कुशीनगर का इतिहास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

buddh moorti, kushinagar

kushinagar prachin bharat ke tatkalin mahajanapadon men se ek evn mall rajy ki rajadhani tha.[1] yah nagar 26°45’ uttari akshansh aur 83°55’ poorvi deshantar ke bich sthit tha. vartaman samay men yah gorakhapur se 32 mil (lagabhag 51.2 ki.mi.) poorv, devariya se 21 mil (lagabhag 33.6 ki.mi.) uttar aur padarauna se 13 mil (lagabhag 20.8 ki.mi.) dakshin-pashchim men sthit hai.

vidvanh vichar

kaningham ne kushinagar ko vartaman devariya zile men sthit 'kasiya' se samikrit kiya hai.[2] apane samikaran ki pushti men unhonne 'parinirvan mndir' ke pichhe sthit stoop men mile tamrapatr ka ullekh kiya hai. jis par 'parinirvanachaity tamrapatr iti' ullikhit hai.[3] kaningham ke is samikaran se vinsent smith[4] aur parjitar prabhriti vidvanh sahamat nahin hain. unake anusar kasiya ke avasheshon evn chini yatri hvenasang ke yatra vivaranon men paryapt bhinnata hai. is bhinnata ko dhyan men rakhate hue smith ne kushinagar ko nepal men pahadiyon ki pahali shrinkhala ke par sthit hone ke mat ko uchit mana hai.[5] rij devids ke anusar yadi ham chini yatriyon ke yatra vivaranon par vishvas karen to kushinagar ke mallon ka pradesh, shaky pradesh ke poorv men pahadi dhal par sthit hona chahie. kuchh any vidvanh unaka pradesh shakyon ke dakshin men evn vajjigan ke poorv men sthit batalate hain.[6] lekin bad ke (1906-1907) puratatvik utkhanan se prapt samagriyon ke adhar par kaningham ki samiksha ko uchit manate hue 'kasiya' aur 'kushinagar' ko ek hi manana uchit hoga.

kaningham ko in bhagnavasheshon se ‘mahaparinirvan vihar’ namankit anek mrinmudraen aur stoop ke bhitar se kuchh tamrapatr bhi mile hain. inake atirikt in khndaharon se mahatma buddh ki vaisi hi vishal moorti prapt huee hai, jaisi ki hvenasang ne kushinagar men dekhi thi. 'tathagat' ki nirvan moorti bauddh shilpiyon ka priy vishay rahi hai, parntu kasiya jaisi patthar ki vishal pratima anyatr nahin milati. ye vibhinn tathy bhi kaningham ke samikaran ke auchity ki pushti karate hain.

vaidik sahity men ullekh

vaidik sahity men mallon athava unaki rajadhani ka koee ullekh nahin milata hai, parntu paravarti sahity men unaka varnan anek grnthon men milata hai. mahabharat ke bhishmaparv[7] men yah mall rashtr ke roop men varnit hai, jo ang, vng aur kaling ke saman hi poorvi bharat men ek pramukh rajy tha. buddh-poorv yug men vahan mahasammat vnsh ka rajy tha. is kul men ikshvanku (ovakak), kush tatha mahasudassan pramukh shasak hue the.[8] unake samay men yah nagar 'kushavati' nam se vikhyat tha. isaka vistar 144 varg ki.mi. kshetraphal men tha. buddh metay ke shasan kal men ise 'ketumati' nam se jana jata tha.[9]

gautam buddh ke poorv mall rajatntratmak rajy tha. vah kab aur kaise ganarajyon men parivartit ho gaya yah kahana kathin hai? kintu buddh ke kal men usaki sthiti nishchit roop se ek svatntr ganarajy ki thi. mallon ke snsthagar ka ullekh anek sthalon par hua hai jahan ekatr hokar ve vichar-vimarsh karate the. buddh kal men mallon ki rajadhani kushinagar ek mahattvapoorn nagar ke roop men prasiddhi prapt kar chuki thi.

