दक्षिण भारत 1565-1615  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।


dakshin bharat ka itihas 1565 se 1615 tak

bahamani samrajy ke vighatan ke bad ahamadanagar, bijapur aur golakunda namak tin shaktishali riyasaten ubhari aur unhonne milakar 1565 men talikot ke nikat bannihatti ki ladaee men vijayanagar ko buri tarah parajit kiya. vijay ke pashchath in riyasaton ne purane taur-tariqe apana lie. ahamadanagar aur bijapur donon ne upajaoo sholapur par apana-apana dava kiya. yuddh aur vivah sambandh donon men se koee bhi is samasya ko sulajhane men sahayak nahin hua. donon riyasaton ki mahattvakanksha bidar ko hastagat karane ki thi. ahamadanagar apane uttar men sthit barar ko bhi hathiyana chahata tha. vastutah bahamani sultanon ke vnshaj nizamashahiyon ne dakkan men pradhanata nahin to kam se kam behatar sthiti ka dava kiya arambh kiya. unake is dave ka virodh ke keval bijapur ne kiya balki gujarat ke sultanon ne bhi kiya jinaki nazar barar ke sath-sath samriddh konkan pradesh par bhi thi. gujarat ke sultanon ne ahamadanagar ke viruddh barar ko sakriy sahayata di aur dakkan men shakti-sntulan ko rakhane ke lie ahamadanagar se yuddh bhi kiya. bijapur aur golakunda men bhi naladurg ke lie sngharsh hua.

dakshini rajy aur maratha

1572 men mugalon dvara gujarat vishay se ek nayi paristhiti utpann ho gee. gujarat vijay dakkan vijay ki poorv-pithika ho sakati thi. lekin akabar kahin aur vyast tha, aur is mauqe par dakkan men hastakshep nahin karana chahata tha. ahamadanagar ne mauqe ka labh uthakar barar hathiya liya. vastav men ahamadanagar aur bijapur ne ek samajhauta kar liya jisake antargat bijapur ko vijayanagar ke ilaqon par dakshin men apane rajy ka vistar karane ki chhoot mil gee aur ahamadanagar ne barar ko raund dala. golakunda bhi vijayanagar samrajy ke kshetr men apani simaon ka vistar karana chahata tha. is prakar sabhi dakkani riyasaten vistaravadi thin. is sthiti men ek aur mahattvapoorn bat dakkan men marathon ka badhata mahattv tha. jaisa ki ham dekh chuke hain, bahamani shasakon ne hamesha maratha senaon ko sahayak sena ke roop men rakha tha. ise baragir (ya samanyatah baragi) kaha jata tha. sthaniy star par rajasv kary brahmanon ke hathon men tha. more, nimbalakar, ghatage jaise kuchh purane maratha vnshon ne bahamani sultanon ki sena men rahakar manasab aur jagiren bhi prapt ki thi. inamen se adhikansh shaktishali zamindar the. jinhen dakkan men deshamukh kaha jata tha. parantu unamen n to koee rajapooton ki bhanti svatntr shasak tha aur n unamen se kisi ke pas bada rajy tha. doosare ve anek vnshon ke neta bhi nahin the, jinaki sahayata par ve nirbhar kar sakate. atah adhikansh maratha saradar sainik sahasik the, jo paristhiti ke anusar apani svamibhakti badal sakate the. phir bhi maratha dakkan ke zamindaron ki ridh the aur unaki sthiti uttar bharat ke adhikansh kshetron ke rajapooton ke saman thi. solahavin shatabdi ke madhy men dakkani rajyon ne marathon ko apani or milane ki nishchit niti apanayi. dakkan ki tinon badi riyasaton ne maratha saradaron ko naukari aur bade pad diye. bijapur ka ibrahim adilashah jo 1555 men gaddi par baitha tha, is niti ko apanane valon men agrani tha. kaha jata hai ki usake pas 30,000 marathon ki sahayak (baragi) sena thi, aur vah rajasv ke mamalon men marathon ko har star par chhoot diya karata tha. is niti ke antargat purane vnshon par to kripa bani hi rahi, kee naye vnsh bhi bijapur riyasat men mahattvapoorn ho ge. jaise bhonsale, jinaka vnshagat nam ghorapade tha, daphle ( athava chahvan) adi. rajanayik vartaon men marathi brahmanon ka upayog bhi niyamit roop se kiya jata tha. udaharan ke lie ahamadanagar ke shasak ne kanakoji narasi namak brahman ko peshava ki upadhi di. ahamadanagar aur golakunda men bhi marathon ki mahattvapoorn bhoomika rahi.

