मुग़ल काल 6  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।


rajapooton ke sath sambandh

rajapooton ke sath akabar ke sambandhon ko desh ke shaktishali rajaon aur jagiradaron ke prati mugal-niti ke vrihad prishthabhoomi men dekhana hoga. jab humayoon hindoostan lauta, to usane janaboojh kar in tatvon ko apani or milane ki niti apanayi. abul fajal kahata hai ki "zamindaron ko shant karane ke lie usane unase vaivahik sambandh sthapit kie." udaharan ke lie jab hindustan ke "bade zamindaron men se ek jamalakhan mevati ne humayoon ko samarpan kiya to humayoon ne usaki beti se svayn vivah kiya aur chhoti bahan ka vivah bairamakhan se kiya." bad men is niti ko akabar ne age badhaya.

vaivahik snbndh

amer ka shasak bharamal akabar ke rajy nirikshan ke ekadam bad agara ke darabar men upasthit hua tha. tarun shasak par usaka achchha prabhav pada tha. kyonki us samay ek pagal hathi ke bhay se log idhar-udhar bhag rahe the. kintu bharamal ke sainik dridhata se vahan khade rahe. 1562 men jab akabar ajamer ja raha tha to use pata laga ki sthaniy mugal gavarnar bharamal ko pareshan kar raha hai. bharamal svayn akabar se milane aya aur apani chhoti beti baee harka ka akabar vivah kar apani svamibhakti ko siddh kiya. (isi ko ajakal akabar ki patni jodha samajha jata hai jabaki 'jodha' jahangir ki patni ka nam tha.)

muslim shasakon aur hindoo adhipatiyon ki kanyaon ke madhy vivah asadharan bat nahin thi. chaudahavin aur pndrahavin shatabdi men hue is prakar ke anek vivahon ka ullekh pichhale adhyayon men kiya ja chuka hai. jodhapur ke shaktishali raja maladev ne apani ek ladaki baee kanaka ka vivah gujarat ke sultan mahamood ke sath kiya tha aur doosari ladaki lalabaee ka vivah soor-shasak sambhavatah islamashah soor ke sath kiya tha. inamen se adhikansh vivah sambandhit parivaron ke madhy sthayi vyaktigat sambandhon ko sthapit karane men saphal nahin hue. vivah ke pashchath ladakiyon ko aksar bhula diya jata tha aur ve vapas nahin ati thin. akabar ne doosari niti apanayi. usane apani hindoo patniyon ko poori dharmik svatntrata di aur unake pitaon aur sambandhiyon ko saradaron men sammananiy pad pradan kie. bharamal ko kafi ooncha pad prapt hua. usaka putr bhagavanadas panchahazari manasab tak pahuncha aur usaka pota manasinh sat hazari tak. akabar ne yah pad ke keval ek aur vyakti ko pradan kiya tha aur vah tha akabar ka dhay-bhaee azijakhan kooka. akabar ne kachhavaha shasakon ke sath apane vishesh sambandhon par any karanon se bhi bal diya. rajakumar dhanapal jab bachcha tha to use bharamal ki patniyon ke pas palane ke lie bhej diya gaya tha. 1572 men jab akabar ne gujarat par chadhaee ki to agara bharamal ke supurd chhoda gaya, jahan shahi parivar ki sab striyan thi. yah aisa samman tha jo ya to shasak ke sambandhi ya atyant vishvasaniy saradar ko hi diya jata tha.

parantu akabar ne vaivahik sambandhon ko shart ke taur par nahin rakha. ranathambhaur ke hadaon ke sath akabar ke vaivahik sambandh nahin the, phir bhi ve akabar ke kripa-patr the. rav sujain hada ko gadh-katnga ka shasan saunpa gaya tha aur usaka manasab 2,000 savaron ka tha. isi prakar sirohi aur bansavada ke shasakon ke sath bhi jinhonne bad men samarpan kiya tha.