bauddh sahity men varnan

bauddh bhikshu dhyan sthali, kushinagar

bauddh sahity men kushinagar ka vishad varnan milata hai. isamen kushinagar ke sath 'kushinara'[10], kushinagari[11] aur kushigram[12] prabhriti any namon ka bhi ullekh hai. buddh-poorv yug men yah kushavati ke nam se vikhyat thi. buddh ne kushinagar ko prachin kushavati se abhihit kiya tha. vistar aur samriddhi ki drishti se unaka kahana tha ki yah rajadhani poorv se pashchim 12 yojan lnbi evn uttar se dakshin 7 yojan chaudi thi.[13] isamen sat prakar, char toran aur khajoor vrikshon ke sat nikunj the.[14] yah nagar hiranyavati nadi ke pashchimi tat ke samip ek pramukh sthalamarg par sthit tha.[15] isi sthal-marg se bavari rishi ke shishyon ke jane ka ullekh hai.[16] buddh ki mrityu ke samay mahakashyap bhi rajagrih se kushinagar isi marg se ge the.[17]

nagar ki sthiti

is nagar ki sthiti, raksha evn vyapar ki drishti se sarvatha anukool thi. nagar ke samip hi upavattan namak shalavan tha, jisake ek bhag ko mallon ne pramod udyan men parinat kar diya tha. yah hiranyavati ke doosare kinare par sthit tha.[18] is upavattan shalavan men hi bhagavan ne antim nivas kiya tha. aur yahin yugal sal vrikshon ke niche unaka mahaparinirvan hua tha. upavattan shalavan ko kaningham ne vartaman kasiya ke ‘matha kunvar kot’ se samikrit kiya hai.[19]

bauddh grnthon men kushinagar evn any pramukh nagaron ke bich ki doori ullikhit hai, jo is nagar ki sthiti nishchit karane men sahayak hai. kushinagar se pava ki doori tin gavyoot[20] buddh ne apani antim yatra men isi raste se kakuksha nadi ko par kiya tha.[21] rajagrih se is nagar ki doori 25 yojan[22] evn 'sagal' (syalakot) se 100 yojan thi.[23] hvenasang kushinagar se 700 mil chalakar varanasi pahuncha tha.[24]

samriddhishali nagar

kushinagar bahut samriddhishali nagar tha. svayn gautam buddh ne isaki prashnsa ki hai. 'buddhaghosh' ne un vishisht karanon ka ullekh kiya hai, jinase prerit hokar buddh ne kushinagar ko parinirvanarth chuna tha-

  1. ‘mahasudassan’ sutant ka upadesh vahin kiya gaya tha.
  2. subhadr ki pravajya vahin snbhav thi.
  3. asthi vibhajan ki samasya hal karane vala vyakti vahan upasthit tha.[25] digvijayi chakravarti samrat mahasudarshan[26] ke rajyakal men 'kushavati' (kushinagar) 84000 nagariyon men pramukh thi.[27] yah samriddh, ramaniy, janakirn evn dhany-dhany snpann thi. yah devataon ki rajadhani 'alakamnda' ki bhanti din-rat das shabdon se gunjayaman rahati thi.[28] lekin yahan yah ullekhaniy hai ki buddh ke kal men yah nagar rajagrih, vaishali aur shravasti ki tarah prathamakoti ka nagar nahin tha.[29] at: yah kaha ja sakata hai ki is nagar ka kramash: hras hua tha.

buddh ki kridasthali

buddh ka kushinagar se vishesh lagav tha. poorvajanmon men bhi yah nagari unaki kridasthali rah chuki thi. ek ullekh ke anusar ve sat bar chakravarti samrat banakar kushinagar men rajy kar chuke the.[30] antim bar jab buddh yahan ae to mallon ne unaka svagat kiya. svagat-satkar men sammilit n hone vale vyaktiyon ke lie 500 mudra dnd ka pravadhan tha. is prakar kushinagar buddh ki shikshaon se poornaroopen prabhavit hua aur vahan ke anek snbhrant vyakti unake samarthak bane. at: aise anek uddharanon se yah spasht hai ki bauddh dharm ka svayn buddh ke samay men hi bahuvidh vikas ho chuka tha. aur anek snbhrant vyaktiyon ne is dharm ki sadasyata svikar ki thi.

