वीसलदेव रासो  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

visaladev pashchimi rajasthan ke raja the. visaladev raso ki rachana tithi sn. 1400 vi. ke asapas ki hai. isake rachayita narapati nalh hain. rachana viragiton ke rup men upalabdh hai. isamen visaladev ke jivan ke 12 varshon ke kalakhand ka varnan kiya gaya hai. viragit ke roop men sabase purani pustak 'bisaladev raso' milati hai.

yadyapi visaladev raso men samayanusar bhasha ke parivartan ka abhas milata hai. jo rachana kee sau varshon se logon men barabar gaee jati rahi ho, usaki bhasha apane mool roop men nahin rah sakati. isaka pratyaksh udaharan 'alha' hai jisako gane vale pray: samast uttari bharat men pae jate hain. viragatha kal ke grnth, jinaki ya to pratiyan milati hain ya kahin ullekh matr paya jata hai. yah grnth 'raso' kahalate hain. kuchh log is shabd ka snbndh 'rahasy' se batalate hain. par 'bisaladev raso' men kavy ke arth men 'rasayan' shabd bar-bar aya hai. at: 'rasayan' shabd se hote-hote 'raso' ho gaya hai.[1]

shri ramachandr shukl ke anusar

shri ramachandr shukl ne 'hindi sahity ka itihas' men likha hai - 'bisaladev raso narapati nalh kavi vigraharaj chaturth upanam bisaladev ka samakalin tha. kadachit yah rajakavi tha. isane 'bisaladevaraso' namak ek chhota-sa (100 prishthon ka) grnth likha hai jo viragit ke roop men hai. grnth men nirmanakal yon diya hai -

barah sai bahottaran majhari. jethabadi navami budhavari.
'nalh' rasayan arnbhi. sharada tuthi brahmakumari

'barah sai bahottaran' ka spasht arth 1212 hai. 'bahottar shabd, 'barahottar', 'dvadashottar' ka roopantar hai. at: 'barah sai bahottaran' ka arth 'dvadashottar barah sai' arthat 1212 hoga. ganana karane par vikram snvat 1212 men jyeshth badi navami ko budhavar hi padata hai. kavi ne apane raso men sarvatr vartaman kal ka hi prayog kiya hai jisase vah bisaladev ka samakalin jan padata hai. vigraharaj chaturth[2] ka samay bhi 1220 ke asapas hai. usake shilalekh bhi snvat 1210 aur 1220 ke prapt hain. bisaladev raso men char khnd hai. yah kavy lagabhag 2000 charanon men samapt hua hai. isaki katha ka sar yon hai -

  1. khnd 1 - malava ke bhoj paramar ki putri rajamati se sanbhar ke bisaladev ka vivah hona.
  2. khnd 2 - bisaladev ka rajamati se roothakar udisa ki or prasthan karana tatha vahan ek varsh rahana.
  3. khnd 3 - rajamati ka virah varnan tatha bisaladev ka udisa se lautana.
  4. khnd 4 - bhoj ka apani putri ko apane ghar liva le jana tatha bisaladev ka vahan jakar rajamati ko phir chittaud lana.

die hue snvat ke vichar se kavi apane nayak ka samasamayik jan padata hai. par varnit ghatanaen, vichar karane par, bisaladev ke bahut pichhe ki likhi jan padati hain, jabaki unake snbndh men kalpana ki gunjaish huee hogi. yah ghatanatmak kavy nahin hai, varnanatmak hai. isamen do hi ghatanaen hain- bisaladev ka vivah aur unaka udisa jana. inamen se pahali bat to kalpanaprasoot pratit hoti hai. bisaladev se sau varsh pahale hi dhar ke prasiddh paramar raja bhoj ka dehant ho chuka tha. at: unaki kanya ke sath bisaladev ka vivah kisi pichhe ke kavi ki kalpana hi pratit hoti hai. us samay malava men bhoj nam ka koee raja nahin tha. bisaladev ki ek paramar vnsh ki rani thi, yah bat parnpara se avashy prasiddh chali ati thi, kyonki isaka ullekh prithviraj raso men bhi hai. isi bat ko lekar pustak men bhoj ka nam rakha hua jan padata hai. athava yah ho sakata hai ki dhar ke paramaron ki upadhi hi bhoj rahi ho aur us adhar par kavi ne usaka yah keval upadhi soochak nam hi diya ho, asali nam n diya ho. kadachit inhin men se kisi ki kanya ke sath bisaladev ka vivah hua ho. paramar kanya ke snbndh men kee sthanon par jo vaky ae hain, un par dhyan dene se yah sidhdant pusht hota hai ki raja bhoj ka nam kahin pichhe se n milaya gaya ho; jaise 'janami gori too jesalamer', 'goradi jesalamer ki'. aboo ke paramar bhi rajapootane men phaile hue the. at: rajamati ka unamen se kisi saradar ki kanya hona bhi snbhav hai. par bhoj ke atirikt aur bhi nam isi prakar jode hue milate hain; jaise 'magh acharaj, kavi kalidas'.[3]

shri ramachandr shukl ke anusar - 'ajamer ke chauhan raja bisaladev[4] bade vir aur pratapi the aur unhonne musalamanon ke viruddh kee chadhaiyan ki thin aur kee pradeshon ko musalamanon se khali karaya tha. dilli aur jhansi ke pradesh inhin ne apane rajy men milae the. inake viracharit ka bahut kuchh varnan inake rajakavi somadev rachit 'lalit vigraharaj natak' [5] men hai jisaka kuchh ansh badi-badi shilaon par khuda hua mila hai aur 'rajapootana myooziyam' men surakshit hai. par 'nalh' ke is bisaladev men, jaisa ki hona chahie tha, n to ukt vir raja ki aitihasik chadhaiyon ka varnan hai, n usake shaury-parakram ka. shrringar ras ki drishti se vivah aur roothakar videsh jane ka[6] manamana varnan hai. at: is chhoti-si pustak ko bisaladev aise vir ka 'raso' kahana khatakata hai. par jab ham dekhate hain ki yah koee kavy grnth nahin hai, keval gane ke lie ise racha gaya tha, to bahut kuchh samadhan ho jata hai.[7]

bhasha ki drishti se

bhasha ki pariksha karake dekhate hain to vah sahityik nahin hai, rajasthani hai. jaise -

