राम शरण शर्मा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ram sharan sharma
ram sharan sharma
poora nam ram sharan sharma
janm 26 navambar, 1919
janm bhoomi begusaray, bihar
mrityu 20 agast, 2011
mrityu sthan patana
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr itihas aur shiksha
bhasha hindi, angrezi
vidyalay 'patana kaaulej', bihar; 'skool aauf oriental end aphrikan stadij', landan
shiksha em.e., piechadi
puraskar-upadhi 'kempvel memoriyal gold medal samman', 'hemachnd rayachaudhari janmashatabdi svarn padak samman', 'di lit'
prasiddhi itihasakar
vishesh yogadan sharmaji ne itihas lekhan ke kshetr men amooly yogadan dekar use samriddh banaya. unaki itihas ki rachanaen uchch star ki pratiyogi parikshaon men mahattvapoorn sthan rakhati hain.
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari 'patana vishvavidyalay' men padhate hue ram sharan sharma ne apani pahali kitab 'vishv sahity ki bhoomika' hindi men likhi thi.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

ram sharan sharma (angrezi: Ram Sharan Sharma; janm- 26 navambar, 1919, begusaray, bihar; mrityu- 20 agast, 2011, patana) bharat ke prasiddh itihasakar aur shikshavid the. ve samaj ko hakikat se ru-b-ru karane vale, antarashtriy khyatiprapt bharatiy itihasakaron men se ek the. ram sharan sharma 'bharatiy itihas' ko vnshavadi kathaon se mukt kar samajik aur arthik itihas lekhan ki prakriya ki shuruat karane valon men gine jate the. varsh 1970 ke dashak men 'dilli vishvavidyalay' ke itihas vibhag ke din ke roop men prophesar ar. es. sharma ke karyakal ke dauran vibhag ka vyapak vistar kiya gaya tha. vibhag men adhikansh padon ki rachana ka shrey bhi prophesar sharma ke prayason ko hi diya jata hai.

janm tatha shiksha

ram sharan sharma ka janm 26 navambar, 1919 ee. ko bihar (british bharat) ke begusaray zile ke barauni phlaig ganv ke ek nirdhan parivar men hua tha.[1] yah ilaka samriddh kheti ke sath-sath 'bharatiy kamyunist parti' ke netritv men samntavad virodhi sngharsh ke lie bhi jana jata tha. ise log "bihar ka leninagrad" kahate the. inake ghar ki arthik sthiti achchhi nahin thi. ram sharan sharma ke dada aur pita barauni dyodi vale ke yahan chakari karate the. inake pita ko apani roji-roti ke lie kafi sngharsh karana pada tha. pita ne badi mushkil se apane putr ki maitrik tak ki shiksha ki vyavastha ki thi. ram sharan sharma prarambh se hi medhavi chhatr rahe the aur apani buddhimatta se ve lagatar chhatravritti prapt karate rahe. yahan tak ki apani shiksha men sahayog ke lie unhonne niji tyooshan bhi padhaee. unhonne 1937 men apani maitrik ki pariksha uttirn ki aur 'patana kaaulej' men dakhila liya. yahan unhonne intaramidiet se lekar snatakottar kakshaon men chh: varshon tak adhyayan kiya aur varsh 1943 men itihas men em.e. ki digri prapt ki. ram sharan sharma ne piechadi ki upadhi 'lndan vishvavidyalay' ke 'skool aauf oriental end aphrikan stadij' se prophesar arthar levelin baisham ke adhin poorn ki thi.

itihas lekhan

'patana vishvavidyalay' men padhate hue ram sharan sharma ne apani pahali kitab 'vishv sahity ki bhoomika' hindi men likhi. ek nayi drishti ke bavajood yah pustak chhatropayogi hi adhik thi. vastavik yati aur itihasakar ke roop men manyata unhen tab mili, jab ve san 1954-1956 ke dauran adhyayan avakash lekar lndan ke 'skool aauf oriental aind aphrikan stadiz' men gaye aur lndan vishvavidyalay se hi 1956 men piechadi ki upadhi prapt ki.[2] itihas ke jane-mane lekhak ram sharan sharma ne pndrah bhashaon men sau se bhi adhik kitaben likhin. unaki likhi gayi prachin itihas ki kitaben desh ki uchch shiksha men kafi ahamiyat rakhati hain. prachin itihas se jodakar har sam-samayik ghatanaon ko jodakar dekhane men sharma ji ko maharath hasil thi. ramasharan sharma ke dvara likhi gayi pustak "prachin bharat ke itihas" ko padhakar chhatr 'sngh lok seva ayog' jaisi pratishthit parikshaon ki taiyari karate hain.

