प्रेमचंद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(मुंशी प्रेमचन्द se punarnirdeshit)
premachnd vishay soochi
premachnd
Premchand.jpg
poora nam munshi premachnd
any nam navab ray
janm 31 julaee, 1880
janm bhoomi lamahi ganv, varanasi, uttar pradesh
mrityu 8 aktoobar 1936
mrityu sthan varanasi, uttar pradesh
abhibhavak munshi ajayab lal aur anandi devi
pati/patni shivarani devi
sntan shripat ray aur amrit ray (putr)
karm bhoomi gorakhapur
karm-kshetr adhyapak, lekhak, upanyasakar
mukhy rachanaen gaban, godan, bade ghar ki beti, namak ka daroga adi
vishay samajik
bhasha hindi
vidyalay ilahabad vishvavidyalay
shiksha snatak
prasiddhi upanyas samrat
nagarikata bharatiy
sahityik adarshonmukh yatharthavad
andolan pragatishil lekhak andolan
any janakari premachnd unaka sahityik nam tha aur bahut varshon bad unhonne yah nam apanaya tha. unaka vastavik nam ‘dhanapat ray’ tha. jab unhonne sarakari seva karate hue kahani likhana arambh kiya, tab unhonne navab ray nam apanaya. bahut se mitr unhen jivan-paryant navab ke nam se hi sambodhit karate rahe.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

munshi premachnd (angrezi: Munshi Premchand, janm: 31 julaee, 1880 - mrityu: 8 aktoobar, 1936) bharat ke upanyas samrat mane jate hain jinake yug ka vistar sanh 1880 se 1936 tak hai. yah kalakhand bharat ke itihas men bahut mahattv ka hai. is yug men bharat ka svatntrata-sngram nee mnzilon se guzara. premachnd ka vastavik nam dhanapat ray shrivastav tha. ve ek saphal lekhak, deshabhakt nagarik, kushal vakta, zimmedar snpadak aur snvedanashil rachanakar the. bisavin shati ke poorvarddh men jab hindi men kam karane ki takaniki suvidhaen nahin thin phir bhi itana kam karane vala lekhak unake siva koee doosara nahin hua.[1]

jivan parichay

premachnd ka janm varanasi se lagabhag char mil door, lamahi nam ke ganv men 31 julaee, 1880 ko hua. premachnd ke pitaji munshi ajayab lal aur mata anandi devi thin. premachnd ka bachapan ganv men bita tha. ve natakhat aur khiladi balak the aur kheton se shak-sabzi aur pedon se phal churane men daksh the. unhen mithaee ka bada shauq tha aur vishesh roop se gud se unhen bahut prem tha. bachapan men unaki shiksha-diksha lamahi men huee aur ek maulavi sahab se unhonne urdoo aur farasi padhana sikha. ek rupaya churane par ‘bachapan’ men un par buri tarah mar padi thi. unaki kahani, ‘kazaki’, unaki apani bal-smritiyon par adharit hai. kazaki dak-vibhag ka harakara tha aur badi lambi-lambi yatraen karata tha. vah balak premachnd ke lie sadaiv apane sath kuchh saugat lata tha. kahani men vah bachche ke liye hiran ka chhauna lata hai aur dakaghar men deri se pahunchane ke karan naukari se alag kar diya jata hai. hiran ke bachche ke pichhe daudate-daudate vah ati vilamb se dak ghar lauta tha. kazaki ka vyaktitv atishay manaviyata men dooba hai. vah shalinata aur atmasamman ka putala hai, kintu manaviy karuna se usaka hriday bhara hai.

Blockquote-open.gif premachnd ji kahate hain ki samaj men zinda rahane men jitani kathinaiyon ka samana log karenge utana hi vahan gunah hoga. agar samaj men log khushahal honge to samaj men achchhaee zyada hogi aur samaj men gunah nahin ke barabar hoga. premachand ne shoshitavarg ke logon ko uthane ka har snbhav prayas kiya. unhonne avaz lagaee 'e logo jab tumhen snsar men rahana hai to jindon ki tarah raho, murdon ki tarah zinda rahane se kya fayada.' Blockquote-close.gif

vyaktitv

sada evn saral jivan ke malik premachand sada mast rahate the. unake jivan men vishamataon aur katutaon se vah lagatar khelate rahe. is khel ko unhonne bazi man liya jisako hamesha jitana chahate the. kaha jata hai ki premachand hnsod prakriti ke malik the. vishamataon bhare jivan men hnsod hona ek bahadur ka kam hai. isase is bat ko bhi samajha ja sakata hai ki vah apoorv jivani-shakti ka dyotak the. saralata, saujany aur udarata ki vah moorti the. jahan unake hriday men mitron ke lie udar bhav tha vahin unake hriday men garibon evn piditon ke lie sahanubhooti ka athah sagar tha. premachand uchchakoti ke manav the. inako ganv jivan se achchha prem tha. vah sada sadharan gnvee libas men rahate the. jivan ka adhikansh bhag unhonne ganv men hi guzara. bahar se bilkul sadharan dikhane vale premachand andar se jivani-shakti ke malik the. andar se jara sa bhi kisi ne dekha to use prabhavit hona hi tha. vah adambar evn dikhava se milon door rahate the. jivan men n to unako vilas mila aur n hi unako isaki tamanna thi. tamam mahapurushon ki tarah apana kam svayn karana pasnd karate the.[2]

