आधुनिक हिन्दी साहित्य का इतिहास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hindi sahity ka adhunik kal 'bharatiy itihas' ke badalate hue svaroop se kafi prabhavit tha. 'bharatiy svatntrata sngram' aur rashtriyata ki bhavana ka prabhav bhi sahity men a gaya tha. bharat men audyogikaran ka prarnbh hone laga tha. avagaman ke sadhanon ka bhi tezi se vikas hua. angrezi aur pashchaty shiksha ka prabhav badha aur jivan men badalav ane laga. eeshvar ke sath-sath manav ko mahattv diya jane laga tha. bhavana ke sath-sath vicharon ko paryapt pradhanata mili. pady ke sath hi gady ka bhi paryapt vikas hua aur chhapekhane ke ate hi sahity ke snsar men ek nayi kranti ka bijaropan hua.

gady ka vikas

adhunik hindi gady ka vikas keval hindi bhashi kshetron tak hi simit nahin rah gaya tha. poore desh men aur har pradesh men hindi ki lokapriyata vyapt hone lagi thi aur anek any bhashi lekhakon ne bhi hindi men sahity ki rachana karake isake vikas men mahattvapoorn yogadan kiya.[1] hindi gady ke vikas ko nimnalikhit charanon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai-

  1. bharatendu poorv yug - (1800 ee. se 1850 ee. tak)
  2. bharatendu yug - (1850 ee. se 1900 ee. tak)
  3. dvivedi yug - (1900 ee. se 1920 ee. tak)
  4. ramachandr shukl tatha premachand yug - (1920 ee. se 1936 ee. tak)
  5. adyatan yug - (1936 ee. se aj tak)

bharatendu poorv yug

hindi men gady ka vikas 19vin shatabdi ke asapas hua. is vikas men kalakatta (adhunik kolakata) ke 'fort viliyam kaaulej' ki mahattvapoorn bhoomika rahi thi. is kaaulej ke do vidvanon lalloolal tatha sadal mishr ne gil kraist ke nirdeshan men kramash: 'premasagar' tatha 'nasiketopakhyan' namak pustaken taiyar kin. isi samay sadasukhalal ne 'sukhasagar' tatha munshi insha alla khan ne 'rani ketaki ki kahani' ki rachana ki. in sabhi grnthon ki bhasha men us samay prayog men ane vali khadi boli ko sthan mila. adhunik khadi boli ke gady ke vikas men vibhinn dharmon ki parichayatmak pustakon ka khoob sahayog raha, jisamen eesaee dharm ka bhi mahattvapoorn yogadan raha tha. bngal ke raja ramamohan ray ne 1815 ee. men 'vedantasootr' ka hindi anuvad prakashit karavaya. isake bad unhonne 1829 men 'bngadoot' namak patr hindi men nikala. isake pahale hi 1826 men kanapur ke pn. jugal kishor ne hindi ka pahala samachar patr 'udnt martnd' kalakatta se nikala tha. isi samay gujarati bhashi 'ary samaj' ke snsthapak svami dayannd ne apana prasiddh grnth 'satyarth prakash' hindi men likha.

bharatendu yug

bharatendu harishchndr (1855-1885) ko hindi sahity ke adhunik yug ka pratinidhi mana jata hai. unhonne 'kavivachan sudha', 'harishchandr maigazin' aur 'harishchndr patrika' bhi nikali thin. isake sath hi anek natakon adi ki rachana bhi ki. bharatendu harishchandr ke prasiddh natak hain- 'chndravali', 'bharat durdasha' aur 'andher nagari' adi. ye natak rngamnch par bhi bahut lokapriy hue. is kal men nibndh, natak, upanyas tatha kahaniyon ki rachana huee. is kal ke lekhakon men balakrishn bhatt, pratap narayan mishr, radha charan gosvami, upadhyay badarinath chaudhari 'premaghan', lala shrinivas das, devakinandan khatri aur kishori lal gosvami adi ullekhaniy hain. inamen se adhikansh lekhak hone ke sath-sath patrakar bhi the. shrinivasadas ke upanyas 'parikshaguroo' ko hindi ka pahala upanyas kaha jata hai. kuchh vidvanh shraddharam phullauri ke upanyas 'bhagyavati' ko bhi hindi ka pahala upanyas svikar karate hain. devakinndan khatri ka 'chndrakanta' tatha 'chndrakanta sntati' adi is yug ke pramukh upanyas hain. ye upanyas itane adhik lokapriy hue the ki inako padhane ke liye aise ahindi log, jo hindi padhana-likhana adi nahin janate the, unhonne hindi bhasha sikhani shuroo kar di thi. is yug ki kahaniyon men shivaprasad sitare hind ki 'raja bhoj ka sapana' mahattvapoorn hai.[1]