mevad ka inkar

akabar ki rajapooton ke prati niti usaki vishal sahanashilata ki niti se jud gee. 1564 men usane jaziya hata diya jisaka prayog kabhi-kabhi ulma gair musalamanon ko nicha dikhane ke lie kiya karate the. usake pahale akabar ne tirth yatra-kar bhi samapt kara diya aur yuddh bandiyon ke zabaradasti dharm parivartan ki pratha ko bhi khatm kar diya. chittaud vijay ke pashchath adhikansh bade rajapoot shasakon ne akabar ke prabhutv ko svikar kar liya tha aur use ve vyaktigat roop se samman dete the. jaisalamer aur bikaner ke shasakon ne bhi akabar ke sath vaivahik snbndh sthapit kie. keval mevad hi aisi riyasat thi jisane mugal prabhutv ko manane se lagatar inkar kiya.

yadyapi chittaud aur usake as-pas ka ilaka mugal samrajy ke antargat a gaya tha tathapi udayapur aur pahadi ilaqe jo mevad ka adhikansh pradesh nirmit karate the rana ke shasan men rahe. 1572 men rana pratap rana udayasinh ki gaddi par baitha. akabar ne rana pratap ko mugal prabhutv svikar kar lene aur darabar men hazir hone ke lie usake pas anek doot bheje. ek bar rana manasinh bhi akabar ke doot banakar rana pratap ke pas gaya. rana ne unaka hardik svagat kiya. yah katha ki rana pratap ne rana manasinh ka apaman kiya tha, aitihasik tathy nahin hai aur yah rana ki charitrik visheshataon se mel bhi nahin khati. kyonki rana pratap sahasik tha aur apane virodhiyon se bhi shalinata se pesh ata tha. manasinh ke pashchath bhagavan das aur phir todaramal rana ke pas ge. aisa pratit hota hai ki rana pratap ne ek bar samajhaute ka nirnay kar liya tha. usane akabar dvara bheji gee poshak dharan ki aur apane putr rana amarasinh ko bhagavanadas ke sath akabar ke darabar men bhent dene aur sevaen arpit karane ke lie bheja. parantu unamen koee antim samajhauta nahin ho saka. kyonki svabhimani rana pratap akabar ki is mang ko manane ke lie taiyar nahin tha ki vah svayn bhent ke lie upasthit ho. aisa bhi pratit hota hai ki mugal chittaud ko apane adhikar men rakhana chahate the aur yah rana pratap ko yah mnzoor nahin tha.

haldi ghati

1576 ke prarambh men akabar ajamer ki or gaya aur panch hazar sipahiyon ki sena ke sath manasinh ko rana ke viruddh abhiyan ke lie bheja. akabar ki is yojana ka poorvabhas karate hue rana ne chittaud tak ke pradesh ko nasht bhrasht karava diya tha ki mugal senaon ko bhojan aur chara n mil sake. usane pahadi darron men nakebndi bhi kar li thi. kumbhalagadh ke raste men padane vali ek patali bhoopatti haldighati men donon pakshon ke bich bhaynkar ladaee huee. kumbhalagadh us samay rana ki rajadhani tha. chuni huee rajapoot senaon ke sath hakim khan soor ke netritv men ek afagan fauji tukadi rana pratap ke sath thi. atah haldi ghat ki ladaee hindoo aur musalamanon ke bich athava bharatiyon aur videshiyon ke bich ka sngharsh nahin tha. bhilon ki ek chhoti-si sena bhi rana ke sath thi. bhil rana ke mitr the. anuman kiya jata hai ki sena men 3,000 sainik the.

rajapooton aur afaganon ke akramanon ne mugal sena ko titar-bitar kar diya. parantu akabar ke svayn vahan pahunchane ki aphavahon ko sunakar mugal sena phir ekatr ho gee. nayi mugal kumuk ke ane se rajapooton ka palada halka padane laga. yah dekhakar rana vahan se bachakar nikal gaya. mugal sena itani thak chuki thi ki usane rana ka pichha nahin kiya. parantu kuchh samay pashchath vah darre se age badi aur gogunda par adhikar kar liya. gogunda sainik drishti se mahattvapoorn sthan tha. jise rana ne mugal sena ke ane se pahale hi khali kar diya tha.

