रीतिकाल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(रीति काल se punarnirdeshit)

ritikal (1658-1857 ee.) hindi sahity ka uttar madhyakal kahalata hai. is kal ke kavy ki pramukh dhara ka vikas kavita ki riti ke adhar par hua. ritikal samriddhi aur vilasita ka kal hai. sadhana ke kal bhaktiyug se yah isi bat men bhinnata rakhata hai ki isamen kori vilasita hi upasy ban gayi, vairagyapoorn sadhana ka samadar n raha. sajav-shrringar ki ek adamy lipsa is yug ke sahity men pratibimbit hoti hai. riti-kavy ke vikas men tatkalin rajanitik tatha samajik paristhitiyon ka mahattvapoorn yogadan raha hai. vastut: ye paristhitiyan is prakar ke kavy sarjan ke anukool thin. hindi ke ritishastr ka adhar poorn roop se snskrit kavyashastr hai. parantu isaka tatpary yah nahin hai ki hindi men ritishastr likhane vale pratyek lekhak ne snskrit kavyashastr ka poora adhyayan kiya tha ya kisi any granth ko poornat: hindi men utara tha.

riti shabd ki vyakhya

'riti' shabd snskrit ke kavyashastriy 'riti' shabd se bhinn arth rakhane vala hai. snskrit sahity men riti ko 'kavy ki atma' manane vala ek siddhant hai, jisaka pratipadan achary vaman ne apane granth 'kavyalnkarasootr' men kiya tha- 'ritiratma kavyasy'. riti kavy ki atma hai aur kavy ki shreshthata ki kasauti riti hai, yah manyata is siddhant ki hai. vaidarbhi, panchali, gaudi, lati ritiyan hain. riti ka adhar gun hai. snskrit ki riti sambandhi yah dharana hindi kavyashastr ke kuchh hi granthon men grahan ki gayi hai. parantu riti ki kavy rachana ki pranali ke roop men grahan karane ki apeksha pranali ke anusar kavy rachana karana, riti ka arth many hua. is prakar ritikal ka arth hua- "aisa kavy jo alnkar, ras, gun, dhvani, nayika bhed adi ki kavyashastriy pranaliyon ke adhar par racha gaya ho." inake lakshanon ke sath ya svatntr roop se inake adhar par kavy likhane ki paddhati hi riti nam se vikhyat huee aur yah paddhati jis kal men sarvapradhan rahi, vah kal 'ritikal' ke nam se prasiddh hua.

namakaran

ritikal 1700 se 1900 tak ka kal hai. mote taur par mugal badashah shahajahan ke shasan ki samapti aur aurngazeb ke shasan ke prarambh (1658 ee.) se lekar pratham svadhinata sngram (1857 ee.) tak yah kal mana jata hai. is yug men bhaktikalin kavyadharaon, jaise santakavy, premakhyanakavy, ramabhaktikavy, krishnabhaktikavy, virakavy, nitikavy adi ka vikas hua. parantu sabase adhik mahattv usi ritikavy ko prapt hua, jo alnkaron, rason, nayika-bhedon, shabd-shaktiyon, dhvani-bhedon adi ke adhar par likha gaya. yah pratritti is yug ki navin chetana ke roop men jagrat huee. is karan isi ke adhar par yah namakaran hua.

samriddhi aur vilasita ka kal

ritikal samriddhi aur vilasita ka kal hai. sadhana ke kal bhaktiyug se yah isi bat men bhinnata rakhata hai ki isamen kori vilasita hi upasy ban gayi, vairagyapoorn sadhana ka samadar n raha. navab, jagiradar, manasabadar, samant-sabhi ka uddeshy vilasita aur samriddhi ka jivan tha. is samriddhi ke jivan ke lie sadhan kisi bhi prakar ke kyon n hon, samriddhi ka arjan hi samarthy ki sarthakata thi. ye uchch varg ke log kala aur kavita ke snrakshak the. kuchh to svayn kavi evn kalakar the. is prakar is kavy men aihik jivan ke sukh-bhog par bal diya gaya. yah jivan ki kshanabhngurata ko bhulakar nahin, varanh isalie ki is kshanabhngur jivan men jitane hi din sukh-bhog ke bit saken, utana hi achchha.

