सभ्यता का रहस्य -प्रेमचंद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Icon-edit.gif is lekh ka punarikshan evn sampadan hona avashyak hai. ap isamen sahayata kar sakate hain. "sujhav"

yon to meri samajh men duniya ki ek hazar ek baten nahin ati—jaise log prat:kal uthate hi balon par chhura kyon chalate hain ? kya ab purushon men bhi itani najakat a gayi hai ki balon ka bojh unase nahin snbhalata ? ek sath hi sabhi padhe-likhe adamiyon ki ankhen kyon itani kamazor ho gayi hai  ? dimag ki kamazori hi isaka karan hai ya aur kuchh? log khitabon ke pichhe kyon itane hairan hote hain ? ityadi—lekin is samay mujhe in baton se matalab nahin. mere man men ek naya prashn uth raha hai aur usaka javab mujhe koee nahin deta. prashn yah hai ki sabhy kaun hai aur asabhy kaun  ? sabhyata ke lakshan kya hain ? sarasari najar se dekhie, to isase zyada asan aur koee saval hi n hoga. bachcha-bachcha isaka samadhan kar sakata hai. lekin jara gaur se dekhie, to prashn itana asan nahin jan padata. agar kot-pataloon pahanana, taee-hait kalar lagana, mej par baithakar khana khana, din men terah bar koko ya chay pina aur sigar pite hue chalana sabhyata hai, to un goron ko bhi sabhy kahana padega, jo sadak par baithakar sham ko kabhi-kabhi tahalate najar ate hain; sharab ke nashe se ankhen surkh, pair ladakhadate hue, rasta chalanevalon ko anayas chhedane ki dhun ! kya un goron ko sabhy kaha ja sakata hai ? kabhi nahin. to yah siddh hua ki sabhyata koee aur hi chiz hai, usaka deh se itana sambandh nahin hai jitana man se.

2

mere ine-gine mitron men ek ray ratanakishor bhi hain. ap bahut hi sahriday, bahut hi udar, bahut shikshit aur ek bade ohadedar hain. bahut achchha vetan pane par bhi unaki amadani kharch ke lie kafi nahin hoti. ek chauthaee vetan to bngale hi ki bhent ho jati hai. isalie ap bahudha chintit rahate hain. rishvat to nahin lete—kam-se-kam main nahin janata, halanki kahane vale kahate hain—lekin itana janata hoon ki vah bhatta badhane ke lie daure par bahut rahate hain, yahan tak ki isake lie har sal bajat ki kisi doosare mad se rupaye nikalane padate hain. unake aphasar kahate hain, itane daure kyon karate ho, to javab dete hain, is zile ka kam hi aisa hai ki jab tak khoob daure n kie jaen riaya shant nahin rah sakati. lekin maja to yah hai ki ray sahab utane daure vastav men nahin karate, jitane ki apane rojanamache men likhate hain. unake padav shahar se pachas mil par hote hain. kheme vahaaun gade rahate hain, kainp ke amale vahan pade rahate hain aur ray sahab ghar par mitron ke sath gap-shap karate rahate hain, par kisi ki majal hai ki ray sahab ki nekaniyati par sandeh kar sake. unake sabhy purush hone men kisi ko shnka nahin ho sakati.

ek din main unase milane gaya. us samay vah apane ghasiyare damadi ko dant rahe the. damadi rat-din ka naukar tha, lekin ghar roti khane jaya karata tha. usaka ghar thodi hi door par ek ganv men tha. kal rat ko kisi karan se yahan n a saka. isalie dant pad rahi thi.

ray sahab—jab ham tumhen rat-din ke lie rakhe hue hain, to tum ghar par kyon rahe  ? kal ke paise kat jayenge.

damadi—hajoor, ek mehaman a gaye the, isi se n a saka.

ray sahab—to kal ke paise usi mehaman se lo.

damadi—sarakar, ab kabhi aisi khata n hogi.

ray sahab—bak-bak mat karo.

damadi—hajoor......

ray sahab—do rupaye juramana.