yah akhiri avasar tha jabaki rana aur mugalon ke bich sngharsh hua . isake bad rana pratap ne chhapamar yuddh ki niti apanaee. haldi ghati ki ladaee men parajay se svatntrata ke lie sngharsh karane ki rana pratap ki pratigya men kami nahin aee parantu vah jis uddeshy ke lad raha tha, vah pahale hi samapt ho chuka tha. kyonki adhikansh rajapoot riyasaton ne mugal prabhutta svikar kar li thi. rajapoot rajaon ko samrajy ki sena men lene aur unake sath mugal saradaron ke samakaksh vyavahar karane, praja ke prati vishal dharmik sahishnuta tatha apane bhootapoorv virodhiyon ke sath shalinata ka vyavahar karane ki niti se akabar ne rajapoot shasakon ke sath apane sambandhon ko mazaboot kiya tha. isilie mugalon ke samaksh jhukane se rana ke inkar ka prabhav any rajapoot riyasaton par bahut kam hua. jinhonne is bat ka abhas pa liya tha ki vartaman paristhitiyan chhoti-chhoti riyasaton ke lie sampoorn svatntrata banaye rakhane ka prayatn adhik samay tak saphal nahin ho sakata. isake atirikt akabar ne rajapoot ranaon ko paryapt sima tak antarik svayattata pradan ki. is prakar akabar ke samrajy sthapit karane men rajapoot rajaon ko apane svarthon ki hani hone ki koee snbhavana nahin thi.

rana pratap dvara any rajapoot riyasaton ki sahayata ke bina akele hi shaktishali mugal samrajy ka virodh, rajapooti virata aur siddhanton ke lie balidan dene ki gaurav gatha hai. rana pratap ne chhapamar yuddh ki paddhati ke sath bhi saphal prayog kiya. kalantar men dakshini senapati malik ambar aur shivaji ne chhapamar yuddh paddhati ko vikasit kiya.

kuchh samay tak akabar rana pratap par dabav dalata raha. mugalon ne mevad ki mitr aur ashrit riyasaton doongarapur, bansavada, sirohi, ityadi ko raund dala. akabar ne in riyasaton ke sath prithakh sndhiyan kin aur is prakar mevad ko aur bhi akela kar diya. rana jngal-jngal aur ghati-ghati ghoomata raha. kumbhalagadh aur udayapur donon par mugalon ka adhikar ho gaya. rana ko bahut kathinaiyan jhelani padin, parantu bhilon ki sahayata ke karan vah nirantar virodh karata raha. 1579 men bihar aur bngal men akabar dvara kie ge kuchh sudharon ki pratikriya ke phalasvaroop jabaradast vidroh ho pane ke karan rana par mugal dabav kam kar diya gaya. avyavastha ke is daur men akabar ke sautele bhaee mirja hakim ne avasar ka labh uthane ke lie pnjab par akraman kar diya. is prakar akabar ko gnbhir antarik khatare ka samana karana pada. 1585 men uttar pashchim ki gnbhir ho rahi sthiti ka adhyayan karane ke lie akabar lahaur gaya. vah barah varsh tak vahan raha. 1585 ke bad rana pratap ke viruddh koee abhiyan nahin chheda gaya.

is sthiti ka fayada uthakar rana pratap ne kumbhalagadh aur chittaud ke as-pas ke anek ilakon sahit bahut-sa bhag punah jit liya parantu vah chittaud ko punah prapt nahin kar saka. is dauran usane adhunik doongarapur ke nikat chavnd men nee rajadhani sthapit ki. 1597 men 51 varsh ki ayu men ek sakht dhanush ki pratyncha chadhate samay andarooni chot lag jane ke karan usaki mrityu ho gee.