sahityik jivan

premachnd unaka sahityik nam tha aur bahut varshon bad unhonne yah nam apanaya tha. unaka vastavik nam ‘dhanapat ray’ tha. jab unhonne sarakari seva karate hue kahani likhana arambh kiya, tab unhonne navab ray nam apanaya. bahut se mitr unhen jivan-paryant navab ke nam se hi sambodhit karate rahe. unhonne hindi men shekh sadi par ek chhoti-si pustak likhi thi, taaulsataauy ki kuchh kahaniyon ka hindi men anuvad kiya tha aur ‘prem-pachisi’ ki kuchh kahaniyon ka roopantar bhi hindi men kar rahe the. ye kahaniyan ‘sapt-saroj’ shirshak se hindi snsar ke samane sarvapratham sanh 1917 men ayin. ye sat kahaniyan thin:-

Blockquote-open.gif shayad kam log janate hain ki prakhyat kathakar munshi premachnd apani mahanh rachanaon ki rooparekha pahale angrezi men likhate the aur isake bad use hindi athava urdoo men anoodit kar vistarit karate the. Blockquote-close.gif

  1. bade ghar ki beti
  2. saut
  3. sajjanata ka dand
  4. pnch parameshvar
  5. namak ka daroga
  6. upadesh
  7. pariksha

premachnd ki sarvashreshth kahaniyon men in kahaniyon ki ganana hoti hai.

sahity ki visheshataen

premachand ki rachana-drishti, vibhinn sahity roopon men, abhivyakt huee. vah bahumukhi pratibha snpann sahityakar the. premachnd ki rachanaon men tatkalin itihas bolata hai. unhonne apani rachanaon men jan sadharan ki bhavanaon, paristhitiyon aur unaki samasyaon ka marmik chitran kiya. unaki kritiyan bharat ke sarvadhik vishal aur vistrit varg ki kritiyan hain. apani kahaniyon se premachnd manav-svabhav ki adharabhoot mahatta par bal dete hain. ‘bade ghar ki beti,’ anandi, apane devar se aprasann huee, kyonki vah gnvar usase karkashata se bolata hai aur us par khinchakar khadaoon phenkata hai. jab use anubhav hota hai ki unaka parivar toot raha hai aur usaka devar paritap se bhara hai, tab vah use kshama kar deti hai aur apane pati ko shant karati hai.

premachnd ke patr

premachnd ne apane jivan-kal men hazaron patr likhe honge, lekin unake jo patr kal ka gras banane se bache rah ge aur jo samprati upalabdh hain, unamen sarvadhik patr ve hain jo unhonne apane kal ki lokapriy urdoo masik patrika ‘zamana’ ke yashasvi sampadak munshi dayanarayan nigam ko likhe the. yon to munshi dayanarayan nigam premachnd se do varsh chhote the lekin premachnd unako sada bade bhaee jaisa samman dete rahe. in donon vibhootiyon ke parasparik sambandhon ko paribhashit karana to atyant durooh kary hai, lekin premachnd ke is adar bhav ka karan yah pratit hota hai ki premachnd ko sahityik snsar men pahachan dilane ka mahaniy kary nigam sahab ne unako ‘zamana’ men nirantar prakashit karake hi sampadit kiya tha, aur us kal ki patrikaon men to yahan tak prakashit hua ki premachnd ko premachnd banane ka shrey yadi kisi ko hai to munshi dayanarayan nigam ko hi hai.[3]

premachnd ka svarnim yug

premachnd ki upanyas-kala ka yah svarn yug tha. sanh 1931 ke arambh men gaban prakashit hua tha. 16 aprail, 1931 ko premachnd ne apani ek aur mahanh rachana, karmabhoomi shuroo ki. yah agast, 1932 men prakashit huee. premachnd ke patron ke anusar sanh 1932 men hi vah apana antim mahanh upanyas, godan likhane men lag gaye the, yadyapi ‘hns’ aur ‘jagaran’ se sambndhit anek kathinaiyon ke karan isaka prakashan joon, 1936 men hi sambhav ho saka. apani antim bimari ke dinon men unhonne ek aur upanyas, ‘mngalasootr’, likhana shuroo kiya tha, kintu akal mrityu ke karan yah apoorn rah gaya. ‘gaban’, ‘karmabhoomi’ aur ‘godan’- upanyasatrayi par vishv ke kisi bhi kritikar ko garv ho sakata hai. ‘karmabhoomi’ apani krantikari chetana ke karan vishesh mahattvapoorn hai.

