बुद्ध की शिक्षा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bhikshu yashadinn dvara nirmit sthapit buddh pratima

buddh ki shikshaon ka sar hai- shil, samadhi aur prgya. sarv pap se virati hi 'shil' hai. shiv men nirntar nirati 'samadhi' hai. isht-anisht se pare samabhav men rati 'prgya' hai. bhagavan buddh prgya v karuna ki sakshat moorti the. ye donon hi gun unamen utkarsh ki parakashtha prapt kar samaras hokar samahit ho gaye the. mahatma buddh ke anusar dharmik aur adhyatmik kshetr men sabhi stri evn purushon men saman yogyata evn adhikar hain. itana hi nahin, shiksha, chikitsa aur ajivika ke kshetr men bhi ve samanata ke pakshadhar the. unake anusar ek manav ka doosare manav ke sath vyavahar manavata ke adhar par hona chahie, n ki jati, varn aur ling adi ke adhar par.

buddh ke gun

bhagavan buddh men anantanant gun vidyaman the. unake in gunon ko char bhagon men vargikrit kiya ja sakata hai, yatha-

  1. kay gun
  2. vag-gun
  3. chitt gun
  4. karm gun
kay-gun

32 mahapurushalakshan evn 80 anuvyajnn buddh ke kayagun hain. unamen se pratyek yahan tak ki pratyek rom bhi sabhi gyeyon ka sakshat darshan kar sakata hai. buddh vishv ke anek brahyandon men ek-sath kayik lilaon ka pradarshan kar sakate hain. in lilaon dvara ve vineyajanon ko sanmarg men pratishthit karate hain.

vag-gun

buddh ki vani snigdh vakh, mriduvak, manogyvakh, manoram vakh, adi kahalati hai. is prakar buddh ki vani ke 64 ang hote hain, jinhen 'brahmasvar' bhi kahate hain. ye sab buddh ke vagh-gun hain.

chitt-gun

buddh ke chitt-gun gyanagat bhi hote hain aur karunagat bhi. kuchh gun sadharan bhi hote hain, jo shravak aur pratyekabuddh men bhi hote hain. kuchh gun asadharan hote hain, jo keval buddh men hi hote hain. dash bal, chatuvaisharady, tin asambhinn smrityupasthan, tin agupt nasti mushitasmritita, samyakh pratihatavasanatv, mahakaruna, ashtadash avenik gun adi buddh ke gyanagat gun hain. du:khi sattvon ko dekhakar buddh ki mahakaruna anayas svat: pravritt hone lagati hai. mahakaruna ke is ajasr pravah se jagath ka avichchhinn roop se kalyan hota rahata hai. yah unaka karunagat gun hai.

karm-gun

ye do prakar ke hote hain, yatha-

  1. nirabhog karm
  2. avichchhinn karm
  • nirabhog karm se tatpary un karmon se hai, jo bina prayatn ya snkalp ke soory se prakash ki bhanti svat: apane-ap pravritt hote hain.
  • buddh ke karm bina kalik antaral ke lagatar sarvada pravritt hote rahate hain, at: ye avichchhinn karm kahalate hain.

bhagavan buddh ki shiksha

manushy jin du:khon se pidit hai, unamen bahut bada hissa aise du:khon ka hai, jinhen manushy ne apane agyan, galat gyan ya mithya drishtiyon se paida kar liya hain un du:khon ka prahan apane sahi gyan dvara hi sambhav hai, kisi ke ashirvad ya varadan se unhen door nahin kiya ja sakata. saty ya yatharthata ka gyan hi samyak gyan hai. at: saty ki khoj du:khamoksh ke lie paramavashyak hai. khoj agyat saty ki hi ki ja sakati hai. yadi saty kisi shastr, agam ya upadeshak dvara gyat ho gaya hai to usaki khoj nahin. at: buddh ne apane poorvavarti logon dvara ya parampara dvara batae saty ko nakar diya aur apane lie ne sire se usaki khoj ki. buddh svayn kahin pratibaddh nahin hue aur n to apane shishyon ko unhonne kahin bandha. unhonne kaha ki meri bat ko bhi isalie chupachap n man lo ki use buddh ne kahi hai. us par bhi sandeh karo aur vividh parikshaon dvara usaki pariksha karo. jivan ki kasauti par unhen parakho, apane anubhavon se milan karo, yadi tumhen sahi jan pade to svikar karo, anyatha chhod do. yahi karan tha ki unaka dharm rahasyadambaron se mukt, manaviy snvedanaon se otaprot evn hriday ko sidhe sparsh karata tha.