parinirvan sthal

nirvan mandir, kushinagar

gyatavy hai ki kushinagar men hi buddh ne parinirvan prapt kiya tha. vahan ke mallon ne bhagavan ke antim snskar ka samuchit prabndh kiya tha. 6 dinon tak ve log unake nishpran sharir ka nrity, git, vady evn gndy pushpadi se satkar karate rahe. sataven din ve use 'mukut bndhan chaity' le ge.[31] shalavan se chalakar ve nagar men uttar dvar se pravisht hue aur poorv dvar se nikalakar chaity sthan par pahunche. vahin par chakravarti rajochit vidhan ke anusar dah-snskar kiya gaya.[32] 'mukut bndhan chaity' ko vartaman ramabhar talab ke pashchimi tat par sthit ek vishal stoop ke khndahar se samikrit kiya ja sakata hai, jo matha kunbar ke kot se lagabhag ek mil ki doori par sthit hai.[33]

dah-snskar ke pashchath asthi-vibhajan ke sndarbh men vivad utpann ho gaya. is avasar par upasthit logon men vaishali ke lichchhavi, kapilavastu ke shaky, allakap ke buli, ramagram ke koliy, pava ke mall, magadharaj ajatashatru tatha veth-dvip (vishnudvip) ke brahman mukhy the.[34] kushinagar ke mallon ne vibhajan ka virodh kiya. pratidvndvi rajyon ki senaon ne unake nagar ko gher liya. yuddh pray: nishchit tha, kintu dron brahman ke a jane se asthi avasheshon ka ath bhagon men vibhajan snbhav hua.[35] vibhinn rajyon ke pratinidhi asthi avasheshon ko apani rajadhaniyon men le ge aur vahan navarnimit stoopon men unhen sthapit kiya gaya. sanchi ke toran par utkirn chitr is ghatana ke jvalnt udaharan hai.[36] isake atirikt toran ke madhy bhag men niche ki or nagar ke parikha tatha prakar ka bhi ankan milata. prakar ke bhitar nagar ke kuchh vishisht bhavan bhi drishtigochar hote hain.[37]

kushinagar ke mallon ka apana snthagar tha, jahan par rajanitik tatha dharmik vishayon par vivad hote the. annd jis samay tathagat ki mrityu ka samachar lekar kushinagar ge, us samay mall apani rajy sabha men the. tatpashchath unhonne apane snthagar men hi tathagat ke antim snskar ke praroop par vichar-vimarsh kiya tha. dighanikay men mahaparinibban sutant men kushinara ke mallon men 'purish' namak ek adhikari varg ka ullekh milata hai jo rij devids ke matanusar adhinasth karmachariyon ka ek varg tha.[38]

inhen bhi dekhen: parinirvan mandir kushinagar evn prachin kushinagar ke puravashesh

chini yatriyon ka vivaran

panchavin shatabdi ee. men jab phahyan ne bharat ka bhraman kiya to kushinagar ko upekshit evn nirjan paya. keval kuchh sthanon par stoop aur sngharam bane hue the. satavin shatabdi men jab hvenasang bharat aya to us samay bhi yah sthan nirjan tha. usane yahan matr kuchh sngharam dekhe the. is snbndh men chini yatriyon ka vivaran nimnalikhit hai-

phahyan ka ullekh

chini yatri phahyan 399-414 ee. ke bich kushinagar aya tha. usane kushinagar ko pippalivan ke angar stoop ke poorv men 12 yojan aur vaishali se 12 yojan ki doori par sthit batalaya.[39] usane snpoorn janapad ko nirjan evn ujad paya tha. phahyan ne nagar ke uttar nirnjana nadi ke kinare shalavan men do vrikshon ke bich buddh ke parinirvan prapt karane ke sthan ka ullekh kiya hai.[40] shalavan ke vihar men us samay bhi kuchh bhikshu nivas karate the. phahyan likhata hai ki parinirvan stoop ke atirikt vahan char any stoop the, jo kramash: nimnalikhit char sthanon par bane the-

  1. jahan subhadr[41] ne arhatattv ko prapt kiya tha.
  2. jahan vajrapani yaksh ki gada giri thi.
  3. jahan mallon ne buddh ke nishpran sharir ka saptahaparynt poojan kiya tha.
  4. jahan buddh ke asthi avasheshon ko vibhajit kiya gaya tha.