dvivedi yug

achary mahavir prasad dvivedi ke nam par hi is yug ka nam 'dvivedi yug' rakha gaya tha. san 1903 men dvivedi ji ne 'sarasvati' namak patrika ke snpadan ka bhar snbhala. unhonne khadi boli gady ke svaroop ko sthir kiya aur patrika ke madhyam se rachanakaron ke ek bade samuday ko khadi boli men likhane ko prerit kiya. is kal men nibndh, upanyas, kahani, natak evn samalochana ka achchha vikas hua. dvivedi yug ke nibndhakaron men mahavir prasad dvivedi, madhav prasad mishr, shyamasundar das, chndradhar sharma guleri, bal muknd gupt aur adhyapak poorn sinh adi ullekhaniy hain. inake nibndh gnbhir, lalit evn vicharatmak hain, kishorilal gosvami aur baboo gopal ram gahamari ke upanyason men manornjan aur ghatanaon ki rochakata hai. hindi kahani ka vastavik vikas 'dvivedi yug' se hi shuroo hua. kishori lal gosvami ki 'indumati kahani' ko kuchh vidvanh hindi ki pahali kahani manate hain. any kahaniyon men 'bng mahila ki dulaee vali', ramachandr shukl ki 'gyarah varsh ka samay', jayashnkar prasad ki 'gram' aur chndradhar sharma guleri ki 'usane kaha tha' mahattvapoorn hain. samalochana ke kshetr men padmasinh sharma ullekhaniy hain. ayodhyasinh upadhyay hariaudh, shivanndan sahay tatha ray deviprasad poorn dvara kuchh natak adi bhi likhe ge the.

ramachandr shukl evn premachnd yug

gady ke vikas men is yug ka vishesh mahattv hai. ramachndr shukl ne nibndh, hindi sahity ke itihas aur samalochana ke kshetr men gnbhir lekhan kiya. unhonne manovikaron par hindi men pahali bar nibndh lekhan kiya. sahity samiksha se snbndhit nibndhon ki bhi rachana ki. unake nibndhon men bhav aur vichar arthath buddhi aur hriday donon ka samanvay hai. hindi shabdasagar ki bhoomika ke roop men likha gaya unaka itihas aj bhi apani sarthakata banae hue hai. malik muhammad jayasi, tulasidas aur sooradas par likhi gayi unaki alochanaon ne bhavi alochakon ka margadarshan kiya. is kal ke any nibndhakaron men jainendr kumar jain, siyaramasharan gupt, padumalal punnalal bakhshi aur jayashnkar prasad adi ullekhaniy hain. katha sahity ke kshetr men khyati prapt premachnd ne kranti hi kar dali.[1]

katha sahity keval manornjan, kautoohal aur niti ka vishay hi nahin raha tha, balki sidhe jivan ki samasyaon se jud gaya. munshi premachand ne 'seva sadan', 'rngabhoomi', 'nirmala', 'gaban' evn 'godan' adi upanyason ki rachana ki. unaki tin sau se adhik kahaniyan 'manasarovar' ke ath bhagon men tatha 'guptadhan' ke do bhagon men sngrahit hain. 'poos ki rat', 'kafan', 'shatarnj ke khiladi', 'pnch parameshvar', 'namak ka daroga' tatha 'eedagah' adi unaki kahaniyan khoob lokapriy huyin. is kal ke any kathakaron men vishvnbhar sharma 'kaushik', vrindavanalal varma, rahul sankrityayan, pandey bechan sharma 'ugr', upendranath ashk, jayashnkar prasad, bhagavaticharan varma adi ke nam ullekhaniy hain. natak ke kshetr men jayashnkar prasad ka vishesh sthan hai. inake 'chndragupt', 'skndagupt', 'dhruvasvamini' jaise aitihasik natakon men itihas aur kalpana tatha bharatiy aur pashchaty naty padyatiyon ka samanvay hua hai. lakshminarayan mishr, harikrishn premi, jagadishachndr mathur adi is kal ke ullekhaniy natakakar hain.