trividh dharmachakr pravartan

bhagavan buddh prgya v karuna ki moorti the. ye donon gun unamen utkarsh ki parakashtha prapt kar samaras hokar sthit the. itana hi nahin, bhagavan buddh atyant upayakushal bhi the. upay kaushal buddh ka ek vishisht gun hai arthath ve vividh prakar ke viney janon ko vividh upayon se sanmarg par aroodh karane men atyant pravin the. ve yah bhalibhanti janate the ki kise kis upay se sanmarg par aroodh kiya ja sakata hai. phalat: ve viney janon ke vichar, ruchi, adhyashay, svabhav, kshamata aur paristhiti ke anuroop upadesh diya karate the. bhagavan buddh ki doosari visheshata yah hai ki ve sanmarg ke upadesh dvara hi apane jagatkalyan ke kary ka sampadan karate hain, n ki varadan ya riddhi ke bal se, jaise ki shiv ya vishnu adi ke bare men anek kathaen puranon men prachalit hain. unaka kahana hai ki tathagat to matr upadeshta hain, krityasampadan to svayn sadhak vyakti ko hi karana hai. ve jisaka kalyan karana chahate hain, use dharmon (padarthon) ki yatharthata ka upadesh dete the. bhagavan buddh ne bhinn-bhinn samay aur bhinn-bhinn sthanon men viney janon ko anant upadesh diye the. sabake vishay, prayojan aur patr bhinn-bhinn the. aisa hone par bhi samast upadeshon ka antim lakshy ek hi tha aur vah tha viney janon ko du:khon se mukti ki or le jana. moksh ya nirvan hi unake samast upadeshon ka ekamatr ras hai.

dharmachakron ki neyanitarthata

vigyanavad aur svatantrik madhyamikon ke anusar nitarthasootr ve hain, jinaka abhipray yatharut (shabd ke anusar) grahan kiya ja sakata hai tatha neyarth sootr ve hain, jinaka abhipray shabdash: grahan nahin kiya ja sakata, apitu unaka abhipray khojana padata hai, jaise- mata aur pita ki hatya karane se vyakti nishpap hokar nirvan prapt karata hai. matar pitarn hatva....anigho yati brahmano[1] is vachan ka arth shabdash: grahan nahin kiya ja sakata, apitu yahan pita ka abhipray karmabhav aur mata ka abhipray trishna se hai. is prakar ki deshana abhiprayiki ya neyartha kahalati hai. prasngik madhyamikon ke mat men neyarth aur nitarth ki vyakhya uparyukt vyakhya se kinchit bhinn hai. unake anusar jin sootron ka pratipady vishay paramarth saty arthath shoonyata, animittata, anutpad, anirodh adi hain, ve nitarth sootr hain tatha jin sootron ka pratipady vishay snvriti saty hai, ve neyarth sootr hain. neyarthata aur nitarthata ki vyavastha ve ary –akshayamatinirdeshasootr ke anusar karate hain.

pratham dharmachakrapravartan

kal ki drishti se yah pratham hai. varanasi ka rishipatan mrigadav isaka sthan hai. isake viney jan (patr) shravakavargiy ve log hain, jo svalakshan aur bahyarth ki satta par adhrit chaturvidh ary satyon ki deshana ke patr (bhavy) hain svalakshan satta evn bahy satta ke adhar par char aryasatyon ki sthapana is pratham dharmachakr ki vishayavastu hai. shravakavargiy logon ki drishti se yah nitarth deshana hai. yogachar aur madhyamik ise neyarth deshana manate hain.

