आठवीं अनुसूची  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

snvidhan dvara manyataprapt 22 pradeshik bhashaen
asamiya bangla gujarati hindi kannad kashmiri
marathi malayalam udiya pnjabi snskrit tamil
telugu urdoo sindhi konkani manipuri nepali
bodo dogari maithili snthali

athavin anusoochi men snvidhan dvara manyataprapt 22 pradeshik bhashaon ka ullekh hai. is anusoochi men arambh men 14 bhashaen (asamiya, bangla, gujarati, hindi, kannad, kashmiri, marathi, malayalam, udiya, pnjabi, snskrit, tamil, telugu, urdoo) thin. bad men sindhi ko tatpashchath konkani, manipuri[1], nepali ko shamil kiya gaya [2], jisase isaki snkhya 18 ho gee. taduparant bodo, dogari, maithili, snthali ko shamil kiya gaya[3] aur is prakar is anusoochi men 22 bhashaen ho geen.

sngh ki bhasha ki samiksha

  • anuchchhed 343 ke sandarbh men- snvidhan ke anuchchhed 343(1) ke anusar sngh ki rajabhasha, devanagari lipi men likhit hindi ghoshit ki gee hai. isase desh ke bahumat ki ichchha hi pratidhvanit hoti hai.

anuchchhed 343 (2) ke anusar ise bharatiy snvidhan lagoo hone ki tarikh arthath 26 janavari, 1950 ee. se lagoo nahin kiya ja sakata tha, anuchchhed 343 (3) ke dvara sarakar ne yah shakti prapt kar li ki vah is 15 varsh ki avadhi ke bad bhi angrezi ka prayog jari rakh sakati hai. rahi–sahi qasar, bad men rajabhasha adhiniyam, 1963 ne poori kar di, kyonki is adhiniyam ne sarakar ke is uddeshy ko saf kar diya ki angrezi ki huqoomat desh par anant kal tak bani rahegi. is prakar, snvidhan men ki gee vyavastha 343 (1) hindi ke lie varadan thi. parantu 343 (2) evn 343 (3) ki vyavasthaon ne is varadan ko abhishap men badal diya. vastutah snvidhan nirmanakal men snvidhan nirmataon men jan sadharan ki bhavana ke pratikool vyavastha karane ka sahas nahin tha, isaliy 343 (1) ki vyavastha ki gee. parantu angreziyat ka varchasv banaye rakhane ke lie 343 (2) evn 343 (3) se use prabhavahin kar desh par manasik gulami lad di gee.

  • anuchchhed 344 ke sandarbh men- anuchchhed 344 ke adhin pratham rajabhasha ayog/bi. ji. kher ayog ka 1955 men tatha snsadiy rajabhasha samiti/ji. bi. pnt samiti ka 1957 men gathan hua. jahan kher ayog ne hindi ko ekantik v sarvashreshth sthiti men pahunchane par zod diya, vahin par pnt samiti ne hindi ko pradhan rajabhasha banane par zor to diya, lekin angrezi ko hatane ke bajaye use sahayak rajabhasha banaye rakhane ki vaqalat ki. hindi ke durbhagy se sarakar ne kher ayog ko mahaj aupacharik mana aur hindi ke vikas ke lie koee thos qadam nahin uthae; jabaki sarakar ne pnt samiti ki sifarishon ko svikar kiya, jo age chalakar rajabhasha adhiniyam 1963/67 ka adhar bani, jisane hindi ka satyanash kar diya.

samagrata se dekhen to svatntrata–sngram kal men hindi desh men rashtriy chetana ka pratik thi, atev rashtrabhasha bani, aur rajabhasha adhiniyam 1963 ke bad yah keval sampark bhasha hokar hi rah gayi.