damadi rota chala gaya. roja bakhshane aya tha, namaz gale pad gayi. do rupaye juramana thuk gaya. khata yahi thi ki bechara kasoor maph karana chahata tha.

yah ek rat ko gairahazir hone ki saza thi ! bechara din-bhar ka kam kar chuka tha, rat ko yahan soya n tha, usaka dand ! aur ghar baithe bhatte udanevale ko koee nahin poochhata ! koee dnd nahin deta. dnd to mile aur aisa mile ki zindagi-bhar yad rahe; par pakadana to mushkil hai. damadi bhi agar hoshiyar hota, to jara rat rahe akar kothari men so jata. phir kise khabar hoti ki vah rat ko kahan raha. par garib itana chnt n tha.

3

damadi ke pas kul chh: bisve zamin thi. par itane hi praniyon ka kharch bhi tha. usake do ladake, do ladakiyan aur stri, sab kheti men lage rahate the, phir bhi pet ki rotiyan nahin mayassar hoti thin. itani zamin kya sona ugal deti ! agar sab-ke-sab ghar se nikal mazadoori karane lagate, to aram se rah sakate the; lekin mauroosi kisan mazadoor kahalane ka apaman n sah sakata tha. is badanami se bachane ke lie do bail bandh rakhe the ! usake vetan ka bada bhag bailon ke dane-chare hi men ud jata tha. ye sari takaliphen mnjoor thin, par kheti chhodakar mazadoor ban jana mnjoor n tha. kisan ki jo pratishtha hai, vah kahin mazadoor ki ho sakati hai, chahe vah rupaya roj hi kyon n kamaye  ? kisani ke sath mazadoori karana itane apaman ki bat nahin, dvar par bndhe hue bail hue bail usaki man-raksha kiya karate hain, par bailon ko bechakar phir kahan munh dikhalane ki jagah rah sakati hai !

ek din ray sahab use saradi se kanpate dekhakar bole—kapade kyon nahin banavata ? kanp kyon raha hai ?

damadi—sarakar, pet ki roti to poora hi nahin padati, kapade kahan se banavaoon ?

ray sahab—bailon ko bech kyon nahin dalata ? saikadon bar samajha chuka, lekin n-jane kyon itani moti-si bat teri samajh men nahin ati.

damadi—sarakar, biradari men kahin munh dikhane layaq n rahoonga. ladaki ki sagaee n ho payegi, tat bahar kar diya jaoonga.

ray sahab—inhin himakaton se tum logon ki yah durgati ho rahi hai. aise adamiyon par daya karana bhi pap hai. (meri taraph phir kar) kyon munshiji, is pagalapan ka bhi koee ilaj hai  ? jadon mar rahe hain, par daravaze par bail zaroor bandhenge.

mainne kaha—janab, yah to apani-apani samajh hai.

ray sahab—aisi samajh ko door se salam kijie. mere yahaaun kee pushton se janmashtami ka utsav manaya jata tha. kee hazar rupayon par pani phir jata tha. gana hota tha; davaten hoti thin, rishtedaron ko nyote diye jate the, garibon ko kapade bante jate the. valid sahab ke bad pahale hi sal mainne utsav band kar diya. fayada kya ? muft men char-panch hazar ki chapat khani padati thi. sare kasabe men vavela macha, avajen kasi gayin, kisi ne nastik kaha, kisi ne eesaee banaya lekin yahan in baton ki kya parava ! akhir thode hi dinon men sara kolahal shant ho gaya. aji, badi dillagi thi. kasabe men kisi ke yahan shadi ho, lakadi mujhase le  ! pushton se yah rasm chali ati thi. valid to doosaron se darakht mol lekar is rasm ko nibhate the. thi himakat ya nahin ? mainne phauran lakadi dena band kar diya. is par bhi log bahut roye-dhoye, lekin doosaron ka rona-dhona sunoon, ya apana fayada dekhoon. lakadi se kam-se-kam 500)rupaye salana ki bachat ho gayi. ab koee bhoolakar bhi in chijon ke lie dik karane nahin ata.

mere dil men phir saval paida hua, donon men kaun sabhy hai, kul-pratishtha par pran denevale moorkh damadi; ya dhan par kul-maryada ko bali denevale ray ratan kishor !