phahyan ke bharat agaman ke samay yahan gupton ka samrajy tha. us samay bharatavart kala aur snskriti ke kshetr men apani parakashtha par tha. kumaragupt ke shasan kal men haribal svami ne kasiya ke suvikhyat parinirvan mndir ke nikatavarti stoop ka jirnoddhar kiya. phahyan yahan se 12 yojan chalakar us sthan par pahuncha tha, jahan buddh ne lichchhaviyon ko vapas bheja tha, kyonki ve log unake sath parinirvan sthal tak jana chahate the. yahi ek patthar ki lat (stnbh) thi, jis par unake parinirvan ki ghatana ka ankan tha.[42]

hvenasang ka vivaran

chini yatri hvenasang

satavin shatabdi men jab hvenasang kushinagar aya to us samay is sthan ki sthiti achchhi nahin thi. yah nagar 10 li ki paridhi men phaila matr khndahar sadrishy rah gaya tha.[43]yahan ki janasnkhya atyalp thi. nagar ke uttar pashchim chund[44] ke nivas-sthan par ashok dvara banavaya gaya ek stoop tha.

nagar ke uttar-pashchim tin-char li ki doori par sthit 'ajitavati'[45] nadi ke pashchimi kinare par hvenasang ne salavan ka ullekh kiya hai. is salavan men vibhinn ghatanaon ke smarakasvaroop anek stoop bane hue the. inamen se do ka snbndh buddh ke poorv janm ki kathaon se tha. vahan par eenton se nirmit ek bada chaity tha, jisamen ek moorti rakhi thi. isamen buddh parinirvan ko prapt tatha uttar ki or sir kie hue leti avastha men dikhae ge the. is chaity ke samip ashok dvara nirmit 200 phut ooncha ek bhagn stoop tha. stoop ke samane mauryakalin prastar-stnbh tha, jis par parinirvan ka vrittant utkirn tha.[46]

any stoopon men subhadr ke maran-sthal se snbaddh stoop ka ullekh kiya ja sakata hai, jo vihar se pashchim ki or sthit tha. vah brahman matavalnbi tha. subhadr ne ek sau bis varsh ki avastha men gautam buddh se diksha li thi.[47] in stoopon ke atirikt vajrapani yaksh ke gadapatan, devataon dvara tathagat ke sharir poojan evn maya devi ke vilap adi ghatanaon se snbnddh sthanon par bhi stoop nirmit the.[48] nagar ke uttar hiranyavati (ajitavati) nadi ke doosare tat se 300 pag door ek sthal par buddh ke dah snskar ka ullekh hai.[49] is sthal par bhi ek stoop tha jisaki mitti mani jati thi. sthal par nirmit ek aise stoop ka bhi hvenasang ne ullekh kiya hai, jo mahakavy dvara buddh ki padavndana se snbaddh tha. ek doosare stoop ko ashok ne banavaya tha. vah us sthan par tha, jahan buddh ki asthiyon k bntavara ath nareshon ke bich hua tha. usake samane ek stnbh tha, jis par uparyukt ghatana ka vrittant utkirn tha.[50] yadyapi hvenasang ne yahan ke viharon ke bhikshuon ki snkhya ka ullekh nahin kiya hai, parantu usake varnan se tatkalin viharon ke aur unamen sannihit tattvon ka poorn parichay prapt hota hai.

intsig ka ullekh

satavin shatabdi ke ant men itsing namak ek any chini yatri bhi kushinagar aya tha. usake samay men kushinagar ki sthiti achchhi thi. snbhavat: use maharaj harsh ka suphal snrakshan tha. itsing ne likha hai ki 'shalavan' tatha 'mukut bndhan' prasiddh chaity the, jahan sharad tatha vasnt ritu men door-door se shraddhalu aya karate the. us samay vihar men rahane vale bhikshuon ki snkhya sau thi. vahan ke bhikshuon ke pas paryapt sadhan the, at: yatriyon ke svagat-satkar men unhen kathinaee nahin hoti thi. ek bar akasmath vahan 500 bhikshuon ka samooh (jattha) a pahuncha, jinaka sthaniy vihar men bhojan adi se svagat-satkar kiya gaya. itsing ne samay ki ganana ke lie prayukt ek aise vishisht vidhan ka ullekh kiya hai, jisaka in viharon men prayog kiya jata tha.[51]