pradeshik bhashaen evn 8vin anusoochi ki samiksha

anuchchhed 345, 346 se spasht hai ki bhasha ke sambandh men rajy sarakaron ko poori chhoot di gee. snvidhan ki inhin anuchchhedon ke adhin hindi bhashi rajyon men hindi rajabhasha bani. hindi is samay naun rajyon—"uttar pradesh, uttaranchal, madhy pradesh, chhattisagadh, bihar, jharakhand, rajasthan, hariyana v himachal pradesh—tatha ek kendr shasit pradesh—dilli"—ki rajabhasha hai. ukt pradeshon men apasi patr vyavahar ki bhasha hindi hai. dinondin hindi bhashi rajyon men hindi ka prayog sabhi sarakari pariyojanaon ke lie badhata ja raha hai. inake atirikt, ahindi bhashi rajyon men maharashtr, gujarat v pnjab ki evn kendr shasit pradeshon men chndigadh v andaman nikobar ki sarakaron ne hindi ko dvitiy rajabhasha ghoshit kar rakha hai tatha hindi bhashi rajyon se patr–vyavahar ke lie hindi ko svikar kar liya hai. anuchchhed 347 ke anusar yadi kisi rajy ka paryapt anupat chahata hai ki usake dvara boli jane vali koee bhasha rajy dvara abhigyat ki jay to rashtrapati us bhasha ko abhigya de sakata hai. samay–samay par rashtrapati aisi abhigya dete rahe hain, jo ki athavin anusoochi men sthan pate rahe hain. jaise—1967 men sindhi, 1992 men konkani, manipuri v nepali evn 2003 men bodo, dogari, maithili v snthali. yahi karan hai ki snvidhan lagoo hone ke samay jahan 14 pradeshik bhashaon ko manyata prapt thi, vahin ab yah snkhya badhakar 22 ho gee hai.

sarvochch nyayalay, uchch nyayalay adi ki bhasha ki samiksha

anuchchhed 348, 349 se spasht ho jata hai ki nyay v qanoon ki bhasha, un rajyon men bhi jahan hindi ko rajabhasha man liya gaya hai, angrezi hi hai. niyam, adhiniyam, viniyam tatha vidhi ka pradhikrit path angrezi men hone ke karan sare niyam angrezi men hi banae jate hain. bad men unaka anuvad matr kar diya jata hai. is prakar, nyay v qanoon ke kshetr men hindi ka samuchit prayog hindi rajyon men bhi abhi tak nahin ho saka hai.

vishesh nidesh ki samiksha

anuchchhed 350-
bhale hi snvaidhanik sthiti ke anusar vyakti ko apani vyatha ke nivaran hetu kisi bhi bhasha men abhyavedan karane ka haqadar mana gaya hai, lekin vyavaharik sthiti yahi hai ki aj bhi angrezi men abhyavedan karane par hi adhikari tavajjon/dhyan dena gavara karate hain.

anuchchhed 351— (hindi ke vikas ke lie nidesh)
anuchchhed 351 rajabhasha vishayak upabndh men sarvadhik mahattvapoorn hai, kyonki isamen hindi ke bhavi svaroop ke vikas ki parikalpana sannihit hai. hindi ko vikasit karane ki dishaon ka isamen snket hai. is anuchchhed ke anusar sngh sarakar ka yah kartavy hai ki vah hindi bhasha ke vikas aur prasar ke lie samuchit prayas kare taki bharat men rajabhasha hindi ke aise svaroop ka vikas ho, jo ki samooche desh men prayukt ha sake aur jo bharat ko mili–juli snskriti ki abhivyakti ki vahika ban sake. isake lie snvidhan men is bat ka bhi nirdash diya gaya hai, ki hindi men hindustani aur manyataprapt any bharatiy bhashaon ki shabdavali aur shaili ko bhi apanaya jae aur mukhyatah snskrit tatha gaunatah any bhashaon (vishv ki kisi bhi bhasha) se shabd grahan kar usake shabd–bhndar ko samriddh kiya jae. snvidhan ke nirmataon ki yah prabal ichchha thi ki hindi bharat men aisi sarvamany bhasha ke svaroop ko grahan kare, jo ki sab pranton ke nivasiyon ko svikary ho. snvidhan ke nirmataon ko yah asha thi ki hindi apane svabhavik vikas men bharat ki any bhashaon se varishth sampark sthapit karegi aur hindi evn any bharatiy bhashaon ke bich men sahity ka adan–pradan bhi hoga. snvidhan ke nirmataon ne uchit dhng se yah asha ki thi ki rajabhasha hindi apane bhavi roop ka vikas karane men any bharatiy bhashaon ka sahara legi. yah isilie tha ki rajabhasha hindi ko sabake lie sulabh aur grahy roop dharan karana hai.