mevad ke atirikt maravad ke virodh ka samana bhi akabar ko karana pada. maladev ki mrityu (1562) ke pashchath usake putron men uttaradhikar ke lie vivad hua. maladev ki sarvapriy rani se utpann sabase chhota putr chandrasen gaddi par baitha. mugalon ke dabav ke karan use riyasat ka kuchh bhag apane bade bhaiyon ko jagir ke roop men dena pada. kintu chandrasen ko yah vyavastha pasand nahin aee aur kuchh samay pashchath hi usane vidroh kar diya. ab akabar ne maravad ko sidhe mugal prashasan men le liya. isaka ek karan yah tha ki akabar gujarat ke lie jodhapur se hokar jane vale rasad-marg ko surakshit rakhana chahata tha. vijay ke pashchath akabar ne jodhapur men rayasinh bikaneri ko niyukt kar diya. chandrasen ne virata poorvak muqabala kiya aur gurilla yuddh chhed diya. lekin jaldi hi use mevad men sharan leni padi. vahan bhi mugalon ne usaka pichha nahin chhoda aur vah idhar-udhar chhipata raha. 1581 men usaki mrityu ho gee. do varsh pashchath akabar ne chandrasen ke bade bhaee udayasinh ko jodhapur bhej diya. apani sthiti mazaboot karane ke lie udayasinh ne apani ladaki jagath gosaeen ya jodhabaee (jis nam se use jana jata hai) ka vivah akabar ke bade ladake salim ke sath kar diya. jagath gosaeen ka dola nahin bheja gaya tha, balki var raja ke ghar barat lekar gaya tha aur vivah men anek hindoo ritiyan ki geen. yah kary akabar ke lahaur-pravas ke samay hua tha.

bikaner aur boondi ke shasakon ke sath bhi akabar ke nazadiki vyaktigat sambandh the. in shasakon ne anek abhiyanon men viratapoorvak bhag liya tha. 1593 men jab biqaner ke rayasinh ka damad palaki se girane ke karan mar gaya to akabar svayn matamapursi ke lie usake ghar gaya aur usaki ladaki ko sati hone se roka kyonki usake bachche bahut chhote the.

akabar ki rajapoot niti mugal shasan aur rajapoot donon ke lie labhadayak siddh huee. is mitrata ne mugal samrajy ki seva ke lie bharat ke shreshthatam viron ki sevayen upalabdh karayin. samrajy ko mazaboot karane aur usaka vistar karane men rajapooton ki dridh svami bhakti ek mahattvapoorn karak siddh huee. is mitrata se rajasthan men shanti bani rahi jisase rajapoot apani riyasaton ki suraksha ke prati nishchint hokar door ke ilakon men samrajy ki seva men lin rah sakate the. shahi sevaon men sammilit rahane ke karan samrajy ke mahattvapoorn pad rajapoot rajaon ke lie khule the. udaharanatayah amer ke bhagavanadas ko lahaur ka snyukt gavarnar banaya gaya jabaki usaka putr manasinh qabul men niyukt hua. kalantar men manasinh bihar aur bngal ka gavarnar bana. any rajapoot rajaon ko agara, ajamer aur gujarat jaise sainik drishti se mahattvapoorn sthanon ka sarvochch adhikari niyukt kiya gaya. amrajy ke saradar hone ke nate unhen vnshagat rajyon ke sath-sath jigiren bhi pradan ki gayin jisase unaki ay ke sraton men vriddhi huee.

akabar ki rajapoot niti ka anusaran usake uttaradhikariyon jahangir aur shahajahan ne bhi kiya. jahangir ek rajapoot rajakumari ka putr tha aur usane svayn bhi ek kachhavaha rajakumari aur ek jodhapur ki rajakumari se vivah kiya. jaisalamer aur bikaner ki rajakumariyon ke sath bhi usaka vivah hua. jahangir ne in riyasaton ke shasakon ko uchchatam samman diya.