atah yah spasht hai ki zamindar varg aur ladakoo jatiyon ke sath mitrata ki niti akabar-kalin mugal samrajy se bahut pahale dakkan ki riyasaton ne apana li thi.

dakkan men mugalon ka badhav

uttar bharat men apani sthiti sudridh kar lene ke pashchath dakkan ki or qadam badhana mugalon ke lie svabhavik tha. yadyapi vindhyachal uttar aur dakshin ki sima-rekha tha, parantu yah alndhy-avarodh nahin tha. yatri, vyapari, tirth yatri aur ghumakkan sadhoo sada se ise par kar ate-jate rahe the tatha dakshin aur uttar men jahan har ek ke apane vishesh sanskritik svaroop the unhen ek roop men bandhate rahe the. tugalaqon dvara dakkan-vijay tatha uttar aur dakshin ke madhy avagaman ke sadhan sugam ho jane ke karan donon pakshon men vyaparik aur sanskritik sambandh dridhatar ho ge the. dilli saltanat ke patan ke pashchath bahut se soofi sant aur naukari ki talash men any vyakti bahamani sultanon ke darabar men pahunche the. rajanitik drishti se bhi uttar aur dakshin alag nahin the. jaisa ki ham dekh chuke hain pashchim ke gujarat aur malava tatha poorv men udisa rajy dakkan ki rajaniti men nirantar lipt rahe the. atah yah svabhavik tha ki sataven aur athaven dashak ke prarambh men malava aur gujarat ka jitane ke pashchath mugal bhi dakkan ki rajaniti men ruchi dikhate. 1576 men ek mugal sena ne khanadesh par akraman kiya aur vahan ke shasak ko samarpan ke lie vivash kar diya. kintu akabar ko adhik mahattvapoorn karanon se apana dhyan kahin aur lagana pada. 1586 se 1598 tak barah varshon tak akabar uttar-pashchim ki sthiti ka adhyayan karane ke lie lahaur men raha. isi bich dakkan ki paristhitiyan bigadati chali geen.

dakkan rajaniti ka jalata hua kund tha. vibhinn dakkani riyasaton ke bich ladaee ek am bat thi. ek shasak ki mrityu vibhinn dalon ke samanton ke bich sngharsh ka karan ban jati thi. pratyek dal shasak nirmata ki bhoomika nibhana chahata tha. in paristhitiyon men dakkaniyon aur navagantukon (afaki athava garib) ke bich sngharsh khule roop se hota tha. dakkaniyon men bhi habshi (abisiniyaee athava aphriki) aur afagan do varg ban gaye. in vargon aur dalon ka dakkan ki janata ke sath sanskritik star par koee sampark nahin tha. dakkan ki sainy aur rajanitik pranali men marathon ka vilayan, jo bahut pahale prarambh ho chuka tha, aur age nahin badha. atah shasakon aur saradaron ke prati janata ki bahut kam svamibhakti thi.

