कर्मभूमि -प्रेमचंद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

karmabhoomi -premachnd
karmabhoomi upanyas ka avaran prishth
lekhak munshi premachnd
mool shirshak karmabhoomi
prakashak bhoomika prakashan
prakashan tithi 1932
desh bharat
prishth: 296
bhasha hindi
vishay samajik, yatharthavadi
prakar upanyas
premachnd dvara rachit 'karmabhoomi' namak upanyas sanh 1932 men prakashit hua tha. yah rajanitik kathanak par adharit upanyas hai.
upanyas ke patr

premachandr ka yah upanyas panch bhagon men vibhajit hai. is upanyas men lala samarakant, unake putr amarakant, putravadhu sukhada, renukant (sukhada ka putr), putri naina sakina, haphiz halim aur unake putr salim, dhaniram aur unake putr maniram, daau. shantikumar aur svami atmanand, goodad, prayag, kashi, saloni aur munni adi ki kahani hai. karmabhoomi men parivaron ki katha hai. isamen premachand deshanurag, samaj- sudhar, mathira- nivaran, achhootoddhar, shiksha, garibon ke lie makanon ki samasya, desh ke prati karttavy, jan- jagriti adi ki or snket karate hain. krishakon ki samasya upanyas men hai to, kintu vah pramukh nahin ho payi. sampoorn katha ka kary- kshetr pradhanat: kashi aur haridvar ke pas ka dehati ilaqa hai.

rajanitik upanyas

premachand ka karmabhoomi upanyas ek rajanitik upanyas hai jisamen vibhinn rajanitik samasyaon ko kuchh parivaron ke madhyam se prastut kiya gaya hai. ye parivar yadyapi apani parivarik samasyaon se joojh rahe hain tathapi tatkalin rajanitik andolan men bhag le rahe hain. upanyas ka kathanak kashi aur usake as-pas ke ganvon se snbndhit hai. andolan donon hi jagah hota hai aur donon ka uddeshy kranti hai. kintu yah kranti gandhi ji ke satyagrah se prabhavit hai. gandhiji ka kahana tha ki jelon ko itana bhar dena chahie ki unamen jagah n rahe aur is prakar shakti aur ahinsa se angrej sarakar parajit ho jae.[1]

samasya

is upanyas ki mool samasya yahi hai. upanyas ke sabhi patr jelon men thoos die jate hain. is tarah premachand kranti ke vyapak paksh ka chitran karate hue tatkalin sabhi rajanitik evn samajik samasyaon ko kathanak se jod dete hain. nirdhanon ke makan ki samasya, achhootoddhar ki samasya, achhooton ke mandir men pravesh ki samasya, bharatiy nariyon ki maryada aur satitv ki raksha ki samasya, british samrajy ke daman chakr se utpann samasyaen, bharatiy samaj men vyapt dharmik pakhand ki samasya punarjagaran aur navin chetana ke samaj men sncharan ki samasya, rashtr ke lie andolan karane valon ki parivarik samasyaen adi is upanyas men bade yatharthavadi tarike se vyakt huee hain.[1]

kathanak

amarakant banaras ke rees samarakant ke putr hain. ve vidyarthi- jivan se hi sarvajanik jivan men kary karane ke shaukin hain. apane mitr salim ki arthik sahayata bhi karate rahate hain. prarambh men unake lobhi pita ke adarshon men kafi antar bana rahata hai. amarakant ka vivah lakhanoo ke ek dhani parivar ki ekamatr sntan sukhada se ho jata hai, kintu donon ke drishtikonon men samy nahin hai. sath-sath rahate hue bhi donon ko ek - doosare se prem nahin hai. sukhada ko apane pati ka khadi bechana aur sarvajanik kary pasand nahin. patni se prem n pakar amarakant sakina ki muhabbat men pad jate hai. ve pahale se hi daauktar shantikumar ke sath kashi men kary karate the. gore sipahiyon dvara sataee gayi munni ke muqadame ke sambandh men unhonne kafi kary kiya. vyavaharikata aur ardash men sngharsh hone ke karan apane pita tatha sukhada se unaka pahale se hi ji ooba hua tha, lekin jab sakina ke sath unaka premapoorn vyavahar dekhakar pathanin ne unhen phatakara to ve shahar chhodakar chale gaye.

haridvar men

shahar chhodakar ve haridvar ke pas ek aise dehati ilake men pahunche chahan murdakhor aur achhoot kahe jane vale log aur kisan rahate the. ve saloni ke yahan rahate hue goodad, prayag, kashi adi ke sampark men aye aur ganvavalon men shiksha, achchhi- achchhi adaton, saphaee adi ka prachar karane prachar karane lage. yahan rahate hue unaki munni se bhent huee. donon men paraspar akarshan bhi utpann hua. kashi se aye atmanand se unhen apane seva- kary men barabar sahayat prapt hoti rahati thi. krishakon ki sahayata ke lie ve mahnt asharam giri se mile kintu unhen adhik saphalata prapt n huee kintu kashi men sukhada ke tyag samachar sunakar bhi ve uttejit ho uthate hain aur laganabandi ka andolan shuroo kar dete hain. unaka purana mitr salim, ab aee. si. es. aauphisar aur us ilake ka incharj, unhen pakad le jata hai. kintu lala samarakant, jinamen ab parivartan ho chuka tha, jan - seva ki or mudakar usi ilake men pahunch jate hain aur kisan - andolan ke silasile men karavas dand bhi bhugatate hain. unake prabhav se salim ke hriday men bhi parivartan ho jata hai. vah svny andolan ki bagador samhalata hai aur ant men pakada jata hai. tatpashchat munni aur sakina (vah bhi us ilake men pahunch jati hai) bhi giraftar ho jati hain. ugr atmanand bhi sarakari shiknje se bach nahin pate.

kashi men

udhar kashi ke mandiron men achhooton ke pravesh, garibon ke lie makan banavane adi samasyaon ko lekar andolan chhid jata hai aur sarakar se sngharsh hota hai. is andolan ka snchalan sukhada, pathanin, renukadevi aur yahan tak ki samarakant bhi karate hain. ye sab aur daauktar shantikumar jel-yatra karate hain. naina bhi vahan a jati hai aur ek jaloos ka netritv karate hue chungi ki or jati hai. vahan usaka pati maniram use goli mar deta hai. usaki mrityu se chungi ke membaron men bhi hriday - parirvatan ho jata hai aur ve garibon ke makanon ke lie zamin de dete hain. jo andolan sukhada ne prarambh kiya tha, usaka ant naina ki bali se hota hai. lakhanoo ke sentral jel men amarakant, munni, sakina, sukhada, pathanin, renuka adi sab mil jate hain. dhaniram ka putr maniram mrityu ko prapt hota hai.

ant

ant men seth dhaniram ki madhyasthata se sarakar dvara ek kameti niyukt ho jati hai jo sarakar se milakar kisanon aur garibon ki samasyaon par vichar karegi. us kameti men amar aur salim to rahate hi hain, unake atirikt tin any sadasyon ko chunane ka unhen adhikar diya gaya. sarakar ne bhi us kameti men do sadasyon apane rakhe. yah samajhaute vali niti 1930 ke kangres aur sarakar ke asthayi samajhaute ke prabhav ke roop men hai. sarakar tab kaidiyon ko chhod deti hai. amarakant, sakina aur munni ko bahan ke roop men svikar karate hain aur amarakant aur sukhada ek doosare ka mahattv pahachanate hain.

premachand ki rachana kaushal

premachand ki rachana kaushal is tathy men hai ki unhonne in samasyaon ka chitran satyanubhooti se prerit hokar kiya hai ki upanyas padhate samay tatkalin rashtriy satyagrah andolan pathak ki ankhon ke samaksh sajiv ho jata hain. chhatron tatha ghatanaon ki bahulata ke bavajood upanyas n kahin bojhil hota hai n kahin niras. premachand har patr aur ghatana ki dor apane hath men rakhate hain isalie kahin shithilata nahin ane dete. adarshonmukh yatharthavad se otaprot karmabhoomi upanyas premachand ki ek praudh rachana hai jo har tarah se prabhavashali ban padi hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 karmabhoomi (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 15 joon, 2011.

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