shrringarik sahity

sajav-shrringar ki ek adamy lipsa is yug ke sahity men pratibimbit hai. upasana ke lie jin ram aur krishn ka charitr bhaktikal men atyutkrisht roop men chitrit hua, unamen bhi shrringarikata ka arop kar shrringarik svaroop ke udghatan men pratibha ko lagaya gaya. lokaishana ka simit aur bhogy roop is kal ke yatharthavadi dharatal ka snket karata hai. par yah yatharthavad samajik kranti ke bij bone vale adhunik yatharthavad se bhinn tha. vah kala aur karigari ka yatharth hai, chintana, thes, asantosh ki chinagari bikherane vala yatharth nahin. is kal ki kalatmak upalabdhiyon men ekarasata hai, vividhata nahin.

rachanaen

hindi ritikal ke antargat samanyat: do prakar ki rachanaen milati hain-

  • ek to ve rachanaen, jinamen mukhyat: kavyashastr siddhanton ko chhandobaddh kiya gaya hai. spashtat: hindi kaviyon ka yah prayas bahut mahattvapoorn nahin ho saka hai. siddhant pratipadan ki drishti se inaka adhik mahattv is karan nahin hai ki unamen maulikata ka ansh bahut kam hai. is prakar ke ritigranth adhikatar snskrit lakshan granthon ke anuvad hain ya phir unaki chhaya par adharit hai. kavy-ras ki drishti se inaka star ooncha nahin hai, kyonki in achary kaviyon ka mukhy dhyey kavy lakshanon ko varnit karana tha, svatntr roop se anubhootiparak kavy-sarjan karana nahin. phir bhi yah avashy hai ki in kaviyon ke udaharanon men se kuchh ansh shuddh kavy ke antargat rakhe ja sakate hain.
  • doosare varg ke antargat ve rachanaen ati hain, jo kavy lakshanon ko pratipadit karane ki drishti se nahin likhi gayin. is prakar ke kavy men bhasha, bhav tatha shaili-sabhi ka atyant nikhara hua roop milata hai. yah lakshan mukt kavita hi vastav men ritikal ka pranatattv hai.

sahity ka vikas

hindi men riti sahity ke vikas ke anek karan hain. ek karan to snskrit men isaki vishal parampara hai. jis samay bhasha-sahity ka prarambh hua, us samay bhi snskrit men lakshan ya alnkar-sahity ki rachana chal rahi thi. doosara karan bhasha-kaviyon ko prapt rajyashray hai. akabar ne sabase pahale hindi kaviyon ko darabar men ashray pradan kiya aur is prakar hindi kavy ko protsahan mila. age chalakar any rajaon ne bhi is pravritti ka anusaran kiya. rajapootana tatha madhyabharat ki riyasaton, orachha, nagapur adi men bhasha-kaviyon ko rajyashray prapt hua aur age inhen hindoo aur musalaman, donon ke hi darabar men pratishtha mili. isake phalasvaroop vyapak riti-sahity ki rachana huee. hindi riti-sahity ke vikas ka tisara karan bhi samane ata hai, jo hai kavi aur kavy ke svatntr roop ki pratishtha. is kshetr men keshavadas ka kary atyant mahattvapoorn hai aur isi karan unako age ke yug men dirgh kal tak itana samman prapt hua.

riti-kavy ke vikas men tatkalin rajanitik tatha samajik paristhitiyon ka mahattvapoorn yog raha hai. vastut: ye paristhitiyan is prakar ke kavy sarjan ke anukool thin. is samay ki rajanitik uthal-puthal aur satta evn vaibhav ki kshanabhngurata ne jivan ke do atirekapoorn drishtikon vikasit karane men sahayata di. ek ne jivan ke prati poorn virakti aur tyag ka bhav jagarit kiya, jabaki doosare ne poorn bhog ka drishtikon. aihik kavy ko is prakar ka vilasapoorn chitran karane ki prerana dene men rajanitik sthiti ka bhi hath tha.