puratatvik shodh ka itihas

kushinagar ke sndarbh men prapt sahityik sroton ki pushti pray: puratatvik sakshyon se bhi hoti hai. kasiya ke avasheshon ko sarvapratham prakash men lane ka shrey bukanan[52] aur listan[53] ko hai. kushinagar ko kasiya se samikrit karate hue bhi ye vidvanh is sthal ke aitihasik mahattv se avagat n the. 1854 ee. men ech.ech. vilsan ne bhi kasiya ko kushinagar se samikrit kiya.[54] parntu kushinagar ki or itihas premiyon ka dhyan kaningham dvara 1860-1861 ee. men is kshetr ki khudaee ke bad hi akrisht hua. utkhanan ke parinamon ke adhar par kaningham ne adhunik ‘kasiya’ ko kushinagar se samikrit kiya.[55] kaningham ke utkhanan ke samay yahan par maya kunvar ka kot evn ramabhar namak do bade tatha kuchh any chhote tile matr avashisht the. yah samast bhoo-bhag vanachchhadit evn durgamy tha. nikatavarti gramon ke nivasi in tilon ki eenten nikala karate the, jisase prachin smarakon ka durupayog ho raha tha. mukut bndhan chaity ke oopar ramabhar bhavani ki mathiya aur ek any stoop ke oopar kisi nat ki samadhi ban chuki thi.[56]