uchch padon par kary

ram sharan sharma aise pahale bharatiy itihasakar the, jinhonne puratatvik anusndhanon se prapt sakshyon ko apane lekhan ka adhar banaya aur vaidik aur any prachin grnthon aur bhasha vigyan ki sthapanaon se use yatha snbhav snpusht karane ki koshish ki. san 1969 men unhen neharoo pheloship mili thi. 'patana vishvavidyalay' ke itihas vibhag ke pramukh banane ke bad ram sharan sharma ne 1970 ke dashak men 'dilli vishvavidyalay' ke itihas vibhag ke din ke roop kam kiya. ve 1972 se 1977 tak 'bharatiy aitihasik anusndhan parishad'[3] ke snsthapak adhyaksh bhi rahe the. ram sharan sharma ne 'tornto vishvavidyalay' men bhi adhyapan kary kiya. ve 'lndan vishvavidyalay' ke 'skool aauf oriental end aphrikan stadiz' men ek siniyar phelo, vishvavidyalay anudan ayog ke neshanal phelo aur 1975 men 'indiyan histri kangres' ke adhyaksh bhi rah chuke the.[4]

rachanaen

ram sharan sharma ne itihas lekhan ke kshetr men apana amooly yogadan dekar use samriddh banaya. unaki itihas ki rachanaen uchch star ki pratiyogi parikshaon men mahattvapoorn sthan rakhati hain. ram sharan sharma ki kuchh pramukh rachanaen nimnalikhit hain-

ram sharan sharma ki pramukh rachanaen
rachana varsh
'ary evn hadappa snskritiyon ki bhinnata'[4]
'bharatiy samntavad'
'shoodron ka prachin itihas'
'prachin bharat men rajanitik vichar evn snsthaen
'bharat ke prachin nagaron ka itihas'
'aryon ki khoj'
'prarnbhik madhyakalin bharatiy samaj: samntikaran ka ek adhyayan'
'kamyunal histri end rama'j ayodhya'
'vishv itihas ki bhoomika'[1] 1951-52
'sam ikanamikal espekts aauf d kast sistam in enshient indiya' 1951
'rol aauf proparti end kast in d orijin aauf d stet in enshient indiya' 1951-52
'shudraj in enasient indiya evn aspekts aauf aidiyaz end instityooshan in enshient indiya' 1958
'aspekts aauf politikal aidiyaj end instichyooshan in enshient indiya' 1959
'indiyan phayoodalijam' 1965
'rol aauf ayaran in orijin aauf buddhijm' 1968
'prachin bharat ke paksh men' 1978
'meteriyal kalchar end soshal pharmeshan in enshient indiya' 1983
'parsapektivs in soshal end ikonaumikal histri aauf arli indiya' 1983
'arban dike in indiya-300 edi se 1000 edi' 1987
'sanpradayik itihas aur ram ki ayodhya' 1990-91
'rashtr ke nam itihasakaron ki rapat' 1991
'looking phaaur d aryans' 1995
'eplayad sainses end teknolaji' 1996
'edavent aauf d aryans in indiya' 1999
'arli medieval indiyan sosaiti:e stadi in phyoodalaeejeshan' 2001

marksavad ka adhyayan

ram sharan sharma kisi bhi rajanitik dal ke sadasy nahin the, kintu marksavad ka adhyayan, chintan, manan inake pramukh karyon men se ek tha, jisaka sidha prabhav unake lekhan men dekhane ko milata hai. 'bharatiy itihas' ke lekhan men 1940 men prakashit 'adhe bharatiy evn adhe svidish', british kamyunist parti ke sachiv rajani pam datt ki 'pustak indiya tude', 1956 men damodar dharmannd kosambi ki 'en introdakshan too d stadi aauf idiyan histri' evn 1958 men ramasharan sharma ki 'shudraj in enasient indiya' aur 'aspekts aauf aidiyaz end instityooshan in enshient indiya' evn 1965 men iraphan habib ki aurngazeb ki kattar dharmikata par kendrit 'd agreriyan sistam aauf mugals' adi pustakon ko 'bharatiy itihas' ko marksavadi prabhav ke paripeksh men dekhane ka ek saphal prayas ke roop men mana jata hai, jisaki purazor sthapana san 1965 prakashit ramasharan sharma ki pustak 'indiyan phyoodalijm' se ho jati hai, aisa kee itihasakaron ka manana hai.[1]

vivad

ram sharan sharma ki rachana "prachin bharat" ko krishn ki aitihasikata aur mahabharat mahakavy ki ghatanaon ki alochana ke lie 1978 men janata parti sarakar ki or se pratibndhit kar diya gaya tha. ayodhya ke vivad par bhi unhonne bahut kuchh likha tha, jisako lekar desh bhar men bahas chhid gayi thi. varsh 2002 ke gujarat dngon ko yuvaon ki samajh badhane ke lie 'samajik roop se prasngik vishay' batate hue ise vidyalay ke pathyakram men shamil karane ka samarthan kiya tha. yah unaki tippani hi thi, jab enasieearati ne gujarat ke dngon aur ayodhya vivad ko 1984 ke sikkh virodhi dngon ke sath barahavi kaksha ki rajaniti vigyan ki pustakon men shamil karane ka phaisala kiya, jisaka tark yah diya gaya ki in ghatanaon ne ajadi ke bad desh men rajanitik prakriya ko prabhavit kiya tha.[4]