adyatan kal

is kal men gady ka chahunmukhi vikas hua. hajari prasad dvivedi, jainendr, agyey, yashapal, nndadulare vajapeyi, nagendr, ramavriksh benipuri tatha ramavilas sharma adi ne vicharatmak nibndhon ki rachana ki hai. hajari prasad dvivedi, vidyanivas mishr, kanhaiyalal mishr prabhakar, viveki ray aur kuberanath ray ne lalit nibndhon ki rachana ki hai. harishnkar parasaee, sharad joshi, shrilal shukl, ravinndranath tyagi tatha ke. pi. saksena, ke vyngy aj ke jivan ki vidroopataon ke udghatan men saphal hue hain. jainendr, agyey, yashapal, ilachndr joshi, amritalal nagar, rangey raghav aur bhagavati charan varma ne ullekhaniy upanyason ki rachana ki. nagarjun, phanishvaranath renu, amritaray tatha rahi masoom raza ne lokapriy anchalik upanyas likhe hain. mohan rakesh, rajendr yadav, mannoo bhndari, kamaleshvar, bhishm sahani, bhairav prasad gupt adi ne adhunik bhav bodh vale anek upanyason aur kahaniyon ki rachana ki hai. amarakant, nirmal varma tatha gyanarnjan adi bhi ne katha sahity ke mahatvapoorn stnbh hain.

prasadottar natakon ke kshetr men lakshminarayan lal, lakshmikant varma tatha mohan rakesh ke nam ullekhaniy hain. kanhaiyalal mishr prabhakar, ramavriksh benipuri tatha banarasidas chaturvedi adi ne snsmaran, rekhachitr v jivani adi ki rachana ki hai. achary ramachandr shukl ke bad hazari prasad dvivedi, nnd dulare vajapeyi, nagendr, ramavilas sharma tatha namavar sinh ne hindi samalochana ko samriddh kiya. aj gady ki anek nayi vidhaon, jaise- yatra vrittant, riportaj, rediyo roopak, alekh adi men vipul sahity ki rachana ho rahi hai aur gady ki vidhaen ek doosare se mil rahi hain.[1]

adhunik hindi sahity men pady ka vikas

adhunik kal men likhi jane vali kavita ko nimn bhagon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai-

  1. navajagaran kal (bharatendu yug) - 1850 ee. se 1900 ee. tak
  2. sudhar kal (dvivedi yug) - 1900 ee. se 1920 ee. tak
  3. chhayavadi yug - 1920 ee. se 1936 ee. tak
  4. pragativad-prayogavad - 1936 ee. se 1953 ee. tak
  5. nee kavita v samakalin kavita - 1953 ee. se ab tak

navajagaran kal (bharatendu yug)

is kal ki kavita ki sabase badi visheshata yah hai ki yah pahali bar jan-jivan ki samasyaon se sidhe judati hai. isamen bhakti aur shrngar ke sath sath samaj sudhar ki bhavana bhi abhivyakt huee. parnparik vishayon ki kavita ka madhyam brajabhasha hi rahi, lekin jahan ye kavitaen navajagaran ke svar ki abhivyakti karati hain, vahan inaki bhasha hindi ho jati hai. kaviyon men bharatendu harishchndr ka vyaktitv pradhan raha. unhen navajagaran ka agradoot kaha jata hai. pratap narayan mishr ne hindi hindoo hindustan ki vakalat ki. any kaviyon men upadhyay badarinarayan chaudhari 'pemaghan' ke nam ullekhaniy hain.[1]

sudhar kal (dvivedi yug)

hindi kavita ko naya rngaroop dene men shridhar pathak ka mahatvapoorn yogadan hai. unhen 'pratham svachchhndatavadi kavi' kaha jata hai. unaki 'ekant yogi' aur 'kashmir sushama' khadi boli ki suprasiddh rachanaen hain. ramanaresh dvivedi ne apane 'pathik milan' aur 'svapn' mahakavyon men is dhara ka vikas kiya. ayodhyasinh upadhyay 'hariaudh' ke 'priy pravas' ko khadi boli ka pahala mahakavy mana gaya hai. mahavir prasad dvivedi ki prerana se maithilisharan gupt ne khadi boli men anek kavyon ki rachana ki. in kavyon men 'bharat bharati', 'saket', 'jayadrath vadh', 'pnchavati' aur 'jayabharat' adi ullekhaniy hain. unaki 'bharat bharati' men svadhinata andolan ki lalakar hai. rashtriy prem unaki kavitaon ka pramukh svar hai. is kal ke any kaviyon men siyaram sharan gupt, subhadra kumari chauhan, nathooram shnkar sharma tatha gayaprasad shukl 'sanehi' adi ke nam ullekhaniy hain. chhayavad