dvitiy dharmachakr pravartan

kal ki drishti se yah madhyam hai. isaka sthan pramukhat: gridhrakoot parvat hai. isake viney jan mahayani pudgal hain. shoonyata, animittata, anutpad, anirodh adi usake pramukh pratipady vishay hain. is deshana ke dvara samast dharm ni:svabhav pratipadit kiye gaye hain. vigyanavadi ise neyarth deshana manate hain. achary bhavavivek, gyanagarbh, shantarakshit, kamalashil adi svatantrik madhyamikon ka is deshana ki neyarthata aur nitarthata ke bare men prasangik madhyamikon se matabhed hain. unake anusar ary shatasahastrika prgyaparamita adi kuchh sootr nitarth sootr hain, kyonki inamen samast dharmon ki paramarthat: ni:svabhavata nirdisht hai. bhagavati prgyaparamita hridayasootr adi kuchh sootr yadyapi dvitiy dharmachakr ke antargat sngrahit hain, tathapi ve nitarth nahin mane jate, kyonki inake dvara jis prakar ki sarvadharmani:svabhavana pratipadit ki gee hai, us prakar ki ni:svabhavata svatantrik madhyamikon ko many nahin hai. yadyapi in sootron ka abhipray bhi paramarthat: ni:svabhavata hai, tathapi unamen 'paramarthat:' yah visheshan spashtataya ullikhit nahin hai, jo ki unake matanusar nitarth sootr hone ke lie paramavashyak hai.

bauddh bhikshu dhyan sthali, kushinagar

tritiy dharmachakrapravartan

kal ki drishti se yah antim hai. isaka sthan vaishali adi pramukh hain. shravak evn mahayani donon prakar ke pudgal isake viney jan hain. shoonyata, anutpad, anirodh adi isake vishayavastu hain. vigyanavadiyon ke anusar yah nitarth deshana hai. yadyapi dvitiy aur tritiy donon dharmachakro men shoonyata pratipadit ki gee hai, tathapi dvitiy dharmachakr men samast dharmon ko saman roop se ni:svabhav kaha gaya hai, jabaki is tritiy dharmachakr men yah bhed kiya gaya hai ki amuk dharm amuk drishti se ni:svabhav hai aur amuk dharm ni:svabhav nahin, apitu sasvabhav hai. isi ke adhar par vigyanavadi darshan pratishthit hai. is karan vigyanavadi samast dharmon ko samanaroop se ni:svabhav nahin manate. unake anusar dharmon men se kuchh ni:svabhav hain aur kuchh sasvabhav hain. at: ve saman roop se sarvadharmani:svabhavata pratipadak dvitiy dharmachakr ko nitarth nahin manate. unake matanusar jo sootr dharmon ki ni:svabhavata aur sasvabhavata ka samyak vibhajan karate hain, ve hi nitarth mane jate hain. inamen aryasandhinirmochanasootr pramukh hai.

  • bhagavan buddh dvara pravartit hone par bhi bauddh darshan koee ek darshan nahin, apitu darshanon ka samooh hai. vibhinn darshanik muddon par unamen paraspar matabhed bhi hai. koee paramanuvadi hain to koee paramanu ki satta nahin manate. koee sakar gyanavadi hain to koee nirakar gyanavadi. kuchh baton men vicharasamy hone par bhi matabhed adhik hain. shabdasamy hone par bhi arthabhed adhik hain. anek shakhopashakhaon ke hone par bhi darshanik manyataon ke samy ki drishti se bauddh vicharon ka char vibhagon men vargikaran kiya gaya hai, yatha-
  1. vaibhashik,
  2. sautrantik,
  3. yogachar (vigyanavad) aur
  4. madhyamik (shoonyavad).

darshanik mantavyon ko samajhane se pahale bhagavan buddh ki un samany shikshaon ki charcha karana chahate hain, jo sabhi charon darshanik prasthanon men samanaroop se many hain, yadyapi unaki vyakhya men matabhed hain.

buddh ki shiksha ki sarvabhaumikata

bhasha

bhagavan buddh ne kis bhasha men upadesh die, ise janane ke lie hamare pas pushkal pramanik samagri ka abhav hai, phir bhi itana nishchit hai ki unake upadeshon ki bhasha koee lokabhasha hi thi. isake anek karan hain.

