निर्मला -प्रेमचंद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

nirmala -premachnd
nirmala upanyas ka avaran prishth
lekhak munshi premachnd
mool shirshak nirmala
prakashak rajapal prakashan
prakashan tithi 1927
desh bharat
prishth: 140
bhasha hindi
vishay samajik, yatharthavadi
prakar upanyas

premachand dvara likhit 'nirmala' upanyas, jisaka nirman kal 1923 ee. aur prakashan ka samay 1927 ee. hai. premachandr ki ganana hindi ke nirmataon men ki jati hai. kahani aur upanyas ke kshetron men unhonne pahali saphal rachanaen din jo gun tatha akar donon drishtiyon se anyatam hain. premachandr ke jin upanyason ne sahity ke manak sthapit kie, unamen nirmala bahut age mana jata hai. isamen hindoo samaj men stri ke sthan ka sashakt chitran kiya gaya hai. is par bana dooradarshan ka siriyal bhi bahut lokapriy hua hai.[1]

pramukh upanyas

premachand ka yah upanyas ‘‘nirmala’’ chhota hote hue bhi unake pramukh upanyason men gina jata hai. isaka prakashan aj se lagabhag 84 sal pahale 1927 men hua tha. is upanyas men unhonne dahej pratha tatha bemel vivah ki samasya uthaee hai aur bahusnkhyak madhyamavargiy hindoo samaj ke jivan ka bada yatharthavadi marmik chitran prastut kiya hai. unake any upanyas nimnavargiy tatha gramin krishak jivan ka chitran karate hain tatha rashtriy svadhinata tatha samanata ka paksh prabalata se prastut karate hain. is shreni men 'godan', 'rngabhoomi', 'karmabhoomi, 'sevasadan', 'premashram' adi upanyas ate hain jo sab gandhi vicharadhara se prabhavit adarshavadi tatha am janata ke jivan se snbndhit hai. 'gaban' bhi 'nirmala' ki hi bhanti striyon ki samasya par hai parantu yah ek any samasya-striyon ke abhooshan prem ki samasya prastut karata hai.[2]

kathanak

premachand krit 'nirmala' upanyas men anamel vivah aur dahej-pratha ki du:khant kahani hai. upanyas ke ant men nirmala ki mrityu is kutsit samajik pratha ko mita dalane ke lie ek bhari chunauti hai. pita udayabhanu lal ki mrityu ho jane par mata kalyani dahej n de sakane ke karan apani putri nirmala ka vivah bhalachandr aur rngili ke putr bhuvan mohan se n kar boodhe vakil totaram se kar deti hai. totaram ke tin putr pahale hi se the, is par bhi unaki vilasita kisi prakar kam n huee. itana hi nahin, nirmala ke ghar men ane par ek navayuvati vadhoo ke hriday ki umngon ka adar aur use apana prem dene ke sthan par totaram ko apani patni aur apane bade ladake mnsaram ke parasparik sambandh par vilasitajany sandeh hone lagata hai, jo antatogatva n keval mnsaram ke prannt ka karan banata hai, varanh sare parivar ke lie abhishap ban jata hai.

doosara ladaka jiyaram bhi ghar ke vishakt vatavaran ke prabhavantargat kusng men padakar nirmala ke abhooshan churakar le jata hai. rahasy ka udh‌ghatan hone par vah bhi atmahatya kar leta hai.

sabase chhota ladaka siyaram virakt hokar sadhu ho jata hai. parivar men nirmala ki nanad rukmini usako phooti ankhon bhi nahin dekh sakati aur pray: nirmala ke lie du:kh aur klesh ka karan banati hai. totaram do putron ke virah se sntapt hokar siyaram ko dhoondhane nikal padate hain. udhar bhuvan mohan nirmala ko apane prem-pash men phansane ki cheshta karata hai aur asaphal hone par atmahatya kar leta hai. nirmala ke jivan men ghutan ke sivay aur kuchh nahin rah jata. ant men vah mrityu ko prapt hoti hai. jis samay usaki chita jalati hai, totaram laut ate hain. is prakar upanyas ka ant karoonapoorn hai aur ghatana-pravah men atynt tivrata hai.

upakathayen

nirmala aur totaram ki is pradhan katha ke sath sudha ki kahani judi huee hai. totaram ko jab nirmala aur mnsaram ke sambandh men niradhar sandeh hone lagata hai aur, nirmala apane ko nirdosh siddh karane ke lie mnsaram ke prati nishthurata ka abhinay karati hai aur jab mnsaram ko ghar se hatakar bordig men dakhil kar diya jata hai, to balak mnsaram ke hriday ko marmik aghat pahunchana hai. usaki dasha din-par-din girati jati hai, aur ant men apane pita ka bhram doorakar vah mrityu ko prapt hota hai. totaram ko manasik vikshobh hota hai. isi samay samay premachand ne sudha aur usake pati daau. bhuvan mohan ka (jisake sath nirmala ka pahale vivah hone vala tha) nirmala se mitratapoorn sambandh sthapit karaya hai. sudha aur nirmala ghanishth mitr ban jati hain. sudha apane shil saujany aur sahanubhootipoorn hriday se nirmala ko mugdh kar leti hai. vah nirmala ki chhoti bahan krishna ka vivah apane devar se karati hi nahin varanh nirmala ki mata ki gupt roop se adhik sahayata bhi karati hai. nirmala ke mayake men krishn ke vivah ke bad sudha ka putr mar jata hai. nirmala ke bhi ek bachchi paida hoti hai. use lekar vah apane ghar laut ati hai. ek din sudha ki anupasthiti men jab nirmala usake ghar gayi to daau. bhuvan mohan atmasnyam kho baithate hain. pata lagane par sudha apane pati ki aisi bhartsana karati hai ki vah atmaglani ke vashibhoot ho atmahatya kar leta hai. is ghatana ke pashchath to nirmala ke jivan ki vishadapoorn katha apane charam sima par pahunch jati hai.

hasy

premachand ne bhalachand aur moteram shastri ke prasng dvara upanyas men hasy ki srishti ki hai.

saphal upanyas

akasmik roop se ghatit hone vali kuchh ghatanaon ko chhodakar 'nirmala' ke kathanak ka vikas sidhe-saral dhng se hota hai. prasngik kathaon ke karan usamen duroohata utpann nahin huee hai. kathanak men kasavat hai. katha atynt dridhata ke sath vivrit hoti huee apane antim lakshy tak pahunch jati hai.



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. nirmala (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 20 navambar, 2011.
  2. nirmala (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 20 navambar, 2011.

dhirendr, varma “bhag- 2 par adharit”, hindi sahity kosh (hindi), 305.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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