samntavadi samaj

jahan tak samajik paksh ka sambandh hai, madhyayug ka samaj samantavadi paddhati par adharit tha, jisamen samrat shirsh par tha, jisake bad usake antargat raja, adhikari aur samant the, jinhen samaj men vishesh adhikar aur samman prapt the. kaviyon ko apane in ashrayadataon ki ruchi ke anusar ya unhen prabhavit karane vala kavy likhana avashyak tha, jisase unaki aihik santushti hoti thi aur pratibha ka bhi kam se kam ek kshetr men vikas hota rahata tha. madhy kal ke amir aur samant atyant vilasapoorn jivan vyatit karate the. ek raja, amir athava samant ke yahan do, tin, char ya isase bhi adhik raniyan rahati thin, jinaka kam apane ko alnkrit karake pati ko rijhana aur usake prasann hone par vilas-samagri ki aur vriddhi karate rahane ke atirikt aur kuchh nahin tha. nari unake hathon men bhog-vilas ka ek upakaran matr banakar rah gayi thi. mugalakalin bharatiy samaj ke jivan ka ek paksh ritikavy ke saundary aur vilasapoorn chitran ko prerana dene vala tha. parantu isaka doosara paksh jan sadharan ka hai. naitikata ki drishti se jan sadharan ka charitr in vilasi darabariyon ki apeksha kahin achchha tha, us par bhaktikal ka prabhav tha.

hindi kavy par prabhav

madhyayugin mugal shasan ke parinamasvaroop kee baten jivan men parivyapt huee dikhati hain-

  • pratham to ek kendriy sudridh shasak hone se desh ke bhitar tulanatmak drishti se shanti ka vayumandal ban gaya.
  • dvitiy is shanti ke avasar par jivan men kala aur snskriti ko vishesh mahattv prapt hua. shisht aur susnskrit vyavahar ka samman badha.
  • tisari bat yah hai ki isi shanti aur samriddh ke parinamasvaroop kala-prem aur vilasita ki bhavana bhi prakharata se jagrat huee. jivan men dharm ko, chahe vah snkirn arth men hi kyon n ho, pramukh sthan mila.
  • chauthi bat yah hai ki bhasha-sahity ko rajaon aur samanton se snrakshan aur ashray mila.

in sabhi baton ka ritikalin hindi kavy par prabhav parilakshit hota hai.

mat

ritikalin kavy ke sambandh men samanyat: do prakar ke mat hain-

  • ek use nitant hey aur patanonmukh kavy kahakar usake prati ghrina aur dvesh ka bhav jagata hai.
  • doosara us par atyadhik rijhakar keval use hi kavy manata hai aur any rachanaon, jaise bhakti aur adhunik kal ki kritiyon ko uttam kavy men pariganit nahin karata.

ritikalin kavy par dosh

ritikalin kavy par jo dosh lagaye jate hain, ve ye hain-

ashlilata

ritikalin samast kavy ko drishti men rakhakar jab in doshon par vichar karate hain to yah kah sakate hain ki ye samast dosh us yug ke kavy ya samast ritikavy par lagoo nahin kiye ja sakate. sath hi in doshon men se adhikansh pratyek yug ke kavy men kisi n kisi ansh men paye jate hain. jahan tak ashlilata ka prashn hai, to yah bhavana vastut: yug sapeksh hai. ek hi prakar ka vastu roop ek yug men athava ek sthiti ya avastha men ashlil hota hai aur doosare men nahin. kalidas tatha any snskrit kaviyon ki rachanaon men sharir ke kuchh avayavon ka kavy men varnan aur ullekh un dinon ashlil nahin samajha jata tha. aj vah ashlil samajha jata hai. is prakar yah spasht hai ki ashlil sapeksh pad hai. jin shabdon (jaise nivi, nitamb, uroj adi) aur jin varnanon ko aj ashlil kahate hain, un sabaki parampara snskrit kavy men gaharaee ke sath rahi hai aur bahut kuchh vahan se us shabdavali ka pravesh hindi sahity men hua hai.

samaj ko pragati pradan karane ki akshamata

doosara dosh pray: yah lagaya jata hai ki yah kavy samaj ko pragati pradan karane men samarth nahin hai. ritikavy aur kuchh prabandh kavyon men bhi hamen vyapak jivan-darshan nahin milata, isamen koee sandeh nahin. ritikavy vastav men yauvan ka madak, vilasapoorn kavy hai. phir bhi usamen aisi uktiyan tatha sthitiyan milati hain, jo jivan ka anubhav aur kabhi-kabhi adarsh batati hai. at: adhunik drishti se samajik pragati ko prerana pradan n karate hue bhi, isamen jivanopayogi tathyon ka abhav nahin hai.