Blockquote-open.gif premachnd unaka sahityik nam tha aur bahut varshon bad unhonne yah nam apanaya tha. unaka vastavik nam ‘dhanapat ray’ tha. jab unhonne sarakari seva karate hue kahani likhana arambh kiya, tab unhonne navab ray nam apanaya. bahut se mitr unhen jivan-paryant 'navab' ke nam se hi sambodhit karate rahe. Blockquote-close.gif


premachnd aur sinema

premachnd hindi sinema ke sabase adhik lokapriy sahityakaron men se hain. unake dehant ke do varshon bad ke. subramanyam ne 1938 men sevasadan upanyas par film banaee jisamen subbulakshmi ne mukhy bhoomika nibhaee thi. premachnd ki kuchh kahaniyon par aur filmen bhi bani hain, jaise satyajit ray ki film shatarnj ke khiladi[4] premachnd ne mazadoor shirshak film ke lie snvad likhe. film ke svamiyon ne kahani ki rooparekha taiyar ki thi. film men ek desh-premi mil-malik ki katha thi, kintu sensar ko yah bhi sahan n ho saka. phir bhi film ka pradarshan pnjab, dilli, uttar pradesh aur madhy pradesh men hua. film ka mazadooron par itana asar hua ki pulis bulani pad gee. ant men film ke pradarshan par bharat sarakar ne rok laga di. is film men premachnd svayn bhi kuchh kshan ke lie rajatapat par avatirn hue. mazadooron aur malikon ke bich ek sngharsh men ve pnch ki bhoomika men ae the. ek lekh men premachnd ne sinema ki halat par apana bharapoor rosh aur asantosh vyakt kiya hai. vah sahity ke dhyey ki tulana karate hain:

Blockquote-open.gif sahity ke bhavon ki jo uchchata, bhasha ki praudhata aur spashtata, sundarata ki jo sadhana hoti hai, vah hamen sinema men nahin milati. Blockquote-close.gif

- premachnd

puraskar

premachnd ke samman men jari dak tikat

munshi premachnd ki smriti men bharatiy dak vibhag ki or se 31 julaee, 1980 ko unaki janmashati ke avasar par 30 paise mooly ka ek dak tikat jari kiya. gorakhapur ke jis skool men ve shikshak the, vahan premachnd sahity snsthan ki sthapana ki gee hai. isake baramade men ek bhittilekh hai jisaka chitr dahini or diya gaya hai. yahan unase snbndhit vastuon ka ek sngrahalay bhi hai. jahan unaki ek vakshapratima bhi hai. premachnd ki patni shivarani devi ne premachnd ghar men nam se unaki jivani likhi aur unake vyaktitv ke us hisse ko ujagar kiya hai, jisase log anabhigy the. unake hi bete amrit ray ne 'qalam ka sipahi' nam se pita ki jivani likhi hai. unaki sabhi pustakon ke angrezi v urdoo roopantar to hue hi hain, chini, roosi adi anek videshi bhashaon men unaki kahaniyan lokapriy huee hain.

alochana

premachnd ki badhati huee khyati se kuchh vyaktiyon ke man men badi kudhan aur eershya ho rahi thi. inamen se ek, shri avadh upadhyay ne premachnd ke viruddh sahityik chori ka abhiyog lagaya aur unake viruddh chhah mahine tak lekh likhe. bijaganit ke many farmoolon se ve siddh karate rahe ki-

k+kh+g / d = p+ph+b / gh

yani premachnd ki 1/3 sofiya thaikare ki ¼ amiliya ka smaran dilati hai. ek aur asaphal kathakar ne alochak ka bana dharan karate hue premachnd ko ‘ghrina ka pracharak’ kaha tha.

mrityu

antim dinon ke ek varsh ko chhodakar (sanh 1934-35 jo munbee ki filmi duniya men bita), unaka poora samay varanasi aur lakhanoo men guzara, jahan unhonne anek patr-patrikaon ka snpadan kiya aur apana sahity-srijan karate rahe. 8 aktoobar, 1936 ko jalodar rog se unaka dehavasan hua.[4] is tarah vah dip sada ke lie bujh gaya jisane apani jivan ki batti ko kan-kan jalakar bharatiyon ka path alokit kiya.

inhen bhi dekhen: premachnd ke anamol vachan


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. gupt, prakashachandr (1984) premachnd bharatiy sahity ke nirmata. nee dilli: sahity akadami.
  2. premachand : jivan parichay (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 9 navnbar, 2010.
  3. jain, pradip. premachnd ke patr (hindi) hindi samay. abhigaman tithi: 22 march, 2013.
  4. 4.0 4.1 hamare sahityakar - premachnd (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) bal jayahindi. abhigaman tithi: 14 aktoobar, 2010.

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