  1. pahala yah ki vah apana sandesh jan-jan tak pahunchana chahate the, n ki vishisht janon tak hi. isake lie avashyak tha ki ve janabhasha men hi upadesh dete.
  2. doosara yah ki bhasha vishesh ki pavitrata par unaka vishvas n tha. ve yah nahin manate the ki shuddh bhasha ke uchcharan se puny hota hai. buddh ne kaha ki main apani-apani bhasha men unhen sngrahit karane ki anumati pradan karata hoon- 'anujanami bhikkhave, sakay niruttiya buddhavachann pariyapunitun ti[2]'. phalat: unake upadesh paishachi, snskrit, apabhrnsh, magadhi adi anek bhashaon men snkalit hue.

manav-samata

bhagavan buddh ke anusar dharmik aur adhyatmik kshetr men sabhi stri evn purushon men saman yogyata evn adhikar hain. itana hi nahin, shiksha, chikitsa aur ajivika ke kshetr men bhi ve samanata ke pakshadhar the. unake anusar ek manav ka doosare manav ke sath vyavahar manavata ke adhar par hona chahie, n ki jati, varn, ling adi ke adhar par. kyonki sabhi prani samanaroop se du:khi hain, at: sab saman hain. du:kh prahan hi unake dharm ka prayojan hai. at: snvedana aur sahanubhooti hi is samata ke adharabhoot tattv hain. unhonne kaha ki jaise sabhi nadiyan samudr men milakar apana nam, roop aur visheshataen kho deti hain, usi prakar manavamatr unake sngh men pravisht hokar jati, varn adi visheshataon ko kho dete hain aur saman ho jate hain. nirvan hi unake dharm ka ekamatr ras hai.

manavashreshthata

bauddh bhikshuon ko shiksha dete hue bhagavan buddh

buddh ke anusar manavajanm atyant durlabh hai. manushy men vah bij nihit hai, jisaki vajah se yadi vah chahe to abhyuday evn ni:shreyas arthath nirvan aur buddhatv jaise param purusharth bhi siddh kar sakata hai. devata shreshth nahin hain, kyonki ve vyapak trishna ke kshetr ke bahar nahin hain. at: manushy unaka das nahin hai, apitu unake uddhar ka bhar bhi manushy ke oopar hi hain. isilie unhonne kaha ki bhikshuon, bahujan ke hit aur sukh ke lie tatha dev aur manushyon ke kaln ke lie lok men vicharan karo. rishipatan mrigadav (saranath) men apane pratham varshavas ke anantar bhikshuon ko unaka yah upadesh manaviy svatantrata aur manavashreshthata ka apratim udshosh hai.

vyavaharikata

buddh ki shiksha atyant vyavaharik thi. usamen kisi bhi tarah ke rahasyon aur adambaron ke lie koee sthan n than unaka chintan praniyon ke vyapak du:khon ke karan ki khoj se prarambh hota hai, n ki kisi atyant nigoodh, guhapravisht tattv ki khoj se. ve yavajjivan du:khon ke atyant nirodh ka upay hi batate rahe. unhonne aise prashnon ka uttar dene se inkar kar diya aur unhen avyakaraniy (avyakhyey) karar diya, jinake dvara yah poochha jata tha ki yah lok shashvat hai ki ashashvat; yah lok anant hai ki sant athava tathagat maran ke pashchath hote hain ya nahin- ityadi. unaka kahana tha ki aise prashn aur unaka uttar n arthasnhit hai aur n dharmasnhit.