ashrayadata ki prashnsa

ashrayadata ki prashnsa men uthi huee kavy-sphoorti ka samajik to nahin, parantu aitihasik mahattv avashy hai. ashrayadata ki prashnsa, kala aur kavy ke snrakshan aur ashray ke karan bhi thi aur isake lie unaki udar bhavana sarahaniy hai. ye rajyashray, jinamen ritikalin kalakritiyon ka vikas hua, kavi-pratibha ko protsahit kar sake, sath hi sath door-door se prati-bhavon ko apane gunon aur kala-prem ke karan khinch sake. at: madhyayugin rajyashray ne kala, kavy ke snrakshan aur prerana ke lie mahattvapoorn kary kiya hai, yah manana padega.

sahity ke paksh

jaisa ki kaha gaya hai, ritikal ke antargat vikasit hone vale riti-sahity ke do paksh hain-shastriy aur shastranirapeksh. in donon hi pakshon ke prati drishtikonon men antar hai. lagabhag ek-si paristhitiyon men aur kahin-kahin to ek hi kavi dvara likhe jane par bhi in donon prakar ki kavy pravrittiyon men antar, unake kaviyon ke drishtikon ke karan hai. pahale varg ke kavi apani pravritti men achary adhik the. ritigranth unhonne ya to apani prerana se ya adhikanshat: apane ashrayadata ki ichchha se likhe the. doosare varg ke kavi achary rahe hon ya n rahe hon, kavi ve avashy hi the.

lekhan parampara

ritishastr ya ritikavy likhane ki parampara hindi ko snskrit se prapt huee. snskrit sahityashastr ke panch kavyasiddhanton men se pray: sabhi ka kuchh n kuchh prabhav hindi ritishastr par pada hai. parantu jahan tak shastriy vivechan ka prashn hai, vah riti aur vakrokti-siddhanton ke adhar par adhik nahin likha gaya. alnkar, ras aur dhvani ke hi lakshan aur udaharan dene ka samanyat: prayatn dekhane ko milata hai. in siddhanton ka bhi vivechanatmak niroopan kam hua hai. isake kee karan hain. pahala karan to yah hai ki hindi men ritishastr likhane vale kaviyon ke poorvavarti tatha samakalin snskrit ke aise vidvanh achary the, jinhonne kavyashastr ke ek ya adhik angon ko lekar unaki badi hi vistrit aur spasht vyakhya ki thi. aisi dasha men hindi kaviyon ke lie kuchh bhi maulik kary karana kathin tha. phir hindi men likhane vale sabhi kavyashastri snskrit sahity ke poorn vidvanh nahin the. isake atirikt jin logon ke lie ye granth nirmit kiye ja rahe the- arthath kaviyon ke ashrayadatagan aur samany janata-ve svayn is prakar ke vivechan men ruchi nahin rakhate the. ve mukhyat: apane manornjanarth hindi kavy chahate the.

snskrit kavyashastr

hindi ke ritishastr ka adhar poorn roop se snskrit kavyashastr hai. parantu isaka tatpary yah nahin hai ki hindi men ritishastr likhane vale pratyek lekhak ne snskrit kavyashastr ka poora adhyayan kiya tha ya kisi any granth ko poornat: hindi men utara tha. pray: apani yojana ke anukool hindi ritishastr ke lekhak ne apane adharabhoot granth ka pathit ya shrut gyan prapt kiya tha. is kary ke lie jin snskrit granthon ka adhikansh adhar liya gaya hai, ve hain-

  1. bharat ka 'natyashastr'
  2. bhamah ka 'kavyalnkar'
  3. dandi ka 'kavyadarsh'
  4. udbhat ka 'alnkarasarasngrah'
  5. keshav mishr ka 'alnkarashekhar'
  6. amaradev ka 'kavyakalpalatakriti'
  7. jayadev ka 'chandralok'
  8. appay dikshit ka 'kuvalayanand'
  9. bhanudatt ke 'rasamnjari', 'rasatarngini'
  10. vishvanath ka 'sahityadarpan'