dalagat sngharsh

dalagat sngharshon aur matabhedon ke karan paristhiti aur bhi bigad gee. satrahavin shatabdi ke prarambh men eeran men naye rajavnsh safavid ke antargat shiyamat rajadharm ban gaya tha. shiya sampraday ka bahut samay se daman kiya jata raha tha aur ab utsah ki pahali lahar men is sampraday ke logon ko apane poorv virodhiyon ko satane ka mauqa mila. parinamatah bahut se mahattvapoorn parivaron ne vahan se bhagakar akabar ke darabar men sharan li jo shiyaon aur sunniyon men koee vibhed nahin karata tha. kuchh dakkani riyasaton ne bhi shiyamat ko rajadharm ke roop men svikar kiya. golakunda inamen se pramukh tha. bijapur aur ahamadanagar men bhi shiya shaktishali the kintu unaka palada kabhi-kabhi hi bhari hota tha. isase dalagat sngharsh aur badh gaya.

mahadavi sampraday

dakkan men mahadavi siddhanto ka bhi kafi prasar hua. musalamanon ka vishvas tha ki pratyek yug men paigambar ke parivar se ek vyakti prakat hoga aur dharm ko dridh karega tatha nyay ko vijay dilayega. aisa vyakti mahadi kahalata tha. halanki snsar ke vibhinn bhagon men alag-alag kalon men mahadi prakat ho chuke the, kintu solahavin shatabdi ke ant men islam ko ek yug ki sambhavit samapti ne islami duniya men anek ashaen utpann kar di thin. bharat men, pandrahavin shatabdi ke poorvaddh men jaunapur men utpann muhammad ne bharat aur islami duniya ka bhraman kiya aur kafi utsah paida kiya. dakkan sahit usane deshabhar men apane dayare sthapit ki. dakkan usake lie bahut upajaoo siddh hua. paramparavadi tattv mahadavi sampraday ke utane hi tivr virodhi the, jitane ki shiya sampraday ke the. halanki donon ke bich koee prem-bhav samapt nahin hua tha. akabar ne isi sndarbh ne sulah kul ka siddhant pracharit kiya. use is bat ka bhay tha ki dakkan ke sampradayagat sngharshon ka sidha prabhav mugal samrajy par padega.

purtagali prabhav

akabar ko purtagaliyon ki badhati shakti ka bhi khatara tha. purtagali makka jane vale haj yatriyon ke kamon men hastakshep karate the. isamen ve shahi parivaron ki striyon ko bhi nahin chhodate the. ve apani simaon men dhauns se kam lete the, jo ki akabar ko pasand nahin tha. purtagali mukhy bhoomi par nirantar apana prabhav badhane ke chakkar men the aur yahan tak ki unhonne soorat par hath dala, jise ek mugal senapati ne samay par pahunkar bacha liya. atah akabar ne spasht roop se yah mahasoos kiya ki mugal samrajy ke nirikshan men dakkani riyasaton ki sammilit shakti yadi purtagaliyon ke khatare ko poori tarah samapt nahin bhi kar sakegi, to use kam avashy kar degi. inhin karakon ke karan akabar dakkani mamalon men lipt hone ko vivash hua.

barar, ahamadanagar aur khanadesh vijay

akabar ne poore desh par apane prabhutv ka dava kiya tha. atah vah chahata tha ki rajapooton ki bhanti dakkani riyasaten bhi usaki prabhutta ko svikar karen. usane pahale bhi kee doot is prayatn men dakkani riyasaton ko bheje the, ki ve usaki shakti ko svikar kar usase mitrata karen. lekin unaka apekshit parinam nahin nikala. yah spasht tha ki jab tak mugal un par sainik dabav n dalen, dakkani riyasaten mugal prabhutta ko svikar karane vali nahin thin.