1950 ee. ke bad hindi ki snvaidhanik pragati

rajabhasha ke vikas se sambandhit snsthaen
snstha ka nam sthapana kary
kendriy hindi samiti 1967 bharat sarakar ke vibhinn mntralayon dvara

hindi keprachar–prasar ke sambandh men chaloo karyakramon men samanvay sthapit karana. adhyaksh—pradhanamntri

  • rashtrapati ka snvidhan adesh, 1952—rajyapalon, sarvochch nyayalay evn uchch nyayalay ke nyayadhishon ki niyukti ke adhipatron ke lie hindi ka prayog pradhikrit.
  • rashtrapati ka snvidhan adish, 1955— kuchh prayojanon ke lie angrezi ke sath–sath hindi ka prayog nirdharit, jaise
  1. janata ke sath patr vyavahar men
  2. prashasanik riport, sarakari patrikaon v snsadiy riport men
  3. snkalpon (Resolution) v vidhayi niyamon men
  4. hindi ko rajabhasha man chuke rajyon ke sath patr vyavahar men
  5. sndhipatr aur qarar men
  6. rajanayik v antarrashtriy sngathanon men bharatiy pratinidhiyon ke nam jari kie jane vale patron men.
  • pratham rajabhasha ayog/bal gngadhar (bi. ji.) kher ayog—joon, 1955 (gathan); julaee, 1956 (prativedan)

ayog ki sifarishen

  1. sare desh men madhyamik star tak hindi anivary ki jaen.
  2. desh men nyay desh ki bhasha men kiya jae.
  3. janatntr men akhil bharatiy star par angrezi ka prayog sambhav nahin. adhik logon ke dvara boli janevali hindi bhasha samast bharat ke lie upayukt hai. antarrashtriy star par angrezi ka prayog thik hai, kintu shiksha, prashasan, sarvajanik jivan tatha dainik karyakalapon men videshi bhasha ka vyavahar anuchit hai.

tippani—ayog ke do sadasyon ne—bngal ke suniti kumar chatarji v tamilanadu ke pi. subboroyan— ne ayog ki sifarishon se asahamati prakat ki aur ayog ke sadasyon par hindi ka paksh lene ka arop lagaya. jo bhi ho, pratham rajabhasha ayog/kher ayog ne hindi ke adhikadhik aur pragami prayog par bal diya tha. kher ayog ne jo thos sujhav rakhe the, sarakar ne unhen mahaj aupacharik manate hue rajabhasha hindi ke vikas ke lie koee thos qadam nahin uthae.

  • snsadiy rajabhasha samiti/ govind ballabh (ji. bi.) pnt samiti—navambar, 1957 (gathan); faravari, 1959 (prativedan)

pnt samiti ne kaha ki rashtriy ekata ko dyotit karane ke lie ek bhasha ko svikar kar lene ka svatntrata poorv ka josh thnda pad gaya hai.

sifarishen

  1. hindi sngh ki rajabhasha ka sthan jaldi–se–jaldi le. lekin is parivartan ke lie koee nishchith tarikh (jaise–26 janavari, 1965 ee.) nahin di ja sakati, yah parivartan dhire–dhire svabhavik riti se hona chahie.
  2. 1965 ee. tak angrezi pradhan rajabhasha aur hindi sahayak rajabhasha rahani chahie. 1965 ke bad jab hindi sngh ki pradhan rajabhasha ho jae, angrezi sngh ki sahayak/sah rajabhasha rahani chahie.

pnt samiti ke sifarishon se rajarshi purushottam das tndan aur seth govind das asahamat v asntusht the aur unhonne yah arop lagaya ki sarakar ne hindi ko rajabhasha ke roop men prasthapit karane ke lie avashyak qadam nahin uthae hain. in donon netaon ne samiti ke dvara angrezi ko rajabhasha banaye rakhane ka bhi dhire–dhire virodh kiya. jo bhi ho, sarakar ne pnt samiti ki sifarishon ko svikar kar liya.

