शिया  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

shiya muslimon ka ek pradhan snpraday hai, jo sunniyon ke virodhi hain. yah hajarat ali ko paignbar manate hain. mohammad sahab ke pichhe ke char khalifa yah nahin manate. yah ali ke beton hasan aur husain ko manate hain.[1] shabd arabi shabd ‘shi’, bahuvachan shiya, yani islam ki do pramukh shakhao men se chhoti shakha ke sadasy; jo bahusnkhyak sunniyon se bhinn hain. arnbhik islami itihas men shiya, muhammad ke damad tatha chauthe khalifa (sansarik tatha adhyatmik shasak) ali ki satta ka samarthan karane vala ek rajanitik gut[2] hua karata tha.

dharmik andolan

khalifa ke rup men apani satta qayam rakhane ka prayas karate hue ali mare ge aur shiyaon ne dhire-dhire ek dharmik andolan khada kar diya, jo ali ke vnshajon 'laviyon' ki vaidhanik satta par zor deta tha. yah ravaiya adhik vyavaharik sunni bahusnkhyakon ke ravaiye ke viparit tha, jo aise kisi bhi khalifa ya khalifa vnsh ka netritv svikar karane ko taiyar the, jisake shasan men dharm ka thik tarah se palan kiya ja sake tatha muslim vishv men vyavastha qayam rakhi ja sake.

sadiyon tak shiya andolan ne samooche sunni islam ko gnbhir rup se prabhavit kiya hai aur 20vin sadi ke antim vashon men isake anuyayi lagabhag 6 se 8 karod, yani tamam islam dharmavalnbiyon ka 10van hissa the. shiya ka snpraday[3] eeran, iraq aur snbhavat: yaman (sana) men bahumat ka pnth hai aur isake anuyayi siriya, lebanan poorvi aphrika, bharat tatha pakistan men bhi hai.

656 men ali ko kee any logon ke alava tisare khalifa usman ke hatyaro ke samarthan se khalifa banaya gaya tha. lekin ali ko sabhi muslimon ka kabhi samarthan nahin mila aur isalie satta men bane rahane ke lie unhen lagatar asaphal yuddh karane pade. 661 men ali ki hatya kar di gee aur unake mukhy virodhi muaviya khalifa ban ge. bad men ali ke putr husain ne muaviya ke putr aur khalifa pad ke uttaradhikari yazid ko manyata dene se inakar kar diya. ali ki poorv rajadhani, iraq ke shiya bahul nagar kufa ke muslimon ne husain ko khalifa banane ke lie amntrit kiya. lekin iraq men am muslim husain ko samarthan nahin de sake aur vah tatha unake samarthakon ka chhota-sa samooh iraq ke prashasak ke sipahiyon ke hathon kufa ke nikat karbala ki ladaee men mare ge.[4] yah sthan aj shiyaon ka tirthasthal hai.

vijayi umayya shasan ke khilafa badala lene ki kasam khae kufavasiyon ko shighri hi any samoohon se samarthan prapt hua, jo yathasthiti ka virodh karate the. iname madina ke kulin muslim parivar, islam ki zyada duniyavi vyakhya ka virodh karane vale rdhamaparayan log aur khasakar iraq ke gair arab muslimon[5] shamil the, jo sattadhari arabon se samanata ki mang kar rahe the. samay ke sath shiya aise snpradayon ka samooh ban ge, jinamen ek samanata thi ki ve sab ali aur unake vnshajo ko muslim samuday ka vaidhanik neta manate the. shiyaon ka yah dridh mat ki alidon ko hi islami vishv ka neta hona chahie, in sadiyon men kabhi sakar nahin ho saka. halanki alidon ne kabhi satta nahin paee, lekin ali ko sunni islam ke ek pramukh nayak ke rup men manyata mili aur muhammad ki putri fatima se hue unake vnshajon ko saiyad v sharif ki sammanajanak upadhiyan di gee.

sabase bada shiya snpraday

isna ashariya ya 12 imamo ko manane vala sabase bada shiya snpraday hai, jisake sadasy nirntar ek ke bad ek 12 uttaradhikariyon[6] ki vaidhanikata ko svikar karate hai, jo imam kahalate hain. any chhote shiya snpradayon men ismaeeli aur zayadiya shamil hai.

shiyao ke yada-kada shasak hone ke bavajood 16vin sadi ke arnbh tak shiya lagabhag sabhi jagah islami alpasnkhyak rahe, jab eerani safavi rajavnsh ne ise apane is samrajy ka ekamatr vaidh dharm ghoshit kar diya, tab eeran ke farasi, ajarabaijan ke turk aur iraq ke kee arabo ne ise apanaya. tabhi se in logon men isna ashariya ki bahulata rahi hai aur unhonne is snpraday ko jivntata pradan ki hai. 20vin sadi ke antim charanon men mukhyatah eeran men shiya ugravadi islami kattaratavad ka pramukh svar ban ge.


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adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. pauranik kosh |lekhak: rana prasad sharma |prakashak: gyanamandal limited, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 563, parishisht 'gh' |
  2. shiat ali, arthat ali ka dal
  3. arabi: shiya ya shi
  4. 608
  5. mavali
  6. jiname pratham svayn ali hai

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