chandabibi

1591 men akabar ne rajanayik akraman kiya. usane pratyek dakkani riyasat men doot bheje aur unase mugal prabhutta svikar karane ko kaha. jaisa ki asha ki jati thi, kisi riyasat ne is prabhav ko svikar nahin kiya. keval khanadesh hi isaka apavad raha. kyonki vah mugal samrajy ke ekadam nikat tha aur mugalon ka samana kar pane ki sthiti men nahin tha. ahamadanagar ke shasak burahan ne mugal doot ke sath achchha vyavahar nahin kiya, any riyasaton ne keval mitrata ke vayade kie. aisa pratit hota tha ki akabar dakkan ke mamale men koee nishchit qadam uthana chahata tha. 1595 men burahan ki mrityu ke bad chhide nijamashahi saradaron ke apasi sngharsh ne akabar ko avashyak avasar pradan kar diya. vahan alag-alag dalon dvara samarthit char log uttaradhikari ka dava kar rahe the. sabase mazaboot dava mritak shasak ke putr bahadur ka tha. bijapur ka shasak ibrahim adilashah dvitiy bhi usaka samarthan karana chahata tha. burahan ki bahan chandabibi ibrahim ke chacha aur bijapur ke bhootapoorv shasak ki vidhava thi. vah bahut yogy stri thi aur usane adilashah ke vayask hone tak das sal tak riyasat par shasan kiya. vah matamapurshi ke lie ahamadanagar aee thi aur vahan usane apane bhatije ke dave ka zoradar samarthan kiya. isi prishthabhoomi men virodhi dal ke saradaron (dakkaniyon) ne mugalon ko hastakshep ke lie amntrit kiya. isake bad jo sngharsh hua, vah vastav men ahamadanagar par prabhutv ke lie mugalon aur bijapur ke madhy sngharsh tha.

barar par prabhutv

mugal akraman ka netritv gujarat ke gavarnar mugal shahazada murad aur abdurrahim khan-e-khana ne kiya. khanadesh ke shasak ko sahayog karane ko kaha gaya ahamadanagar ke saradaron men apas men phoot hone ke karan rajadhani tak mugalon ko kam virodh ka samana karana pada. chandabibi ne tarun shasak bahadur ke sath svayn ko qile ke andar band kar liya. char mahinon ke ghere ke bad donon pakshon men samajhauta hua. is bich chandabibi ne bahut sahas ka parichay diya tha. samajhaute ke anusar barar mugalon ke prabhutv men a gaya aur shesh kshetr par bahadur ka dava man liya gaya. mugalon ka prabhutv bhi svikar kar liya gaya. yah samajhauta 1596 men hua.

ahamadanagar par par vijay

barar ke mugal samrajy men vilayan ne dakkan riyasaton ko savadhan kar diya. unhonne anubhav kiya ki barar ke mil jane se dakkan men mugalon ke pair jam jayenge aur ve kabhi bhi apane qadam age badha sakenge. yah bhay karanahin nahin tha. atah vah ahamadanagar ke paksh men ho gayin aur mugalon dvara barar ke vilayan men avarodh utpann karane lagin. shighr hi ek bijapuri senapati ke netritv men bijapur, golakunda aur ahamadanagar ki snyukt sena ne kafi badi snkhya men barar par akraman kar diya. 1597 men huee ek zabaradast ladaee men mugal sena ne tin guni dakkani sena ko parajit kar diya. bijapur aur golakunda ki senaen pichhe hat geen aur chandabibi sthiti ka samana karane ke lie akeli rah geen. halanki chandabibi 1596 ki sndhi ka palan karana chahati thi lekin vah mugalon ko pareshan karane ke lie apane saradaron ko akraman karane se rok nahin saki. isaka parinam yah hua ki mugalon ne ahamadanagar ke qile par dobara ghera dal diya. kahin se bhi koee madad n milane ke karan chandabibi ne mugalon se samajhaute ko batachit shuroo ki. lekin virodhi dalon ne us par droh ka arop lagakar usaki hatya kar di. is prakar dakkan ki rajaniti ke ek sarvadhik romanchak vyaktitv ka ant ho gaya. isake bad mugalon ne ahamadanagar par akraman karake us par vijay prapt kar li. tarun shasak bahadur ko gvaliyar ke qile bhej diya gaya. balaghat ko bhi samrajy men mila liya gaya aur ahamadanagar men mugal chhavani dal di gee. yah ghatana 1600 men ghati.