jahangir ki mukhy upalabdhi lambe samay se chale a rahe mevad ke jhagade ko samapt karana thi. amarasinh rana pratap ki gaddi par baith chuka tha. akabar ne amarasinh se apani sharten manavane ke lie usake viruddh abhiyan bheje the. jahangir ko bhi do bar us par akraman karane bheja gaya tha kintu use bahut kam saphalata mili thi. 1605 men gaddi par baithane ke pashchath jahangir ne is vishay men utsahapoorvak kary kiya. lagatar tin akraman kiye gaye kintu rana ke sahas ko toda nahin ja saka. 1613 men jahangir svayn abhiyan ka netritv karane ke lie ajamer pahuncha. rajakumar khurram (bad men shahajahan) ko ek badi sena dekar mevad ke pahadi ilakon par akraman karane ke lie bheja gaya. mugal sena ke bhari dabav, ilake ki virani aur kheti ke vinash ne antatah apana prabhav dala. bahut se saradar mugalon ke paksh men ho ge aur anek doosare saradaron ne samajhaute ke lie rana par dabav dala. rana ke putr karanasinh, jise jahangir ke darabar men bheja gaya tha, ka shanadar svagat hua. jahangir ne apani gaddi se uthakar use apani banhon men bhar liya aur use anek upahar die. rana ke man ko rakhane ke lie jahangir ne usake svayn upasthit hone par bal nahin diya aur n hi use shahi seva men ane ko badhy kiya gaya. yuvaraj karan ko panchahazari ka pad diya gaya. yah pad pahale jodhapur, bikaner aur amer ke rajaon ko diya gaya tha. karan sinh ko 1500 savaron ki tukadi ke sath mugal samrat ki seva men rahane ko kaha gaya. chittaud sahit mevad ka sara pradesh rana ko lauta diya gaya. parantu chittaud ke sainik mahattv ko dekhate hue yah samajhauta hua ki usaki marammat nahin karayi jaegi. is prakar akabar dvara prarambh kary jahangir ne poora kiya aur rajapooton ke sath mitrata ko aur mazaboot kiya.

vidroh tatha mugal samrajy ka aur adhik vistar

akabar dvara prashasan vyavastha men nayi pranali lagoo karane ka arth tha prashasan mashinari men sudhar lana, saradaron par adhik niyntran aur samany janata ke adhik hiton ki raksha tha. isalie ye bahut se saradaron ko pasand nahin aee. kshetriy svatntrata ki bhavanaen abhi bhi bahut se logon men vidyaman thi. gujarat, bngal aur bihar jaise sthanon par yah aur bhi adhik thi, jahan svatntr rajyon ki sthapana ki lambi parampara thi. rajasthan men rana pratap ka svadhinata ke sngharsh jari tha. in paristhitiyon men akabar ko vidrohon ki ek shrinkhala ka samana karana pada. purane rajavnsh ke uttaradhikariyon dvara rajy ko punah hastagat karane ke prayatnon ke karan gujarat men do varsh tak ashanti rahi. sabase gnbhir vidroh bngal aur bihar men hua, jo jaunapur tak phail gaya. isaka pramukh karan jagiradaron ke ghodon ko dagane ki pranali thi aur unake amadani ka kadaee se hisab rakhana tha. is narazagi ko dharmik pandon ne aur bhi badha diya. kyonki ve akabar ke udar vicharon se tatha us zamin ko vapas lene ki niti se pareshan the, jo unhonne qabhi gair-qanooni tariqon se hathiya li thi, aur ve us par kar ityadi nahin dete the. akabar ke sautele bhaee mirza haqim ne bhi is vidroh ko is ummid men bhadakaya ki vah uchit avasar par pnjab par akraman kar sakega. mirza haqim us samay qabul ka shasak tha. poorvi pradeshon ke afagan bhi vidroh men shamil hone ke lie hamesha se taiyar the kyonki ve pathan shakti ki parajay se dukhi the.