ray sahab ke ijalas men ek bade marke ka mukadama pesh tha. shahar ka ek rees khoon ke mamale men phns gaya tha. usaki jamanat ke lie ray sahab ki khushamaden hone lagin. ijjat ki bat thi. rees sahab ka hukm tha ki chahe riyasat bik jay, par is mukadame se bedag nikal jaoon. daliyaaun lagaee gayin, sipharishen pahunchaee gayin, par ray sahab par koee asar n hua. rees ke adamiyon ko pratyaksh roop se rishvat ki charcha karane ki himmat n padati thi. akhir jab koee bas n chala, to rees ki stri se milakar sauda patane ki thani.

rat ke das baje the. donon mahilaon men baten hone lagin. 20 hazar ki batachit thi  ! ray sahab ki patni to itani khush hueen ki usi vakt ray sahab ke pas daudi huee ayi aur kahanen lagi—le lo, le lo

ray sahab ne kaha—itani besabr n ho. vah tumhen apane dil men kya samajhengi  ? kuchh apani ijjat ka bhi khayal hai ya nahin ? mana ki rakam badi hai aur isase main ekabaragi tumhari aye din ki pharamayashon se mukt ho jaoonga, lekin ek siviliyan ki ijjat bhi to koee mamooli chiz nahin hai. tumhen pahale bigadakar kahana chahie tha ki mujhase aisi bedoodi batachit karani ho, to yahan se chali jao. main apane kanon se nahin sunana chahati.

stri—yah to mainne pahale hi kiya, bigadakar khoob khari-khoti sunayin. kya itana bhi nahin janati ? bechari mere pairon par sar rakhakar rone lagi.

5

ray sahab—yah kaha tha ki ray sahab se kahoongi, to mujhe kachcha hi chaba jayenge ?

yah kahate hue ray sahab ne gadagad hokar patni ko gale laga liya.

stri—aji, main n-jane aisi kitani hi baten kah chuki, lekin kisi tarah tale nahin talati. ro-rokar jan de rahi hai.

ray sahab—usase vada to nahin kar liya ?

stri—vada ? main rupaye lekar sandook men rakh ayi. not the.

ray sahab—kitani jabaradast ahamak ho, n maloom eeshvar tumhen kabhi samajh bhi dega ya nahin.

stri—ab kya dega ? dena hota, to de n di hoti.

ray sahab—han maloom to aisa hi hota hai. mujhase kaha tak nahin aur rupaye lekar sandook men dakhil kar lie ! agar kisi tarah bat khul jay, to kahin ka n rahoon.

stri—to bhaee, soch lo. agar kuchh gadabad ho, to main jakar rupaye lauta doon.

ray sahab—phir vahi himakat ! are, ab to jo kuchh hona tha, ho chuka. eeshvar par bharosa karake jamanat leni padegi. lekin tumhari himakat men shak nahin. janati ho, yah sanp ke munh men ungali dalana hai. yah bhi janati ho ki mujhe aisi baton se kitani napharat hai, phir bhi besabr ho jati ho. abaki bar tumhari himakat se mera vrat toot raha hai. mainne dil men than liya tha ki ab is mamale men hath n daloonga, lekin tumhari himakat ke mare jab meri kuchh chalane bhi paye ?

stri—main jakar lautaye deti hoon.

ray sahab—aur main jakar zahar khaye leta hoon.

idhar to stri-purush men yah abhinay ho raha tha, udhar damadi usi vakt apane ganv ke mukhiya ke khet se juar kat raha tha. aj vah rat-bhar ki chhutti lekar ghar gaya tha. bailon ke lie chare ka ek tinaka bhi nahin hai. abhi vetan milane men kee din ki der thi, mol le n sakata tha. ghar valon ne din ko kuchh ghas chhilakar khilayi to thi, lekin oont ke munh men jira. utani ghas se kya ho sakata tha. donon bail bhookhe khade the. damadi ko dekhate hi donon poonchhen khadi karake hunkarane lage. jab vah pas gaya to donon usaki hatheliyan chatane lage. bechara damadi man masosakar rah gaya. socha, is vakt to kuchh ho nahin sakata, sabere kisi se kuchh udhar lekar chara laoonga.