akabar ki samasyaen

ahamadanagar ki parajay aur nizamashah ke pakade jane se dakkan men akabar ki samasyaen samapt nahin ho geen. vahan koee aisa nizamashahi rajakumar ya saradar shesh nahin tha jisake pas paryapt samarthan ho aur jo akabar ke sath samajhaute ki batachit kar sake. sath hi mugal us samay n to ahamadanagar se age badhana chahate the aur n hi vah is sthiti men the ki riyasat ke shesh kshetron par qabza karane ka prayatn karen. mugal saradaron ki bhi apasi jhadapon se sthiti aur bhi bigad gee.

malava aur khanadesh

sthiti ka mauke par adhyayan karane ke lie akabar pahale malava aur phir khanadesh ki or badha. vahan use pata laga ki khanadesh ke naye shasak ne apani sima se hokar ahamadanagar jate hue shahazada daniyal ka uchit samman nahin kiya tha. akabar khanadesh men sthit asiragadh ke qile par bhi apana adhikar karana chahata tha kyonki vah dakkan ka sridridhatam qila mana jata tha. mazaboot ghere ke bad, jab rog phailane laga to khanadesh ka shasak bahar aya aur usane samarpan kar diya (1601) . khanadesh ko mugal samrajy men mila liya gaya.

daniyal ka vivah aur mutyu

asiragadh par akraman karane ke bad akabar shahazada salim ke vidroh se nipatane ke lie uttar ki laut aya. yadyapi khanadesh, barar, balaghat aur ahamadanagar ke qile par mugal adhipaty koee mamooli upalabdhi nahin thi, phir bhi mugalon ko apani sthiti abhi aur bhi mazaboot karani thi. akabar is bare men poori tarah se sajag tha ki bijapur se kisi samajhaute ke bina dakkan ki samasyaon ka koee sthayi hal nahin nikal sakata. atah usane ibrahim adilashah dvitiy ke pas use ashvast karane ke lie sndesh bheja. adilashah ne akabar ke sabase chhote putr shahazada daniyal se apani beti ke vivah ka prastav kiya. lekin shadi ke kuchh samay bad hi shahazada daniyal ki adhik madirapan ke karan mutyu ho gee (1602) . atah dakkan ki paristhiti aspasht rahi aur akabar ke uttaridhikari jahangir ko usase nipatana pada.

malik ambar ka uday

ahamadanagar ke patan aur mugalon dvara bahadur nizam shah ki giraphtari ke bad is bat ki poori sambhavana thi ki ahamadanagar riyasat ke tukade ho jate aur padosi riyasaten unhen hastagat kar letin, kintu malik ambar ke roop men ek yogy vyakti ke uday ki vajah se aisa nahin hua. malik ambar ek abisiniyaee tha aur usaka janm ithiyopiya men hua tha. usake prarambhik jivan ki vishesh janakari upalabdh nahin hai. aisa anuman hai ki usake nirdhan mata-pita ne use bagadad ke gulam-bazar men bech diya tha. bad men use kisi vyapari ne kharid liya aur use dakkan le aya, jahan ki samriddhi us kal men bahut logon ko akarshit karati thi. malik ambar ne murataza nizamashahi ke prabhavashali saradar chngez khan ke yahan kafi taraqqi ki thi. jab mugalon ne ahamadanagar par akraman kiya to malik ambar apana bhagy azamane ke lie bijapur chala gaya. lekin jaldi hi vah vapas a gaya aur chandabibi ke virodhi habshi[1] dal men sammilit ho gaya. ahamadanagar ke patan ke bad ambar ne ek nizamashahi shahajade ko dhoondh nikala aur bijapur ke shasak ki madad se use murataza nizamashah dvitiy ke nam se gaddi par baitha diya. vah svayn usaka peruba (snrakshak) ban gaya. peshava ka pad ahamadanagar ki riyasat men pahale se prachalit tha. maliq ambar ne kafi badi marathi sena ikatthi kar li. marathe tez gati vale the aur dushman ki rasad katane men kafi hoshiyar the. yah gurilla yuddh pranali dakkan ke marathon ke lie paramparagat thi, lekin mugal isase aparichit the. marathon ki sahayata se malik ambar ne mugalon ko barar, ahamadanagar, aur balaghat men apani sthiti sudridh karana kathin kar diya.