in vidrohon ne samrajy ka do varshon (1580-81) tak ulajhaye rakha, aur akabar ko bahut kathin aur nazuk paristhitiyon ka samana karana pada. sthaniy adhikariyon dvara sthiti ko galat dhng se sambhalane ke karan bngal aur lagabhag sara bihar vidrohiyon ke hathon men chala gaya, jinhonne mirza haqim ko apana shasak ghoshit kar diya. unhonne kisi ulma se ek fatava bhi le liya jisamen khuda ke bandon se akabar ke khilaf ladane ke lie kaha gaya tha.

akabar isase ghabaraya nahin. usane todaramal ke adhin ek fauj bihar aur bngal bhej di aur doosari raja manasinh adhin mirza haqim ke sambhavit akraman ko rokane ke lie pashchim ki or ravana kar di. todaramal sahas aur chaturaee se age badha aur mirza haqim ke akraman se pahale hi usane sthiti par qaboo pa liya. mirza haqim 15,000 ghudasavar lekar lahaur ki taraf badha kintu raja manasinh aur bhagavanadas dvara ki gee kadi suraksha ke karan vah nagar par adhikar nahin kar saka. mirza hakim ki is ummid par bhi pani phir gaya ki pnjab ke bahut se saradar usake sath vidroh men shamil ho jayege. isi bich 50,000 anushasit ghudasavaron ki sena lekar akabar lahaur pahunch gaya, jisase mirza haqim ke samane jaldi se lautane ke atirikt aur koee rasta nahin bacha.

akabar ne is saphalata ko yahin tak simit nahin rakha. vah qabul ki or badha (1581). yah pahala avasar tha jabaki kisi bharatiy shasak ne is aitihasik nagar men qadam rakha. kyonki mirza ham ne akabar ki prabhutta svikar karane ya usake samane upasthit hokar svamibhakti pradarshit karane se inkar kar diya aur bharatiy saradar aur sainik lautane ke lie utabale ho rahe the. akabar ne qabul ka shasan apani bahan ko saunp diya aur bharat laut aya. ek mahila ke hath men shasanabhar saunpana akabar ki udarata aur khule dil se sochane ka pratik hai. virodhiyon par vijay akabar ki vyaktigat vijay hi nahin thi, balki isase yah bhi pradarshit hota hai ki ek nee pranali ne apani jaden zamana shuroo kar diya hai. akabar ab samrajy ke aur vistar ke lie soch sakata tha. vah dakshin ki or badha jisamen usaki ruchi kafi samay se thi. lekin isase pahale ki vah kuchh kar pata uttar-pashchim ki or usaka dhyan phir bnt gaya. mugalon ka paramparagat shatru abdulla khan uzabek madhy eshiya men shakti ekatr kar raha tha. 1584 men usane badakhshan par akraman kar diya jis par taimooron ka shasan tha. lagata tha ki usake bad qabul ki bari hai. mirza hakim aur badakhshan se khadede ge taimoor rajakumaron ne akabar se sahayata ki prarthana ki lekin isase pahale ki vah kuchh kar sake mirza hakim adhik sharab pine ke karan qabul ko avyavasthit chhodakar mar gaya.

ab akabar ne manasinh ko qabul par akraman karane ka adesh diya aur svayn vah sindhu nadi ki or badha. uzabekon ke sabhi raste bnd karane ke khayal se usane kashmir (1586) men aur baloochistan ki or bhi sena bheji. laddakh aur baltistan (jise tibbat khurd aur tibbat buzurg kaha jata hai) sahit sara kashmir mugalon ke havale ho gaya. baltistan ke shasak ki ladaki ka vivah bhi salim ke sath ho gaya. khaibar darra ko mukt karane ke lie bhi akraman kiya gaya jis par vidrohi qabiliyon ne adhikar kar rakha tha. inake viruddh ek akraman men akabar ka priy raja birabal mara gaya. parantu dhire-dhire afagan vidrohi samarpan karane ko vivash ho ge.