  • rashtrapati ka adesh,(1960)— shiksha mntralay, vidhi mntralay, vaigyanik anusndhan v sanskritik kary mntralay tatha grih mntralay ko hindi ko rajabhasha ke roop men vikasit karane hetu vibhinn nirdesh.
  • rajabhasha adhiniyam, 1963(1967 men snshodhit)— snvidhan ke anusar 15 varsh ke bad arthath 1965 ee. se sara kam–kaj hindi men shuroo hona tha, parantu sarakar ki dhul–mul niti ke karan yah sambhav nahin ho saka. ahindi kshetron men, visheshatah bngal aur tamilanadu (DMK dvara) men hindi ka ghor virodh hua. isaki pratikriya hindi kshetr men huee. janasngh [4] evn praja soshalist parti/pi. es. pi. [5] dvara hindi ka ghor samarthan kiya gaya. hindi ke ghor kattarapnthi samarthakon ne bhashayi unmadon ko ubhara, jisake karan hindi ki pragati ke badale hindi ko hani pahunchi. is bhashayi kolahal ke bich pradhanamntri javahar lal neharoo ne ashvasan diya ki hindi ko ekamatr rajabhasha svikar karane se pahale ahindi kshetron ki sammati prapt ki jaegi aur tab tak angrezi ko nahin hataya jaega. rajabhasha vidheyak ko grihamntri lal bahadur shastri ne prastut kiya. rajabhasha vidheyak ka uddeshy—jahan rajakiy prayojanon ke lie 15 varsh ke bad yani 1965 se hindi ka prayog arambh hona chahie tha, vahan vyavastha ko poorn roop se lagoo n karake us avadhi ke bad bhi sngh ke sabhi sarakari prayojanon ke lie angrezi ka prayog banaye rakhana.

rajabhasha adhiniyam ke pravadhan

rajabhasha adhiniyam, 1963 men kul 9 dharaen hain, jinamen sarvapratham hai—26 joon, 1965 se hindi sngh ki rajabhasha to rahegi hi par us samay se hindi ke atirikt angrezi bhi sngh ke un sabhi sarakari prayojanon ke lie barabar prayukt hoti rahegi, jinake lie vah us tithi ke turant pahale prayukt ki ja rahi thi. is prakar 26 joon, 1965 se rajabhasha adhiniyam, 1963 ke tahat dvibhashit sthiti prarambh huee, jisamen sngh ke sabhi sarakari prayojanon ke lie hindi aur angrezi donon hi bhashaen prayukt ki ja sakati thin.

rajabhasha adhiniyam

rajabhasha (snshodhan) adhiniyam, 1967 ke anusar samay–samay par snsad ke bhitar aur bahar javahar lal neharoo dvara die ge ashvasanon aur lal bahadur shastri dvara rajabhasha vidheyak, 1963 ko prastut karate samay ahindi bhashiyon ko dilae ge vishvas ko moort roop pradan karane ke uddeshy se indira gandhi, jo apane pita ki bhanti ahindi bhashiyon se sahanubhooti rakhati thin, ke shasanakal men rajabhasha (snshodhan) vidheyak, 1967 parit kiya gaya.

rajabhasha adhiniyam ke pravadhan

rajabhasha (snshodhan) adhiniyam, 1967 ke pravadhan ke anusar is adhiniyam ke tahat rajabhasha adhiniyam, 1963 ki dhara ke sthan par naye upabndh lagoo hue. isake anusar, angrezi bhasha ka prayog samapt kar dene ke lie aise sabhi rajyon ke vidhanamndalon ke dvara, jinhonne hindi ko apani rajabhasha ke roop men nahin apanaya hai, snkalp parit karana hoga aur vidhanamndalon ke snkalpon par vichar kar lene ke pashchath usaki samapti ke lie snsad ke har sadan dvara snkalp parit karana hoga. aisa nahin hone par angrezi apani poorv sthiti men bani rahegi. is adhiniyam ke dvara is bat ki vyavastha ki gee, ki angrezi sarakar ke kam–kaj men sahabhasha ke roop men tab tak bani rahegi, jab tak ahindi bhashi rajy hindi ko ekamatr rajabhasha banane ke lie sahamat n ho jaen. isaka matalab yah hua ki bharat ka ek bhi rajy chahega ki angrezi bani rahe to vah sare desh ki sahayak rajabhasha bani rahegi.