malik ambar aur khan-e-khana ki mitrata

us samay dakkan men mugalon ka senapati abdurrahim khan-e-khana tha, jo ek chalak aur hoshiyar rajanitigy tatha yogy sainik tha. usane 1601 men telngana ke nader namak sthan par malik ambar ko buri tarah parajit kiya. kintu usane malik ambar ke sath mitrata ka sambandh rakhane ka nirnay liya kyonki vah samajhata tha ki shesh nizamashahi kshetr men sthayitv rahana achchha hai. doosari or malik ambar ne bhi khan-e-khana ke sath mitrata karana behatar samajha kyonki isase use apane antarik virodhiyon se nipatane ka avasar mil sakata tha. kintu akabar ki mrityu ke bad mugal saradaron ke parasparik matabhed ke karan dakkan men mugalon ki sthiti kamazor ho jane se maliq ambar ne barar, balaghat aur ahamadanagar se mugalon ko khadedane ke lie zoradar akraman kiya. usake is prayatn men bijapur ke shasak ibrahim adilashah ne sahayata ki kyonki vah chahata tha ki ahamadanagar, bijapur aur mugalon ke bich nizamashahi rajy madhyavarti rajy bana rahe. usane malik ambar ko usake parivar men rahane, khazana ikattha karane aur bhojan samagri rakhane ke lie telaganna men knndhar ka shaktishali qila diya. usane usaki madad ke lie 10,000 ghudasavar bhi bheje jinaka vyay poora karane ke lie ek kshetr bhi surakshit kar liya gaya. is samajhaute ko malik ambar tatha bijapur ke ek pramukh ithiyopiyaee saradar ki beti ke vivah se aur bhi dridh banaya gaya. yah vivah 1609 men badi dhoom-dham se hua. adilashah ne vadhoo ko bahut dahej diya aur 80,000 rupaye keval atishabaji men kharch kie.

bijapur ki sahayata se shakti bal badhakar aur marathon ki sakriy sahayata se ambar ne shighr hi khan-e-khana ko burahanapur tak khaded diya. akabar dvara dakkan ke vijit pradesh is prakar 1610 tak chhin ge yadyapi jahangir ne shahazada paravez ko ek badi sena dekar dakkan bheja tha par vah malik ambar ki chunauti ka samana nahin kar saka. yahan tak ki ahamadanagar bhi chhin gaya aur shahazada paravez ko ambar ke sath apamanajanak samajhauta karana pada.

maliq ambar unnati karata raha. jab tak marathe tatha any dakkani tattv usaki sakriy sahayata karate rahe, mugal apana prabhutv punah sthapit nahin kar paye. lekin dhire-dhire malik ambar uddhat hokar gaya aur parinamatah usake mitr usase door ho gaye. abdurrahim khan-e-khana tab tak punah dakkan ka vayasaray niyukt ho chuka tha. usane is sthiti ka labh uthaya aur kee habshi saradaron tatha jagadev ray, babaji kate, udaji ram jaise kee maratha saradaron ko apani or mila liya. jahangir svayn marathon ke mahattv ke prati poori tarah se sajag tha. usane apani jivani men likha hai ki marathe "sakht jan hain aur mulk men virodh ka kendr hain." maratha saradaron ki madad se khan-e-khana ne 1616 men ahamadanagar, bijapur aur golakunda ki snyukt sena ko poori tarah parajit kiya. mugalon ne nizamashahi ki nayi rajadhani khiraki par adhikar kar liya aur vahan se jane se pahale pratyek imarat jala dali. is parajay ne mugalon ke viruddh dakkani bhaeechare ko hila diya. parantu malik ambar ne apane prayatnon men dhil nahin ane di.