akabar ke do pramukh yogadan uttar-pashchim ko sudridh karana aur samrajyaki tarkapoorn sima rekha ka nirman the. udisa par us samay afagan saradaron ka rajy tha. use bngal ke tatkalin gavarnar raja manasinh ne jita. manasinh ne koochabihar aur dhaka sahit poorvi bngal ke bahut se hisse jite. akabar ke dhay putr mirza azij koka ne pashchim men kathiyavad ko vijit kiya. khan-e-khanan munimakhan ko rajakumar murad ke sath dakshin ki or bheja gaya. dakshin ki ghatanaon ka varnan ek alag adhyay men kiya jaega. yahan itana kahana paryapt hai ki ant tak mugal samrajy ahamadanagar tak phail gaya tha jisase mugalon ka marathon se pahali bar sidha sampark hua. is prakar shatabdi ke ant tak uttar bharat ko rajanitik ekata ke sootr men piroya ja chuka tha aur mugalon ne dakshin men apana abhiyan shuroo kar diya tha. lekin isase bhi adhik mahattvapoorn bat is vishal samrajy men panapi aur vah thi sanskritik aur bhavatmak ekata.

ekata ki or

pandrahavin shatabdi men desh ke vibhann bhagon men anek shasakon ne gair-sampradayik aur dharmik snskrit sahity ka farasi men anuvad kara ke, sthaniy bhashaon ke sahity ko snrakshan dekar, dharmik sahishnuta ki adhik udar niti apana kar aur darabar tatha sena men hinduon ko mahattvapoorn pad dekar hinduon aur musalamanon men parasparik samajh paida karane ki koshish ki. ham yah bhi dekh chuke hain ki kis prakar chaitany, kabir aur nanak jaise santon ne desh ke vibhinn bhagon men islam aur hindoo dharm ke bich anivary ekata par bal diya aur dharmik pustakon ke shabdik arthon ki bajay prem tatha bhakti par adharit dharm par bal diya. is prakar unhonne aisa vatavaran taiyar kiya jisamen udar bhavanaen aur vichar panap sakate tatha jisamen dharmik anudarata ko achchha nahin samajha jata tha. isi vatavaran men akabar ka janm aur palan-poshan hua.

gaddi par baithane ke bad akabar ka pahala kam jaziya ko samapt karana tha. islami rajyon men gair musalamanon ko jaziya dena padata tha. halanki yah kar bhari nahin tha phir bhi is napasnd kiya jata tha. kyonki isase praja men bhed kiya jata tha. isake sath hi akabar ne prayag aur banaras jaise tirth sthanon par snan karane ka kar bhi samapt kar diya. usane yuddh bandiyon ke zabaradasti dharm parivartan ki pratha ko samapt kar diya. in karyon ne aise samrajy ki adharashila rakhi jo bina kisi dharmik bhed-bhav ke sabhi nagarikon ke saman adhikaron par adharit tha.
anek hinduon ko samant bana lene se samrajy ke udar siddhant aur bhi dridh ho ge. inamen se adhikansh rajapoot raja the jinamen se bahut se akabar ke sath vaivahik snmbandhon se bndh gaye aur akabar ne jinake sath vyaktigat sambandh sthapit kiye. aur bhi bahut se logon ko unaki yogyata ke anusar manasab diye gaye. is doosare varg men yogyatam aur prasiddhatam vyakti todaramal aur birabal the. todaramal rajasv ke mamalon ka visheshgy tha jisane unnati karake divan ka pad prapt kiya tha. birabal akabar ka vishesh kripapatr tha.