snsad dvara parit snkalp(1968)

  1. rajabhasha hindi evn pradeshik bhashaon ki pragati ko sunishchit karana.
  2. tribhasha sootr ko lagoo karana— ek ki bhavana ke snvarddhan hetu bharat sarakar rajyon ke sahayog se tribhasha sootr ko lagoo karegi. tribhasha sootr ke antargat yah prastavit kiya gaya ki hindi bhashi kshetron men hindi v angrezi ke atirikt dakshini bharatiy bhashaon men se kisi ek ko tatha ahindi bhashi kshetron men pradeshik bhasha v angrezi ke sath–sath hindi ko padhane ki vyavastha ki jae.

tribhasha sootr ka prayog saphal nahin hua. n to hindi kshetr ke logon ne kisi dakshin bharatiy bhasha ka adhyayan kiya aur n hi gair–hindi kshetr ke logon ne hindi ka.

rajabhasha niyam (1976)

in niyamon ki snkhya 12 hai. jinamen hindi ke prayog ke sandarbh men bharat ke kshetron ka 3 vargiy vibhajan kiya gaya hai aur pradhan rajabhasha hindi aur sah rajabhasha angrezi evn pradeshik bhashaon ke prayog hetu niyam die ge hain. aj bhi inhin niyamon ke anusar sarakar ki dvibhashik niti ka anupalan ho raha hai.

(A) shiksha mntralay ke adhin
snstha ka nam sthapana kary
sahity akadami, nee dilli 1954 ee. sahity ko badhava dene vali shirshasth snstha
neshanal buk trast (National Book Trust-N.B.T.) 1957 ee. shiksha, vigyan v sahity ki uchch koti ki pustakon ka prakashan kam moolyon par janata ko upalabdh karana.
kendriy hindi nideshalay 1960 ee. shabdakoshon, vishvakoshon, ahindi bhashiyon ke lie pathyapustakon ka prakashan.
vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog 1961 ee. vigyan v takanik se sambandhit shabdaviliyon ka prakashan.
(B) grih mntralay ke adhin
snstha ka nam sthapana kary
rajabhasha vidhayi ayog 1965-75 ee. kendriy adhiniyamon ke hindi path ka nirman
kendriy anuvad byooro 1971 ee. desh men anuvad ki sabase badi snstha
rajabhasha vibhag 1975 ee. sngh ke vibhinn shasakiy prayojanon ke lie hindi ke pragami prayog se sambandhit sabhi mamale
(C) vidhi/qanoon mntralay ke adhin
snstha ka nam sthapana kary
rajabhasha vidhayi ayog 1975 ee. yah ayog pahale grih mntralay ke adhin tha. pramukh qanoonon ke hindi path ka nirman
(D) soochana evn prasaran mntralay ke adhin
snstha ka nam sthapana
prakashan vibhag 1944 ee.
film prabhag 1948 ee.
patr soochana karyalay, nee dilli 1956 ee.
akashavani 1957 ee.
dooradarshan 1976 ee.