keshavadas ka yogadan

hindi ke poorvavarti apabhrnsh sahity men ritishastr ki parampara nahin rahi. isako prerana dene vala snskrit sahity hi hai aur is parampara ko hindi men dalane vale pramukh vyakti achary keshavadas (1550 se 1610 ee.) hain. keshav ke poorv bhi kuchh granth likhe gaye hain, jinhen 'ritishastr ke granth' kah sakate hain, parantu ve vishisht rachanaen-si hi hai, prerak prayas ke roop men unhen grahan nahin kar sakate. 'shivasinhasaroj' ke adhar par jis granth ka ullekh sahity ke itihasakar sarvapratham karate hain, vah pund ya pushy kavi hai, jisane 713 ee. ke lagabhag hindi bhasha men snskrit ke kisi alnkaragranth ka anuvad kiya tha, parantu vah granth abhi tak kisi ke dekhane men nahin aya. yadi vastav men us samay ka koee is prakar ka likha granth mil jata hai, to vah n keval ritishastr ka, varanh hindi ka pahala granth thaharata hai. parantu abhi tak is sambandh ki koee pramanik soochana prapt nahin ho saki hai.

aisi avastha men ritishastr par prapt sabase pahala granth kriparam ka 'hitatarngini' hi hai. isaki rachana san 1541 ee. men huee. yah panch tarngon men vibhakt hai aur pray: bharat ke 'natyashastr' ke adhar par hai. isake pashchath 1551 ee. ka likha mohanalal mishr ka 'shrringarasagar' granth ras aur nayika-bhed ka vivaran prastut karata hai tatha 'ashtachhap' ke prasiddh kavi nandadas ka likha 'rasamnjari' granth bhi isi samay ke as-pas ka hai. karanes bandijan ke granth bhi keshav ke poorvavarti granthon men hi rakhe ja sakate hain. parantu in acharyon aur granthon men koee bhi vishesh mahattvapoorn prabhav rakhane vala nahin hai. at: kah sakate hain ki ritishastriy parampara dalane vale pahale achary keshavadas hi hain.

ras tatha alnkar ka prayog

keshavadas tatha unake poorvavarti kaviyon ka kavy, pravritti ki drishti se to ritikal men ata hai, parantu kalakram ki drishti se nahin. kal vibhajan ki drishti se keshav (1550 se 1610 tak), sundar tatha chintamani (rachanakal 1643 ee. ke lagabhag prarambh hota hai) ka sthan bhaktikal ke hi antargat hai. keshavadas ke granthon men 'kavipriya', aur 'rasikapriya' hain. prabandh rachana ki paddhati par likha gaya 'ramachandrika' hindi mahakavyon ki pnkti men samadrit hai. keshav moolat: alnkar sampraday ke anuyayi the. ras sampraday ke antargat sundar tatha chintamani poorv-ritikalin prasiddh kavi hain. chintamani tripathi ki ganana hindi ritishastr ke utkrisht aur bade acharyon men hai. inake prapt granthon men se 'pingalashrringaramnjari', 'kavikulakalpataru' ka vishesh mahattv hai. ritikal ke antargat jin kaviyon ki ganana ki jati hai, ve pramukhat: snskrit ke alnkar, ras tatha dhvani sampradayon ke anuyayi the. riti aur vakrokti siddhant ke adhar par hindi men kuchh vishesh nahin likha gaya.

alnkar sampraday

alnkar sampraday ke anuyayiyon men keshav ke uparant kalakram ki drishti se jasavant sinh ka nam ata hai. inaka sabase adhik prasiddh ritigranth 'bhashabhooshan' raha hai. matiram (1617 ee.) ki pravritti ras ki or adhik hai aur lakshanakar ki apeksha ve kavi adhik hain, phir bhi unake 'alnkarapnchashika' (1690 ee.) aur 'lalitalalam' granth alnkar par hain. bhooshan (1613 se 1715 ee.) matiram ke bhaee the. inhen alnkarik bhi kahana chahie. tathapi inaki uktiyan vir ras se poorn hain, phir bhi inake pradhan granth 'shivarajabhooshan' (1653 ee.) men alnkar ke hi lakshan udaharan hain. bhooshan maharaj shivaji ke mitr tatha unake darabari kavi the. is sampraday ke any pramukh kaviyon men gop, rasik, sumati, govind, doolah (rachanakal 1750 se 1755 ee.), bairisal, gokulanath tatha padmakar hain. padmakar (1753 se 1832 ee.) ko ritikal ka antim alnkarik kavi kahana chahie. kavi aur riti granthakar, donon ke hi roop men padmakar ka nam atyant prasiddh hua.