apane shodh prabndhan 'shoodraj in enshient indiya' ke prakashit hote hi ram sharan sharma charcha men a gaye the. unhonne aise samay men vnchiton ka itihas likha, jab 'sabaltarn' ki avadharana samane nahin ayi thi. 'shoodron ka prachin itihas' ke alava unhonne age chalakar 'prachin bharat men rajanitik vichar evn snsthaen', 'bharat ke prachin nagaron ka patan' aur 'prachin bharat men bhautik pragati aur samajik snrachanaen' jaisi pustaken likhin, jinamen naye-naye puratatvik anusndhanon ke adhar par apani avadharana ko vistar diya gaya tha. san 1964 men 'kalakatta vishvavidyalay' men unhonne 'bharatiy samntavad' par chhah vyakhyan diye the, jo 1965 men 'indiyan phyoodalijm' nam se angrezi men prakashit hue. tab is pustak ka kafi virodh hua aur unake samakalin itihasakaron men se ek harabns mukhiya ne likha ki bharat men kisi prakar ka samntavad tha hi nahin, yahan ke kisan shuroo se hi svatntr the. isake bad vamapnthi itihasakaron ke do kheme ho gaye. bad ke sabaltarn itihasakaron ne sthiti aur spasht kar di. prophesar sharma ne san 1996 men prakashit pustak 'poorv madhyakalin bharat ka samnti samaj aur snskriti' men apane virodhiyon ko karara javab bhi diya. yah pustak likhi to gayi thi angrezi men, kintu chhapi pahale hindi men. usake ek sal pahale hi unaki mool hindi men likhi doosari pustak 'ary snskriti ki khoj' ayi thi, jisamen unhonne aryon ke moolatah bharatiy hone ke bhram ka nivaran kiya tha. san 1999 men isi shrinkhala men ek aur kitab ayi 'bharat men aryon ka agaman'.[2]

vyaktitv

itihasakar ram sharan sharma ke ghar ke daravaze kisi bhi jigyasoo aur gyanapipasu ke lie sadaiv khule rahate the. ve svayn bhi logon se milane-julane, unase bat karane ka koee mauka nahin chukate the. subah tahalane ke lie bhi zara der se jate the. kisi park ya koee sunasan jagah ke vajay bhidabhad vali sadakon ka chayan karate, jahan vo ghoomate-tahalate logon se batachit bhi karate rahate. videsh se lautate to maze aur sair-sapaton ke kisson ke bajay vahan ke avam ke kisse unaki zaban par hote the. ve kitabi nahin, balki ek sakriy itihasakar the, jinhen apat kal, babari maszid vidhvnsh, narasnharon jaisi ghatanaen pareshan karati thi. janata ko pragatishil chetana se susajit karana unake chintan ka pramukh vishay hota tha. ve apane samajik dayitvon ke prati jagarook aur ek karmath shikshavid the. unaka saf manana tha ki samaj sudhar ke karyon ya samajik samasyaon aur usake samadhan ki gatividhiyon men snlagn shikshavid hi samaj ke lie kuchh kar rahen hain, anyatha samaj ko unase kya labh.

puraskar v samman

  1. bharat shastriyon ko diya jane vala sarvottam 'kempvel memoriyal gold medal samman'
  2. eshiyatik sosayati, kolakata dvara 'hemachnd rayachaudhari janmashatabdi svarn padak samman'
  3. saranath ke 'uchchatar tibbati anusandhan snsthan' evn 'vardhaman vishvavidyalay' dvara 'di lit' upadhi
  4. munbee ki eshiyatik sosayati dvara svarn padak

nidhan

ek itihasakar aur shikshavid ke roop men prasiddhi prapt karane vale ram sharan sharma ka nidhan 20 agast, 2011 ko patana, bihar men hua. apane tarah ki soch vale itihasakaron ko badhava dene, vaidik paramparaon ko anadekha karane, hindi ke bajay angrezi men apane lekhan kary ko anjam dene sahit kee arop sharma ji par lage the, lekin is saty se kisi ka koee inkar nahin ho sakata ki ve bharat ke un itihasakaron men se ek the, jinhonne itihasakaron ko khud ne, tarkik v vaigyanik tarike se sochana sikhaya. sath hi ye bhi bataya ki itihas ka arth keval biti huee kahani kahana nahin hota. itihas athava itihas lekhan ka karm matr rajavnsh, yuddh aur bharatiy samrajy ka itihas matr nahin hai. itihasakar yah ehasas karen ki itihas ka vishay yah bhi hai ki itihas ke ve sabak kya hain, jinake sahare aj ki chunautiyon ka samana kalpanashilata aur soojhaboojh ke sath kiya ja sake.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 samajik parivartan ka itihasakar (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 25 mee, 2013.
  2. 2.0 2.1 vnchiton ke itihasakar (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 25 mee, 2013.
  3. indiyan kaunsil aauph historikal risarch
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 ram sharan sharma ka nidhan (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 25 mee, 2013.

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