apani hindoo praja ke prati akabar ka drishtikon is vichar se juda hua tha ki apani praja ke prati shasak ka kya vyavahar hona chahie. yah drishtikon prabhutta sambandhi taimoori, irani aur bharatiy vicharon ka ekikaran tha. akabar ke jivanikar abulafajal ne inaki bahut saf tariqe se vivechana ki hai. usake anusar ek sachche shasak ka pad bahut mahattvapoorn hai. yah ek aisa pad hai jo devi kartavy (farje-e-ilahi) par nirbhar hai. atah eeshvar aur ek sachche shasak ke bich aur koee nahin hai. ek sachche shasak ki pahachan praja ke prati bina kisi varg aur jati ke bhedabhav ke usake pitravath vyavahar, chhote aur bade ki ichchhaon ki poorti karane ke lie vishal hriday, tatha eeshvar jise vastavik raja mana gaya hai, ki prarthana aur bhakti tatha usamen roz-b-roz badhate vishvas se hoti hai. shasak ka yah kartavy bhi hai ki vah ek pad athava vyavasay ke logon ke doosare varg aur vyavasay ke logon ke karyon men hastakshep ko rok kar samaj men sntulan banaye rakhe. in sabako milakar hi sulah-kul athava sabake lie shanti ki niti bani.

akabar prarambh se hi dharm aur darshan men gahari ruchi rakhata tha. shuroo men akabar paramparavadi musalaman tha. vah rajy ke pramukh qazi abdulanavi khan ka bahut adar karata tha. abdulanabi us samay sadar-ush-sadoor tha aur akabar ne ek avasar par usaki jootiyan bhi uthaee thin. lekin jab akabar vayask hua to desh bhar men phailae ja rahe rahasyavad ne use prabhavit karana shuroo kiya. kaha jata hai ki vah poori-poori rat allah ka nam leta hua usake vicharon men khoya rahata tha aur apani saphalataon ke lie usaka shukriya ada karane ke lie vah kee bar subah-subah agara men apane mahal ke samane ek purani imarat ke ek sapat patthar par baith kar prarthana aur dhyan men kho jata tha. dhire-dhire vah dharm ke paramparavadi roop se vimukh ho gaya. jaziya aur tirthayatra kar usane pahale hi hata diya tha. isaka snket ham kar chuke hain. usane apane darabar men udar vicharon vale vidvanon ko ekatr kiya. inamen se sarvadhik ullekhaniy abulafazal aur usaka bhaee faizi aur unake pita hain. mahadavi vicharon ke sath sahanubhooti rakhane ke karan mullaon ne inhen bahut pareshan kiya tha. ek any mahattvapoorn vyakti maheshadas namak brahman hai jise raja birabal ki padavi di gee thi aur jo hamesha akabar ke sath rahata tha.

1575 men akabar ne apani nee rajadhani fatehapur sikari men ibadatakhana arthat prarthana bhavan banavaya. usane yahan vishesh dharm guruon, rahasyavadiyon aur apane darabar ke prasiddh vidvanon ko amatrit kiya. akabar ne unake sath dharmik aur adhyatmik vishayon par charcha ki. usane bar-bar kaha "o buddhiman mullaon! mera ekamatr lakshy saty ki pahachan, vastavik dharm ke siddhanton ki khoj aur unako prakash men lana hai." yah charcha pahale keval musalamanon tak simit rahi. parantu yah niyamit nahin thi. mullaon ne apas men jhagada kiya. ek-doosare par chillae aur yahan tak ki akabar ki upasthiti men hi ek-doosare ko gali di. mullaon ke vyavahar, unake ahnkar aur dambh ne akabar ko khij se bhar diya. parinamatah vah mullaon se aur bhi door ho gaya. tab akabar ne ibadatakhana sab dharmon – eesaee, zarathushtravadi, hindoo, jain aur yahan tak ki nastikon ke lie bhi khol diya. isase charchaen aur adhik vishay par shuroo hueen aur yahan tak ki un vishayon par bhi charchaen hueen jin par sab musalaman ek the. jaise ki quran antim devi pustak hai aur muhammad isake paigambar hain, punarjanm, eeshvar ki prakriti adi. isase dharm guru bhayabhit ho gaye aur akabar dvara islam tyagane ki ichchha ki afavahen failane lage. ek adhunik lekhak ka vichar hai ki 'akabar ke dhairy aur khule vicharon ki alag dharmon ke logon ne alag-alag vyakhya ki. ibadatakhane se use shrey ke sthan par badanami hi adhik mili.'


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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