हिन्दी का मानकीकरण  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hindi vishay soochi


hindi bharatiy ganaraj ki rajakiy aur madhy bharatiy- ary bhasha hai. san 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar, lagabhag 25.79 karod bharatiy hindi ka upayog matribhasha ke roop men karate hain, jabaki lagabhag 42.20 karod log isaki 50 se adhik boliyon men se ek istemal karate hain. san 1998 ke poorv, matribhashiyon ki snkhya ki drishti se vishv men sarvadhik boli jane vali bhashaon ke jo ankade milate the, unamen hindi ko tisara sthan diya jata tha

manak bhasha

  • manak ka abhipray hai—adarsh, shreshth athava parinishthit. bhasha ka jo roop us bhasha ke prayoktaon ke alava any bhasha–bhashiyon ke lie adarsh hota hai, jisake madhyam se ve us bhasha ko sikhate hain, jis bhasha–roop ka vyavahar patrachar, shiksha, sarakari kam–kaj evn samajik–sanskritik adan–pradan men saman star par hota hai, vah us bhasha ka manak roop kahalata hai.
  • manak bhasha kisi desh athava rajy ki vah pratinidhi tatha adarsh bhasha hoti hai, jisaka prayog vahan ke shikshit varg ke dvara apane samajik, sanskritik, sahityik, vyaparik v vaigyanik tatha prashasanik karyon men kiya jata hai.
  • kisi bhasha ka bolachal ke star se oopar uthakar manak roop grahan kar lena, usaka manakikaran kahalata hai.
  • manakikaran (manak bhasha ke vikas) ke tin sopan nimnalikhit hain-

pratham sopan- 'boli'

pahale star par bhasha ka mool roop ek simit kshetr men apasi bolachal ke roop men prayukt hone vali boli ka hota hai, jise sthaniy, anchalik athava kshetriy boli kaha ja sakata hai. isaka shabd bhndar simit hota hai. koee niyamit vyakaran nahin hota. ise shiksha, adhikarik kary–vyavahar athava sahity ka madhyam nahin banaya ja sakata.

dvitiy sopan- 'bhasha'

vahi boli kuchh bhaugolik, samajik–sanskritik, rajanitik v prashasanik karanon se apana kshetr vistar kar leti hai, usaka likhit roop vikasit hone lagata hai aur isi karan se vah vyakaranik sanche men dhalane lagati hai, usaka patrachar, shiksha, vyapar, prashasan adi men prayog hone lagata hai, tab vah boli n rahakar 'bhasha' ki sngya prapt kar leti hai.

tritiy sopan- 'manak bhasha'

yah vah star hai jab bhasha ke prayog ka kshetr atyadhik vistrit ho jata hai. vah ek adarsh roop grahan kar leti hai. usaka parinishthit roop hota hai. usaki apani shaikshanik, vanijyik, sahityik, shastriy, takaniki evn qanooni shabdavali hoti hai. isi sthiti men pahunchakar bhasha 'manak bhasha' ban jati hai. usi ko 'shuddh', 'uchch–stariy', 'parimarjit' adi bhi kaha jata hai.

  • manak bhasha ke tatv
  1. aitihasikata
  2. svayattata
  3. kendronmukhata
  4. bahusnkhyak prayogashilata
  5. sahajata/bodhagamyata
  6. vyakaranik samyata
  7. sarvavidh ekaroopata
  • manakikaran ka ek pramukh dosh yah hai ki manakikaran karane se bhasha men sthirata ane lagati hai. jisase bhasha ki gati avaruddh ho jati hai.

mahattvapoorn qadam

  1. raja shiv prasad 'sitare hind' ne q kh g z f panch arabi–farasi dhvaniyon ke lie chihnon ke niche nukta lagane ka rivaj arambh kiya.
  2. bharatendu harishchandr ne 'harishchandr maingazin' ke zariye khadi boli ko vyavaharik roop pradan karane ka prayas kiya.
  3. ayodhya prasad khatri ne prachalit hindi ko 'theth hindi' ki sngya di aur theth hindi ka prachar kiya. unhonne khadi boli ko pady ki bhasha banane ke lie andolan chalaya.
  4. hindi bhasha ke manakikaran ki drishti se dvivedi yug (1900-20) sarvadhik mahattvapoorn yug tha. 'sarasvati' patrika ke sampadak mahavir prasad dvivedi ne khadi boli ke manakikaran ka saval sakriy roop se aur ek andolan ke roop men uthaya. yug nirmata dvivediji ne 'sarasvati' patrika ke zariye khadi boli hindi ke pratyek ang ko gadhane–snvarane ka kary khud to bahut lagan se kiya hi, sath hi any bhasha–sadhakon ko bhi is kary ki or pravritt kiya. dvivediji ki prerana se kamata prasad guru ne 'hindi vyakaran' ke nam se ek vrihad vyakaran likha.
  5. chhayavadi yug (1918-1937) v chhayavadottar yug (1936 ke bad) men hindi ke manakikaran ki disha men koee andolanatmak prayas to nahin hua, kintu bhasha ka manak roop apane ap spasht hota chala gaya.
  6. svatntrata prapti ke bad (1947 ke bad) hindi ke manakikaran par naye sire se vichar–vimarsh shuroo hua, kyonki snvidhan ne ise rajabhasha ke pad par pratishthit kiya, jisase hindi par bahut bada uttaradayitv a pada. is disha men do snsthaon ka vishesh yogadan raha—ilahabad vishvavidyalay ke hindi vibhag ke madhyam se 'bharatiy hindi parishad' ka tatha shiksha mntralay ke adhinasth karyalay kendriy hindi nideshalay ka.

bharatiy hindi parishad

bhasha ke sarvagin manakikaran ka prashn sabase pahale 1950 men ilahabad vishvavidyalay ke hindi vibhag ne hi uthaya. daau. dhirendr varma ki adhyakshata men ek samiti gathit ki gee, jisamen daau. haradev bahari, daau. brajeshvar sharma, daau. mata prasad gupt adi sadasy the. dhirendr varma ne 'devanagari lipi chihnon men ekaroopata', haradev bahari ne 'varn vinyas ki samasya', brajeshvar sharma ne 'hindi vyakaran' tatha mata prasad gupt ne 'hindi shabd–bhndar ka sthirikaran' vishay par apane prativedan prastut kie.

kendriy hindi nideshalay

kendriy hindi nideshalay ne lipi ke manakikaran par adhik dhyan diya aur devanagari lipi tatha 'hindi vartani ka manakikaran' (1983 ee.) ka prakashan kiya.

vishv hindi sammelan

uddeshy—snyukt rashtr ki bhashaon men hindi ko sthan dilana v hindi ka prachar–prasar karana.

vishv hindi sammelan
kram tithi ayojan sthal
pahala 10-14 jan., 1975 nagapur (bharat); adhyaksh–shivasagar ram gulam

(maaurishas ke tatkalin rashtrapati), udaghatan–indira gandhi.

doosara 28-30 ag., 1976 port luee (maaurishas)
tisara 28-30 aktoo., 1983 nee dilli (bharat)
chautha 02-04 dis., 1993 port luee (maaurishas)
panchavan 04-08 aprail, 1996 port aph spen (trinidad evn tobaigo)
chhatha 14-18 sit., 1999 lndan (briten)
satavan 05-09 joon, 2003 paramaribo (soorinam)
athavan 13-15 julaee, 2007 nyooyark (amerika)


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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