इलौरा महाराष्ट्र  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

elora gupha ka ek drishy

ilaura maharashtr ke aurngabad jile se 14 mil door shailakrit gupha mndiron ke lie snsar-prasiddh sthan hai. vibhinn kalon men bani anek guphaen bauddh, hindoo tatha jain snpraday se snbndhit hain. ilaura men sthit gufaon ko elora nam se jana jata hai. ilaura se thodi door par ahalyabaee ka banavaya jyotirling ka mndir hai. ilaura ke kee prachin nam milate hain, jinamen ilvalapur, elagiri aur ilapur mukhy hain.

sthapaty kal

kaha jata hai ki ilaura ko ilichapur ke raja yadu ne 8vin shati men basaya tha. kintu mahabharat tatha puranon ki gathaon ke adhar par prachin ilvalapur ko jahan agasty rishi ne ilvaladaity ko mara tha[1] vartaman ilaura mana jata hai. kuchh bauddhaguphaen to avashy 8vin shati se pahale ki hain. yah jan padata hai ki rashtrakooton ka sambndh is sthan se 8vin shati men pratham bar hua hoga. aitihasik janashruti men prachalit hai ki jab alauddin khilaji ne gujarat par 1297 ee. men akraman kiya to vahan ke raja karn ki kanya devaladevi ne bhag kar devagiri-naresh ramachndr ke yahan sharan li aur tab vah ilaura ki guphaon men ja chhipi thi. kintu durbhagyavash alauddin ke dusht gulam senapati malik kaphoor ne use vahan se pakadakar dilli bhijava diya tha.

gufaon ki sthapaty kala

ilaura ki gufaen ajnta ke saman hi shailakrit hain aur inaki samagr rachana tatha moortikari pahadi ke bhitari bhag ko katakar hi nirmit ki gee hai. bauddh guphaen snbhavatah 550 eesvi se 750 eesvi tak ki hain. inamen se vishvakarma guha mndir (sn. 10) sarvashreshth mana jata hai. yah vishal chaity ke roop men bana hai. isake oonche sthambhon par takshan-kala ka sundar kam hai. inamen baunon ki anek pratimaen hain jinake sharir ka oopari bhag bahut sthool hai. bhikshuon ke nivas ke lie bani huee guphaon men sn. 2,5,8,11 aur 12 mukhy hain. sn. 12 jise tinathal kahate hain lagabhag 50 phut oonchi hai. isake bhitari bhag men buddh ki sundar moortiyan hain. ajnta ke viparit yahan ki baudhd-guphaon men chaityavatayan nahin hai. bauddh guphaon ki snkhya 12 hai. ye pahadi ke dakshini parshv men avasthit hain. inake age 17 hindoo gupha-mndir hain jinamen se adhikansh dakshin ke rashtrakoot nareshon ke samay (7vin-8vin shati ee.) bane the. inamen kailash mndir, prachin bharatiy vastu evn takshan-kala ka bharat bhar men shayad sarvotkrisht udaharan hai. yah samoocha mndir giriparshv men se tarasha gaya hai. isake bhimakay stnbh, vistirn prangan, vishal vithiyon tatha dalan, moorti kari se bhari chhaten, aur manav aur vividh jiv jntuon ki moortiyan- sara vastu aur takshan ka sthool aur sookshm kam ashcharyajanak jan padata hai. yahan ki shilpiyon ne vishalakay pahadi ko aur usake vibhinn bhagon ko tarashakar moortiyon ki akritiyan, unake ang pratyagon ke sookshmatisookshm vivaran, yahan tak ki hathiyon ki ankhon ki palaken tak itane adbhut kaushal se gadhi hain ki darshak atmavibhor hokar un mahan kalakaron ke samane shrridhda se natamastak ho jata hai. kailash mndir athava rng mahal ke prangan ki lnbaee 276 phut aur chaudaee 154 phut hai. mndir ke char khnd aur kee prakoshth hain aur isaka shikhar bhi kee talon se milakar bana hai. jaisa abhi kaha gaya hai, snpoorn mndir pahadi ke kod men se tarash kar bana hai, jisase shilpakala ke is adbhut krity ki mahatta siddh hoti hai. sirph chheni aur hathaude ki sahayata se yahan ke karmath aur shradhdavanh shilpiyon ne dev,devi, yaksh, gndharv, stri-purush, pashupakshi, pushpapatr adi ko vajrakathor pahadi ke bhimakay antaral men se katakar sukumarata evn saundary ki jo anokhi srishti ki hai vah shilp ke itihas men abhootapoorv hai.
udaharan ke lie-
ek lnbi pnkti men anek hathiyon ki moortiyan hain jo chattanon men se katakar banaee gee hain. inaki ankhon ki barik palaken tak bhi shail se katakar banaee gee hain. yah sookshmata aur sukumarata ki drishti se asnbhav jan padata hai .