ras sampraday

ras sampraday ke antargat tosh tatha matiram ki khyati vishesh hai. tosh kavi ka 1637 ee. ka likha hua granth 'sudhanidhi' hai. isaki sarasata udaharanon men hai. lakshanon men koee vivechan sambandhi navinata nahin hai. isi prakar ka granth matiram (1617 ee.) ka 'rasaraj' hai. isamen shrringar ka nayak-nayika bhedaroop men varnan hai. matiram ke lakshan mahattvapoorn nahin hain, udaharan avashy bade hi saras, komal tatha kalpanayukt hain. ras ke kshetr men sabase mahattvapoorn kary achary dev (1673-1768) ka hai. dev ne ras par anek granth likhe hain, jinamen adhikatar shrringar aur nayikabhed ki hi charcha hai aur ek hi prakar ke bhav any granthon men bhi aye hain. ras sambandhi bhavana pramukhat: 'bhavavilas', 'bhavanivilas' aur 'kavyarasayan' men prakat huee hai. dev ne ras ke do bhed mane hain-laukik aur alaukik. dev ke pashchath kalidas, krishnabhatt, kumaramani, shripati, somanath, udayanabh, 'kavindr' das adi anek acharyon ne nayikabhed aur ras par likha hai. parantu ras ke sambandh men koee mahattvapoorn vichar prakat nahin hue hain. is sampraday ke any kaviyon men rasalin (angadarpan, rasaprabodh), das, roopasahi, samanes, ujiyare, yashavnt sinh, ramasinh ('ramanivas', 1782 ee.) padmakar, rasik, govind, beni pravin tatha kavy-saundary, donon hi drishtiyon se ramasinh tatha gval ka kary mahattvapoorn hai.

dhvani ke achary

hindi ritishastr ke antargat dhvani ke sarvapratham achary kulapati mishr hain. koormavnshi jayasinh ke lie inhonne 'rasarahasy' ki rachana ki. 'rasarahasy' ka rachanakal 1670 ee. hai. kulapati ke vichar praudh aur pramanik hain, par koee navin vichar dekhane ko nahin milate. kulapati ke bad dev ne dhvani par likha hai. is kal ke any kaviyon men soorati mishr, kumaramani bhatt, shripati, somanath, bhikharidas, pratapasahi tatha ramadas ke nam vishesh roop se ullekhaniy hain. ritikal ke achary kaviyon men bhikharidas (rachanakal 1728-1750 ee.) ka nam prathamapnktiy hai. das ne 'rasasaransh', 'chhandornavapingal', 'kavyanirnay' aur 'shrringaranirnay' granth kavyashastr par likhe. kavyashastr ki drishti se sabase praudh aur prasiddh granth 'kavyanirnay' hai, jisamen dhvani ka vivechan aur ras, alnkar, gun, dosh adi ka varnan hai. hindi ritikavy (lakshanarahit kavy) ki parampara bhaktikal hi prarambh ho jati hai. kriparam, brahm (birabal), gng, balabhadr mishr, keshavadas, rahim tatha mubarak kalakram ki drishti se yadyapi bhaktikal ke antargat ate hain, parantu unaki kavyapaddhati pray: ritipradhan hi thi. unake krititv men pramukh dhyan kavy rachana ka hai aur koee yadi hai to gaun. ritikavy ki prerana mukhyat: achary keshavadas aur akabar ke darabari kaviyon se hi prapt huee thi. is parampara ke sath kavy ki ek svachchhand dhara ka vikas hua, jisake pravah ne ritikal men samast kavy rasikon ko ot-prot kar diya.

any kavi

is yug ke riti-kaviyon men sabase pratham senapati (1589 ee.) ka nam ata hai. inaka prasiddh granth 'kavittaratnakar' hai. senapati ki vishesh prasiddhi unake prakriti chitran tatha shleshachamatkar ke karan hai. 'kavittaratnakar' ki rachana san 1649 ee. men huee. ritikavy ki is pratham mahattvapoorn rachana ne hindi ritikavy ko atishay prerana pradan ki, isamen sandeh nahin. biharilal (1603-1662 ee.) ritikavy ke sarvashreshth kavi hain aur unaki yah khyati unake anyatam granth 'satasee' par adharit hai, jise unhonne jayapur ke maharaj jayashah ke adesh par likha tha. muktak rachana hote hue bhi satasee men satasee ka dhyan alnkar, ras, bhav, nayika-bhed, dhvani, vakrokti, riti, gun adi sab par hai aur sabhi ke sundar udaharan isamen hain.