bharatiy matribhashaen ko bolane vale vyaktiyon ki snkhya[6]

pratyek bhasha ke tahat vargikrit bhasha aur matribhashaon ke nam vyaktiyon ki snkhya hai jo apani matribhasha ke roop men prayog karate hain pratyek bhasha ke tahat vargikrit bhasha aur matribhashaon ke nam vyaktiyon ki snkhya hai jo apani matribhasha ke roop men prayog karate hain
1 asamiya 13,168,484 13 dhaundhari 1,871,130
1 asamiya 12,778,735 14 gadhavali 2,267,314
any 389,749 15 gojari 762,332
16 harauti 24,62,867
2 bngali 83,369,769 17 hariyanavi 7,997,192
1 bngali 82,462,437 18 hindi 257,919,635
2 chakama 176,458 19 jaunasari 114,733
3 haijong 63,188 20 kangadi 1,122,843
4 rajabngsi 82,570 21 khairadi 11,937
any 585,116 22 khadi boli 47,730
23 khortha 4,725,927
3 bodo 1,350,478 24 kulvi 170,770
1 bodo 1,330,775 25 kumayani 2,003,783
any 19,703 26 kurmali 425,920
27 labani 22,162
4 dogari 2,282,589 28 lamani 27,07,562
1 dogari 2282547 29 lariya 67,697
any 42 30 lodhi 139,321
31 magahi +1,39,78,565
5 gujarati 46,091,617 32 malavi 5565167
1 gujarati 45,715,654 33 Mandeali 611,930
2 gujarao 43,414 34 maravadi 7,936,183
3 saurashtr 185,420 35 mevadi 5,091,697
any 4 147129 36 mevati 645,291
37 nagapuriya 1,242,586
6 hindi 422,048,642 38 nimadi 2,148,146
1 avadhi 2,529,308 39 pahadi 2,832,825
2 bagheli 2,865,011 40 pnch parajaniya 193769
3 bagadi rajasthani 1,434,123 41 pengavali 16,285
4 bnjari 1,259,821 42 pavadi 425,745
5 bhadravahi 66,918 43 rajasthani 18,355,613
6 gaddi 66246 44 sadari 2,044,776
7 bhojapuri 33,099,497 45 siramauri 31144
8 brajabhasha 574245 46 sondavari 59,221
9 bundeli 3,072,147 47 sugali 160,736
10 chambaili 126,589 48 suraguja 1,458,533
11 chhattisagadhi 13,260,186 49 surjapuri / surajapuri 12,17,019
12 churahi 61,199 any 1,47,77,266
- - - -
7 kannad 37924011 2 udiya 32,110,482
1 badaga 134,514 3 Proja 92,774
2 kannad 37742232 4 Relli 21,965
3 kuruba / Kurumba 14613 5 Sambalpuri 518,803
any 32,652 any 56,482
8 kashmiri 5,527,698 16 pnjabi 29,102,477
1 kashmiri 5,362,349 1 bagadi 646,921
2 kishtavadi 33,429 2 bilasapuri / Kahluri 179,511
3 siraji 87,179 3 pnjabi 2,81,52,794
any 44741 any 123,251
9 konkani 2,489,015 17 snskrit 14,135
1 konkani 2,420,140 1 snskrit 14,099
2 kudubi / kudumbi 10192 any 36
3 malvani 46,851
any 11,832 18 snthali 6,469,600
1 karamali 368853
10 maithili 12,179,122 2 sntali 5,943,679
1 maithili 12,178,673 any 157,068
any 449
19 sindhi 2,535,485
11 malayalam 33,066,392 1 kachchhi 823,058
1 malayalam +3,30,15,420 2 sindhi 1694061
2 yerava 19,643 any 18,366
any 31,329
20 tamil 60793814
12 manipuri 1,466,705 1 kaikadi 23,694
1 manipuri 1466497 2 tamil 60,655,813
any 208 3 yerukala 69533
any 44,774
13 marathi 71,936,894
1 marathi 71,701,478 21 telugu 74,002,856
any 235,416 1 telugoo 73,817,148
2 vadari 171,725
14 nepali any 13,983
1 nepali 2867922
any 3,827 22 urdoo 51,536,111
1 urdoo 51,533,954
15 udiya 33,017,446 any 2,157
1 Bhatri 216940


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 21van snshodhan, 1967 ee.
  2. 71van snshodhan, 1992 ee.
  3. 92van snshodhan, 2003
  4. sthapana—1951 ee., snsthapak–shyama prasad mukharji
  5. sthapana—1952 ee., snsthapak–lohiya
  6. 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar

snbndhit lekh

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