hindoo mndir

in gufaon ke any hindoo mndiron men ravan ki khaee, devavada, dashavatar, lambeshvar, rameshvar, nilaknth, dhumar-len ya sita chavadi vishesh ullekhaniy hain. 8vin shati ee. men kshntidurg rashtrakoot ne dashavatar mndir ka nirman kiya tha. isamen vishnu ke dashavataron ki katha moortiyon ke roop men ankit hai. inamen govardhanadhari krishn, sheshashayi narayan, garudadhidshtht vishnu, prithvi ko dharan karane vale varah, bali se yachana karate hue vaman aur hiranyakashipu ka snhar karate hue nrisinh kala ki drishti se shreshth hain.

jain mndir indrasabha

9vin shati men rashtrakooton ki satta ke kshin hone par ilaura par jain-shasakon ka adhipaty sthapit hua. yahan ke panch jain-mndir inhin ke dvara banavae gaye the. inamen indrasabha namak bhavan vishesh roop se ullekhaniy hai. ise chhota kailas mndir bhi kaha jata hai. isake prangan, chhaton v stambhon ki sundar karigari aur sajiv devapratimaen sabhi anupam hain. 24 tirthakaron ki anek moortiyon se yah mndir susajjit hai. samadhisth parshvanath ki pratima ke oopar sheshanag ke phanon ki chhaya hai aur kee daity unaki tapasya bhng karane ka viphal prayas kar rahe hain. ilapur men ghushmeshvar tirth ka ullekh adi shnkarachary ne kiya hai.[2] prakrit sahity men elur nam bhi prapt hota hai. dharmopadeshamala namak jain grnth (858 ee.) men ullikhit samaygy muni ki katha se gyat hota hai ki us samay elur kaphi prasidhd nagar tha-

'to nndanahihano sahoo karanantaren patthavio guruna dakkhinavahn. egagi vachchn to ap ose patto elurn'.[3]

ilaura ki khyati 17vin shati tak bhi thi. jain kavi meghavijay ne meghadoot ki chhaya par jo grnth racha tha usamen ilaura ke tatkalin vaibhav ka varnan hai. ek any jain vidvan vibudh vimalasoor ne ilaura ki yatra ki thi. jain muni shilavijay ne 18vin shati men ilaura ki yatra ki thi-

'ilaura ati kautak vasyoon jotan hiyndu ati ulhasyoon vishvakarama kidhun mndan tribhuvan bhatabanu sahinan'[4]

isase 18vin shati men bhi ilaur ki adbhut kala ka vishvakarma dvara nirmit mana jata tha, yah tathy pramanit hota hai. ajnta ke viparit ilaura ke gupha mndir itihas ke sabhi yugon men vishrut tatha vikhyat rahe hain.[5]

inhen bhi dekhen: elora ki guphaen evn ajnta ki guphaen


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. (maha. van. 99)
  2. de. ilapur
  3. (pri. 161)
  4. (prachin tirthamala sngrah pri. 121)
  5. aitihasik sthanavali |lekhak: vijayendr kumar mathur |prakashak: rajasthan hindi grnth akadami, jayapur |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 81 |

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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