chhayavadi yug

kavita ki drishti se is kal men ek doosari dhara bhi thi, jo sidhe-sidhe svadhinata andolan se judi thi. isamen makhanalal chaturvedi, balakrishn sharma 'navin', narendr sharma, ramadhari sinh 'dinakar', shrikrishn saral adi ke nam ullekhaniy hain. is yug ki pramukh kritiyon men jayashnkar prasad ki 'kamayani' aur 'ansoo', sumitranndan pnt ka 'pallav', 'gunjan' aur 'vina', sooryakant tripathi nirala ki 'gitika' aur 'anamika', tatha mahadevi varma ki 'yama', 'dipashikha' aur 'sandhyagit' adi kritiyan mahatvapoorn hain. 'kamayani' ko adhunik kal ka sarvashreshth mahakavy kaha jata hai. chhayavadottar kal men harivnsharay bachchan ka nam ullekhaniy hai. chhayavadi kavy men atmaparakata, prakriti ke anek roopon ka sajiv chitran, vishv manavata ke prati prem adi ki abhivyakti huee hai. isi kal men manav man sookshm bhavon ko prakat karane ki kshamata hindi bhasha men vikasit huee.

pragativad

varsh 1936 ke as-pas se kavita ke kshetr men bada parivartan dikhaee pada. pragativad ne kavita ko jivan ke yatharth se joda. pragativadi kavi karl marks ki samajavadi vicharadhara se prabhavit hain. yug ki mang ke anuroop chhayavadi kavi sumitranndan pnt aur sooryakant tripathi 'nirala' ne apani bad ki rachanaon men pragativad ka sath diya. narendr sharma aur dinakaraji ne bhi anek pragativadi rachanaen kin. pragativad ke prati samarpit kaviyon men kedaranath agraval, nagarjun, shamasher bahadur sinh, ramavilas sharma, trilochan shastri aur gajanan madhav 'muktibodh' ke nam ullekhaniy hain. is dhara men samaj ke shoshit varg mazadoor aur kisanon ke prati sahanubhooti vyakt ki gayi. dharmik roodhiyon aur samajik vishamata par chot ki gayi aur hindi kavita ek bar phir kheton aur khalihanon se judi gee.[1]

prayogavad

pragativad ke samanantar prayogavad ki dhara bhi pravahit huee. agyey ko is dhara ka pravartak svikar kiya gaya. san 1943 men agyey ne 'tar saptak' ka prakashan kiya. isake sat kaviyon men pragativadi kavi adhik the. ramavilas sharma, prabhakar machave, nemichnd jain, gajanan madhav 'muktibodh', girijakumar mathur aur bharatabhooshan agraval ye sabhi kavi pragativadi hain. in kaviyon ne kathy aur abhivyakti ki drishti se anek navin prayog kiye. at: 'tar saptak' ko prayogavad ka adhar grnth mana gaya. agyey dvara snpadit 'pratik' men in kaviyon ki anek rachanaen prakashit huee thin.

nee kavita aur samakalin kavita

san 1953 ee. men ilahabad se 'nee kavita' patrika ka prakashan hua. is patrika men nee kavita ko prayogavad se bhinn roop men pratishthit kiya gaya. doosara saptak (1951), tisara saptak (1951) tatha chauthe saptak ke kaviyon ko bhi ne kavi kaha gaya. vastut: nee kavita ko prayogavad ka hi bhinn roop mana jata hai. isamen bhi do dharaen parilakshit hoti hain-

  1. vaiyaktikata ko surakshit rakhane ka prayatn karane vali dhara - isamen agyey, dharmavir bharati, kunvar narayan, shrikant varma, jagadish gupt pramukh hain.
  2. pragatishil dhara - jisamen gajanan madhav 'muktibodh', ramavilas sharma, nagarjun, shamasher bahadur sinh, trilochan shastri, raghuvir sahay, kedaranath sinh tatha sudama pandey dhoomil adi ullekhaniy hain.

sarveshvar dayal saksena men in donon dharaon ka mel dikhaee padata hai. in donon hi dharaon men anubhav ki pramanikata, laghumanav ki pratishtha tatha baudhikata ka agrah adi pramukh pravrittiyan hain. sadharan bolachal ki shabdavali men asadharan arth bhar dena inaki bhasha ki visheshata hai. samakalin kavita men git, navagit aur gazal ki or rujhan badha hai. aj hindi ki nirntar gatishil aur vyapak hoti huee kavy dhara men snpoorn bharat ke sabhi pradeshon ke sath hi sath snpoorn vishv men lokipriy ho rahi hai. isamen aj desh videsh men rahane vale anek nagarikataon ke asnkhy vidvanon aur pravasi bharatiyon ka yogadan nirntar jari hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 adhunik hindi sahity ka itihas (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 01 aktoobar, 2013.

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