lekin jab gyarah baje rat usaki ankhen khulin, to dekha ki donon bail abhi tak nand par khade hain. chandani rat thi, damadi ko jan pada ki donon usaki or upeksha aur yachana ki drishti se dekh rahe hain. unaki kshudha-vedana dekhakar usaki ankhen sajal ho ayin. kisan ko apane bail apane ladakon ki tarah pyare hote hain. vah unhen pashu nahin, apana mitr aur sahayak samajhata. bailon ko bhookhe khade dekhakar nind ankhon se bhag gayi. kuchh sochata hua utha. hnsiya nikali aur chare ki fikr men chala. ganv ke bahar bajare aur juar ke khet khade the. damadi ke hath kanpane lage. lekin bailon ki yad ne use uttejit kar diya. chahata, to kee bojh kat sakata tha; lekin vah chori karate hue bhi chor n tha. usane keval utana hi chara kata, jitana bailon ko rat-bhar ke lie kafi ho. socha, agar kisi ne dekh bhi liya, to usase kah doonga, bail bhookhe the, isalie kat liya. use vishvas tha ki thode-se chare ke lie koee mujhe pakad nahin sakata. main kuchh bechane ke lie to kat nahin raha hoon; phir aisa nirdayi kaun hai, jo mujhe pakad le. bahut karega, apane dam le lega. usane bahut socha. chare ka thoda hona hi use chori ke aparadh se bachane ko kafi tha. chor utana katata, jitana usase uth sakata. use kisi ke phayade aur nukasan se kya matalab ? ganv ke log damadi ko chara liye jate dekhakar bigadate zaroor, par koee chori ke ilajam men n phnsata, lekin snyog se halke ke thane ka sipahi udhar ja nikala. vah pados ke ek baniye ke yahan jua hone ki khabar pakar kuchh ainthane ki toh men aya tha. damadi ko chara sir par uthate dekha, to sandeh hua. itani rat gaye kaun chara katata hai ? ho n ho, koee chori se kat raha hai, dantakar bola—kaun chara lie jata hai ? khada rah!

damadi ne chaukakar pichhe dekha, to pulis ka sipahi  ! hath-panv phool gaye, kanpate hue bola—huzoor, thoda hi-sa kata hai, dekh lijie.

sipahi—thoda kata ho ya bahut, hai to chori. khet kisaka hai ?

damadi—baladev mahato ka.

sipahi ne samajha tha, shikar phnsa, isase kuchh ainthnga; lekin vahan kya rakha tha. pakadakar ganv men laya aur jab vahan bhi kuchh hatthe chadhata n dikhaee diya to thane le gaya. thanedar ne chalan kar diya. mukadama ray sahab hi ke ijalas men pesh kiya.

ray sahab ne damadi ko phnse hue dekha, to hamadardi ke badale kathorata se kam liya. bole—yah meri badanami ki bat hai. tera kya bigada, sal-chh: mahine ki saza ho jayegi, sharminda to mujhe hona pad raha hai ! log yahi to kahate honge ki ray sahab ke adami aise badamash aur chor hain. too mera naukar n hota, to main halaki saza deta; lekin too mera naukar hai, isalie kadi-se-kadi saza doonga. main yah nahin sun sakata ki ray sahab ne apane naukar ke sath riayat ki.

yah kahakar ray sahab ne damadi ko chh: mahine ki sakht kaid ka hukm suna diya.

usi din unhonne khoon ke mukadame men jamanat le li. mainne donon vrittant sune aur mere dil men yah khyal aur bhi pakka ho gaya ki sabhyata keval hunar ke sath aib karane ka nam hai. ap bure-se- bura kam karen, lekin agar ap us par parada dal sakate hain, to ap sabhy hain, sajjan hain, jentilamain hain. agar ap men yah sifat nahin to ap asabhy hain, gnvar hain, badamash hain. yah sabhyata ka rahasy hai.

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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