kaningham ke pashchath unake sahayak adhikari karlail ne 1875 se 1877 ee. tak kasiya men mahattvapoorn sarvekshan kiya aur kee tilon ki khudaee karavaee. kasiya ke suprasiddh parinirvan pratima mndir evn nikatasth stoop ke anusndhan ka shrey karlail ko hi prapt hai.[57] sanh 1896 ee. men prantiy sarakar ki or se vinsent smith ne kasiya ka sarvenkshan kiya.[58] pun: puratatv vibhag dvara phogel ke nirdeshan men 1904 se 1907 ee. tak tatha hirannd shastri ki dekh-rekh men 1910-1912 tak utkhanan kiya gaya. isake parinamasvaroop bahut-se stoop, chaity tatha vihar prakash men aye. ye smarak ek-doosare ke sannidhy men hi nahin the, apitu inaka nirman vibhinn charanon men hua tha. tithi tatha snvatayukt abhilekhon ke abhav men in smarakon ka tithi-nirdharan dushkar hai. yadyapi in smarakon men prayukt eenton ki nap se tithi-nirdharan kiya ja sakata hai, parntu smarakon ke paravarti nirmataon dvara poorvakalin eenton ke tithi-nirdharan ke sndarbh men inaki map ka prayog sarvatha nirapad nahin kaha ja sakata.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. anguttaranikay, bhag 1, pri. 213 tatraiv, bhag 4 pri. 252 mahavastu, bhag 1 pri. 34
  2. e. kaningham, di ainshyent jyographi aphh indiya, pri. 363
  3. arkiyolajikalh sarve aphh indiya, varshik riport, 1911-12, pri. 17
  4. vistrit, jarnalh af di rayal eshiyatik sosayati (1902), pri. 139 aur age smith arli histri af indiya (chaturth snskaran), pri. 167, padatippani-5 (smith ka yah mat sarvamany nahin hai, kyonki hvenasang ke vivaranon ke adhar par kuchh nishchit karana snbhav nahin hai. hvenasang ke agaman ke pashchath bhi is sthan par nirntar parivartan hote rahe. rochak hai, saranath men bhi, jisaki sthiti sndigdh nahin hai, aisi hi vishamata paee jati hai.
  5. jarnal af di rayal eshiyatik sosayati, 1913, pri. 152 tu., vimal charan laha, prachin bharat ka aitihasik bhoogol, pri. 171
  6. rij devids buddhist indiya, varanasi, indolajikal buk haus (1979) punarmudrit, pri. 26
  7. mahabharat, bhishmaparv, 10/45
  8. mahavnsh, bhag do, pri. 1-6 jatak (phausabal snskaran), bhag do, pri. 65 dirghanikay, bhag 2, (hindi anuvad rahul sankrityayan evn jagadish kashyap, mahabodhi sabha, saranath 1935), pri. 152
  9. ji.pi. malalasekar, dikshanari aph pali prapar nems, bhag 1, (lndan, pali tekts sosaiti 1974, punarmudrit), pri. 563
  10. dighanikay, bhag do, pri. 109; dipavns, bhag 3, pri. 32
  11. divyavadan, pri. 152, 153, 194
  12. tatraiv, pri. 108
  13. drashtavy, dighanikay, (hindi anuvad, rahul sanskrityayan evn jagadish kashyap, mahabodhi sabha, saranath (varanasi, 1935 ee.) bhag do, pri. 146-152 :ayn kushinara, kushavati nam rajadhani ahosi...)
  14. dighanikay, bhag do, pri. 170-171
  15. is nadi ko adhikansh vidvanon ne chhoti gndak se samikrit kiya hai; (dekhen, kaningham, ainshyent jyographi af indiya, pri. 364) bhikshu dharmarakshit ke matanusar kasiya ke samip bahane vali 'kusaminara' tatha hirava ki nari usi ke avashesh hain. drashtavy bhikshu dharmarakshit, kushinagar ka itihas, pri. 32
  16. suttanipat, 5, 10, 12
  17. vinayapitak, bhag do, pri. 284
  18. saratthappakasini, jild pahali, pri. 222; tulaniy, bharat sinh upadhyay, buddhakalin bharatiy bhoogol (pratham snskaran), pri. 320
  19. arkiyolajikal sarve aph indiya, varshik riport, 1861-62, pri. 77-38; tul., ainshyent jyographi aph indiya pri. 364
  20. lagabhag ¾ yojan, adhunik 6 mil thi., sumngal vilasini, bhag do, pri. 573 (pavanagarato toni gavutani kusinara nagar)
  21. bharat sinh upadhyay, buddhakalin bharatiy bhoogol, (pratham snskaran), pri. 318
  22. ‘kusinaraton yav rajagahn pnchasivati yojanani’ -sumngal vilasini, bhag do, pri. 609
  23. ‘ekahenev yojanasatikn maggn khepetv...savalanagarn pavisi’ jatak, khnd 5, pri. 290 (phausabal snskaran)
  24. thamash vatars, anh yuvanh chvangs trevelsh in indiya, bhag do, pri. 46
  25. sumngalavilasini, bhag do, pri. 573
  26. bhagavan buddh ka poorv janm men yah ek nam tha.