madhyama pratipada

bhagavan buddh ne jis dharmachakr ka pravartan kiya athava jis marg ka unhonne upadesh kiya, use 'madhyama pratipada' kaha jata hai. paraspar-virodhi do anton ya atiyon ka nishedh kar bhagavan ne madhyam marg prakashit kiya hai. manushy ka svabhav hai ki vah badi asani se kisi ant men patit ho jata hai aur us ant ko apana paksh banakar usake prati agrahashil ho jata hai. yah agrahashilata hi sare manaviy vibhedon, sngharshon aur du:khon ka mool hai. madhyama pratipadh anagrahashilata hai aur samasyaon se mukti ka sarvottam rajapath hain isaka kshetr atyant vyapak hai aur isamen anant sambhavanaen nihit hai. samajik, arthik aur rajanitik samasyaon ke samadhan men bhi isaki upayogita sambhavit hain, kintu abhi tak un dishaon men isaka adhyayan aur prayog nahin kiya ja saka. shil, samadhi aur prgya ya darshan ke kshetr men hi usaki prachin vyakhyaen upalabdh hoti hain. linata aur uddhav (auddhatv) ye donon dosh hain, jo samadhi ke badhak hain. samadhi chitt ka samapravah hai. yah samadhi ki drishti se madhyamapratipada hai. prgya ki drishti se shashavatavad (nityata ke prati agrah) ek ant hai aur uchchhedavad (aihikavad) doosara ant hai. in donon anton ka niras madhyama pratipadh hai. yahi samyagh drishti hai. isake bina abhyuday aur ni:shreyas koee bhi purusharth siddh nahin kiya ja sakata. sabhi bauddh darshanik madhyam-pratipada svikar karate hain, kintu ve shashvat aur uchchhed ant ki bhinn-bhinn vyakhyaen karate hain.

pratityasamutpad

pratityasamutpad sare buddh vicharon ki ridh hai. buddh poornima ki ratri men isi ke anulom-pratilom avagahan se buddh ne buddhatv ka adhigat kiya. pratityasamutpad ka gyan hi bodhi hai. yahi prgyabhoomi hai. anek gunon ke vidyaman hote hue bhi acharyon ne badi shraddha aur bhaktibhav se aise bhagavan buddh ka stavan kiya hai, jinhonne anupam aur anuttar pratityasamutpad ki deshana ki hai. char aryasaty, anityata, du:khata, anatmata kshanabhangavad, anatmavad, anishvaravad adi bauddhon ke prasiddh darshanik siddhant isi pratityasamutpad ke pratiphalan hain.

karmasvatantry

bauddhon ka karm-siddhant bharatiy parampara men hi nahin, apitu vishv ki dharmik parampara men bejod evn sabase bhinn hai. pray: sabhi log karm ko jad manate hain, at: karmon ke karta ko un karmon ke phal se anvit karane ke lie ek atirikt chetan ya eeshvar ke astitv ki avashyakata mahasoos karate hain. unake anusar aise atirikt chetan ke abhav men karm-karmaphal vyavastha ban nahin sakegi aur sari vyavastha astavyast ho jaegi. jabaki bauddh log karm ko jad hi nahin manate. bhagavan buddh ne karm ko 'chetana' kaha hai[3] karm kyonki chetana hai, at: vah apane phal ko svayn angikar ya akrisht kar leti hai. chetana-pravah men karm-karmaphal ki sari vyavastha sucharutaya sampann ho jati hai. isalie phal dene ke lie ek atirikt chetan ya eeshvar ko manane ki unhen qatee avashyakata nahin hain isilie vishv ke sare adhyatmik dharmon ke bich men bauddh ekamatr anishvaravadiyon men pramukh hain.

apane sukh-du:khon ke lie prani svayn hi uttaradayi hain. apane agyan aur mithyadrishtiyon se hi unhonne svayn apane lie du:khon ka utpad kiya hai, at: koee doosari shakti eeshvar ya maheshvar unhen mukt nahin kar sakata. isake lie unhen svayn prayas karana hoga. kisi ke varadan ya kripa se du:khamukti asambhav hai. koee mahapurush, jisane apane du:khon ka prahan kar liya ho, apane anubhav ke adhar par du:khamukti ka marg avashy bata sakata hai, kintu usaki baton ki pariksha kar, sahi pratit hone par us marg par prani ko svayn chalana hoga. is karm siddhant ke dvara manav-svatantrata aur atm-uttaradayitv ka vishisht bodh pratiphalit hota hai. yah bharatiy snskriti men bauddhon ka anupam yogadan hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. dr.- dhammapad, pakinnakavaggo, ka., 294
  2. dr. –chullavagg, pri. 228
  3. chetanahn bhikkhave, kammn vadami) (dr.- anguttaranikay, bhag 3, pri. 120

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