jahangir ki niti

khan-e-khana ki vijay ko poorn karane ke lie jahangir ne apane putr shahazada khurram (bad men shahajahan) ke senapatitv men bahut badi sena bheji aur svayn sahayata pahunchane ke lie mandoo a gaya (1618). is khatare ko dekhate hue ambar ko samarpan karana pada. is sandarbh men yah mahattvapoorn hai ki sndhi men jahangir ne ambar dvara jite ge pradeshon tak apana dava nahin kiya. kuchh vidvanh isaka karan jahangir ki sainik kamazori manate hain. kintu vastavikata yah nahin hai. yah jahangir ki niti ke karan hua. spashtatah jahangir dakkan men mugal uttaradayitv ko badhana ya dakkan ke mamalon men bahut gaharaee se lipt hona nahin chahata tha aur phir use asha thi ki usaki udarata se dakkani riyasaton ko niahsnshay hone ka avasar milega aur ve mugalon ke sath mitratapoorvak rah sakengi. apani niti ke antargat hi jahangir ne bijapur ko apani or khinchane ka prayatn kiya. adilashah ko usane ek udar faraman bheja, jisamen jahangir ne use 'beta' kahakar sambodhit kiya tha.

mugalon ke hathon parajay

in parajayon ke bavajood malik ambar mugalon ke viruddh dakkani virodh ka netritv karata raha aur dakkan men shanti sthapit nahin ho paee. parantu do varsh pashchath hi dakkani senaon ki mugalon ke hathon gambhir parajay huee. ambar ko mugalon ke sab kshetr lautane pade aur usake pas ka 14 kos ka kshetr bhi dena pada. dakkani riyasaton ko pachas lakh rupaye harajane ke roop men bhi dene pade. in vijayon ka shrey shahazada kharram ko diya gaya.

ambar ka vijay abhiyan

pahali parajay ke tatkal bad is doosari parajay ne mugalon ke khilaf dakkani riyasaton ki ekata ko tod kar rakh diya. unamen purani shatrutaen phir se ubhar aeen. malik ambar ne sholapur ko punah prapt karane ke lie bijapur ke viruddh kee abhiyan chhede. sholapur dono riyasaton ke bich sngharsh ka karan tha. ambar drut gati se bijapur ki rajadhani pahuncha, ibrahim adilashah dvara banavayi nayi rajadhani naurasapur ko jala dala aur adilashah ko qile men sharan lene ko vivash kar diya, yah ambar ki shakti ki charam-sima thi.

yadyapi malik ambar men ullekhaniy sainik-kaushal, shakti aur ichchhashakti thi, kintu usaki upalabdhiyan bahut kam samay tak rah sakin kyonki mugalon ke sath vah milakar nahin rah saka ya vah aisa karana hi nahin chahata tha. ambar ke uday men sarvadhik mahattvapoorn bat yah thi ki isase dakkani kriyakalapon men marathon ke mahattv ko spasht roop se svikar kiya gaya. malik ambar ke netritv men saphalata ke bad marathon men itana atmavishvas utpann ho gaya ki kalantar men ve svatntr bhoomika ka nirman karane men samarth hue.

malik ambar ne bhoo-rajasv ki todaramal ki pranali ko lagoo karake nizamashahi riyasat ke prashasan men sudhar lane ka prayatn kiya. usane bhoomi ko theke (izara) par dene ki purani pratha ka samapt kar diya kyonki vah vah kisanon ke vinash ka karan nahin banati thi. isake sthan par usane zabti-pranali ko lagoo kiya.


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adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

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