  27. ‘chaturasoti nagarasahasani pamukhani’, dighanikay ka yah varnan atirnjit hai. dighanikay, (hindi anuvad- rahul sankrityayan evn jagadish kashyap, mahabodhi sabha, saranath, 1935 ee.) bhag do, pri. 159 . jabaki 'snyuktanikay' men ise 84 nagaron men ek batalaya gaya hai. drashtavy-snyuktanikay, bhag 3, pu. 144; tulaniy-dikshanari aph pali prapar nems, bhag 1 pri. 663
  28. ye shabd nagar ki samriddhi evn vaibhav ke soochak the jo the- ‘hatthisadd, assasadd, bherisadd, mutingasadd, git (snkh), sadd, sammasadd, tatvasadd, tatha asnathapivasthasvad thatasabhanen sadd’, drashtavy- dighanikay, bhag do, pri. 147
  29. ullekhaniy hai isi karan annd ne buddh ko chnpa, rajagrih, shravasti, saket, koshanbi, aur varanasi adi nagaron ko parinirvan yogy bataya tha. drashtavy-dighanikay, bhag 2, pri. 152
  30. dighanikay, bhag do, pri. 198 (pali grnthon men keval do poorv janmon ka vrittant milata hai. ek janm men ve maharaja 'kush' the aur doosare janm men chakravarti samrat 'mahasudarshan'. inaki katha any grnthon ke atirikt kush aur mahasudassan jatakon men bhi varnit hai)
  31. yah chaity 'mukut bndhan' isalie kahalata tha ki yahan mall rajaon ka abhishek kiya jata tha aur unake sir par mukut bandha jata tha.
  32. hvenasang ne bhramavash dah-chaity ko nagar se uttar ki or bataya hai. dah-snskar ki vidhi svayn buddh ne annd ko bataee thi. vahi vidhan annd ne mallon ko bataya. dekhen, dighanikay, bhag do.
  33. bharat sinh upadhyay, buddhakalin bharatiy bhoogol (pratham snskaran), pri. 321
  34. ullekhaniy hai utkhanan se veth dvip vihar ki ek muhar mili hai jis par lekh ‘shri vishnu dvip vihar bhikshu-snghasy’ ankit hai. drashtavy- arkiyolajikal sarve aph indiya, varshik riport, 1906-7, pri. 61
  35. ji.pi. malalasekar, dikshanari aph pali prapar nems (pali tekts sosayati 1974, punarmudrit), bhag 1, pri. 654; dighanikay, bhag 2, pri. 150
  36. marshal, e gaid too sanchi, pri. 53-54 aur plet snkhya 4
  37. udayanarayan ray, prachin bharat men nagar tatha nagar jivan, pri. 362
  38. ti.dablyoo. rij devids, buddhist indiya (indolajikal buk haus, varanasi, punarmudrit, 1979), pri. 21
  39. gails, trevels aph phahyan, pri. 41
  40. hvenasang dvara varnit yah hiranyavati nadi hi thi, jo nagar ke dakshin men bahati thi. jems legge, di traivels aph phahyan (dilli, 1972), pri. 70, pad-tippani.
  41. yah banaras ka ek brahman tha, jo buddh se shiksha grahan karane ke lie yahan aya hua tha. dekhen, dighanikay, bhag 2, pri. 144
  42. jems legge, di traivels aph phahyan (dilli oriyntal pablishars, 1972, punarmudrit), pri. 82
  43. vatars, an yan chvangs traivels in indiya, bhag do pri. 134
  44. is chund ko dighanikay men pava ka nivasi batalaya gaya hai. phahyan ne bhi is stoop ka ullekh nahin kiya hai. dekhen, dighanikay, bhag do, pri. 135-136
  45. aisi snbhavana hai ki hvenasang ke samay hiranyavati nadi ko ajitavati (jo kabhi jiti n ja sake) nam se janate the.
  46. tatraiv, bhag do, pri. 28
  47. tatraiv, pri. 30
  48. vatars, an yuvan chvangs traivels in indiya, bhag 2, pri. 39; maya devi ke svarg se utarakar apane mrit putr ke lie vilap karane ki katha anek bauddh grnthon men paee jati hai, parntu dighanikay men isaka ullekh nahin milata.
  49. semual bil, buddhist rikardash aph di vestarn varld, bhag 3 (kalakatta, 1958), pri. 287. dighanikay ke anusar yah sthan nagar se poorv men tha. bhag, 2 pri. 141
  50. poorvollikhit, an yuvan chvangs traivels in indiya, bhag do, pri. 42
  51. je. takakusoo, e rekard aph di buddhist rilijan (lndan, aksaphord, 1896), pri0 29-30, 38-39 aur 145
  52. eestarn indiya, bhag do, pri. 357
  53. j. e. si. bn., 1837, pri. 417
  54. j. ra.e. so., 1856, pri. 246, yahan isaka nam ‘kusiya’ diya gaya hai.
  55. a.s.ri., ank 1, pri. 76-85
  56. nalinath datt aur krishnadatt bajapeyi, devalapament aph buddhijm in uttar pradesh (pablikeshan byooro, lakhanoo, 1956), pratham snskaran, pri. 357
  57. arkiyolajikal sarve aph indiya (varshik riport), ank 18, kalakatta, 1883, pri. 62 aur age; ank 22 (kalakatta, 1885), pri. 16 aur age.
  58. j.ra.e.so, 1902, pri. 139
  • aitihasik sthanavali | vijayendr kumar mathur | vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog | manav snsadhan vikas mntralay, bharat sarakar

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