riti-parampara ka palan karate hue aur bhaee hote hue bhi bhooshan (1613-1715) ki prakriti matiram ke bilkul viparit hai. bhooshan ka kavy ojapoorn aur vir ras se ot-prot hai. at: ritikavy ki shrringarik parampara ka anugaman n karake ye vir-parampara ka marg prashast karane vale hain. vir ras par likhane vale to ritikal men aur bhi kavi hain, par riti parampara par vir kavy likhane vale bhooshan akele hain. shivaji ki virata tatha any gunon se prerit bhooshan ka 'shivarajabhooshan' alnkarik saundary se bharapoor hai. lalit shabdavali men komal bhavanaon ko vyakt karane vale sukumar kalpana ke kavi matiram (1617 ee.) ka kavy ritikavy ka pratinidhitv karata hai. unake granth 'lalitalalam', 'rasaraj', 'alnkarapnchashika' adi men yadyapi lakshan diye hue hain, phir bhi pradhanata udaharan kavy ki hai. at: unaki ganana ritishastriyon men adhik riti-kaviyon men hoti hai.

ghananand (rachanakal 1658 ee.) prasiddh premi, bhakt aur kavi the. unaka dhyan alnkar, riti, vakrokti, nayika-bhed, ras adi ki or nahin hai, phir bhi inaki rachana men alnkarik chamatkar tatha shrringar ke snyog aur viyog, donon hi pakshon ka itana dakshatapoorn varnan hai ki riti-parampara ka prayas usase spasht lakshit hota hai. ghananand ka 'sujanasagar' ritikavy ke prasiddh granthon men ek hai. dev (1673 ee.) ko achary aur kavi, donon hi roopon men saphalata prapt huee hai. unake krititv men maulikata tatha kavitvashakti ka vilakshan snyog hua hai. bhav ki pakad, sookshm nirikshan, bhasha par adhikar, chhand ki gati, shabdavarnamaitri, sarasata aur uktivaichitry, sab milakar dev ki rachana ko smaraniy banate hain. manav svabhav ka unhen bada sookshm gyan tha. apane granth 'bhavavilas' ki rachana dev ne 16 varsh ki avastha men ki thi.

bhikharidas (rachanakal 1728-1750 ee.) achary aur kavi, donon hi roopon men utkrisht hain. jahan apane granthon men inhonne dhvani, alnkar, ras, nayika-bhed, chhand adi ke lakshan aur vivechan prastut kiye hain, vahan unake udaharanon dvara prastut kavita ritikavy ka sundar namoona hai. bhikharidas ke samakalin rasalin (saiyad gulam nabi bilagrami) ka kavy bada hi chutila hai aur uktichamatkar ke karan inake dohe atyant prasiddh hain. inake likhe do granth mile hain-'angadarpan' aur 'rasaprabodh'. beni prabin (1753-1833 ee.) ritikavy ke antim pratibhasampann kavi hain. inake granth 'jagadvinod' tatha phutakar chhandon men ritikavy ki pravrittiyon ka sundar parichay milata hai. padmakar men bhavavivriti ki vilakshan shakti hai. gval (rachanakal 1822-1861 ee.) bhi padmakar ki paripati par hain. inaki bhasha adhik pranjal n hokar bazaroopan liye hai. phir bhi inake varnan sundar hain.

ritikalin kavy ki bhasha

ritikalin kavy pray: brajabhasha tatha usake sthaniy roopon men likha gaya. adhikansh kavy rajashray men likha gaya tha. adhik pravritti alnkrit kavy likhane ki rahi hai. shrringar ke antargat kam-vasana aur nari-saundary ka chitran hua hai, kahin-kahin bhakti-bhavana bhi dikhaee de jati hai. kuchh rachanaon men vir-bhavana, niti-upadesh, lok gyan, vyavahar adi se sambandhit samagri milati hai. is yug ke kaviyon ka jivan ke prati drishtikon adhyatmik n hokar aihik adhik hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah