udghatan ka kaushal bhi premachndaji ke do ek upanyason men, visheshat: 'gaban' men dekhane men aya. sath aur asath bhala aur bura do sarvatha bhinn varg karake patr nirman karane ki asvabhavik pratha bhi is tritiy utthan men bahut kuchh kam huee hai, par manovritti ki asthirata ka vah chitr abhi bahut kam dikhaee pada hai jisake anusar kuchh paristhitiyon men manushy apane shil svabhav ke sarvatha viruddh acharan kar jata hai.[2]


gaban upanyas
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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. alochana ki kasauti (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 15 joon, 2011.
  2. gady sahity ki vartaman gati : tritiy utthan (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 15 joon, 2011.

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