  • sooki chhai = sookhata hai,
  • patan thin = patan se,
  • bhoj tana = bhoj ka,
  • khnd-khndara = khnd-khnd ka ityadi.

is grnth se ek bat ka abhas avashy milata hai. vah yah ki shisht kavyabhasha men braj aur khadi boli ke prachin roop ka hi rajasthan men bhi vyavahar hota tha. sahity ki samany bhasha 'hindi' hi thi jo pingal bhasha kahalati thi. bisaladev raso men bhi bich-bich men barabar is sahityik bhasha[8] ko milane ka prayatn dikhaee padata hai. bhasha ki prachinata par vichar karane ke pahale yah bat dhyan men rakhani chahie ki gane ki chiz hone ke karan isaki bhasha men samayanusar bahut kuchh pherabadal hota aya hai. par likhit roop men rakshit hone ke karan isaka purana dhancha bahut kuchh bacha hua hai. udaharan ke lie -

  • melavi = milakar, jodakar;
  • chitah = chita men;
  • rani = ran men;
  • prapiji = prapt ho ya kiya jay;
  • eeni vidhi = is vidhi;
  • isu = aisa;
  • bal ho = bala ka.

isi prakar 'nayar'[9], 'pasau'[10], payohar [11] adi prakrit shabd bhi hain jinaka prayog kavita men apabhrnsh kal se lekar pichhe tak hota raha. isamen ae hue kuchh pharasi, arabi, turaki shabdon ki or bhi dhyan jata hai. jaise mahal, inam, neja, tajanon[12] adi. pustak ki bhasha men pheraphar avashy hua hai; at: ye shabd pichhe se mile hue bhi ho sakate hain aur kavi dvara vyavahrit bhi. kavi ke samay se pahale hi pnjab men musalamanon ka pravesh ho gaya tha aur ve idhar-udhar jivika ke lie phailane lage the. at: aise sadharan shabdon ka prachar koee ashchary ki bat nahin. bisaladev ke saradaron men tajuddin miyan bhi maujood hain

mnhal palanyo tajadin. khurasani chadhi chalyo gond

yah pustak n to vastu ke vichar se aur n bhasha ke vichar se apane asali aur mool roop men kahi ja sakati hai. rayabahadur pndit gaurishnkar hirachnd ojha ne ise hammir ke samay ki rachana kaha hai. [13] yah narapati nalh ki pothi ka vikrit roop avashy hai jisake adhar par ham bhasha aur sahity snbndhi kee tathyon par pahunchate hain. dhyan dene ki pahali bat hai, rajapootane ke ek bhat ka apani rajasthani men hindi ka mel karana. jaise 'moti ka akha kiya', 'chndan kath ko mandavo', 'sona ki chori', 'moti ki mal' ityadi. isase yah siddh ho jata hai ki pradeshik boliyon ke sath-sath braj ya madhy desh ki bhasha ka ashray lekar ek samany sahityik bhasha bhi svikrit ho chuki thi, jo charanon men pingal bhasha ke nam se pukari jati thi. apabhrnsh ke yog se shuddh rajasthani bhasha ka jo sahityik roop tha vah 'dingal' kahalata tha. hindi sahity ke itihas men ham keval pingal bhasha men likhe hue grnthon ka hi vichar kar sakate hain. doosari bat, jo ki sahity se snbndh rakhati hai, vir aur shrringar ka mel hai. is grnth men shrringar ki hi pradhanata hai, viraras kinchit abhas matr hai. snyog aur viyog ke git hi kavi ne gae hain. [14]

  • bisaladev raso ke kuchh pady is prakar hain -

paranaba chalyo bisalaray . churasya sahu liya bolai.
jan tani sajati karu . jirah rngavali paharajyo top huau pisaru bisalarav .
avi sayal antevari rav roop apoorab peshiyi .
isi astri nahin sayal snsar atirngasvamisoon milirati.
beti raja bhoj ki garab kari oobho chhi sanbharayo rav.
mo sarikha nahin oor bhuval mhan ghari sanbhar uggahi.
chihun disi than jesalamer 'garabi n bolo ho sanbharayo rav.
to sarikha ghana or bhuval ek udisa ko dhani .
bachan hamari too mani ju mani jyoon thari sanbhar uggahi.
raja uni ghari uggahi hirakhan. kunvari kahi 'suni, sanbharaya rav.
kaee svami too ulagee jai? kaheu hamaru ji sunu. thari chhi sathi antevari nari'
'kadava bol n bolis nari . too mo melhasi chitt bisari jibh n jibh vigoyano.
dav ka dadha kupali melhiÏ'
jibh ka dadha nu panguri. nalh kahi suniji sab koi avyo raja mas basnt.
gadh mahin goodi uchhaliÏ ji dhan milati ang snbhar.
man bhng ho to bal ho eeni parirahata raj duvari.[15]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. raso kavy : viragathayen (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 15 mee, 2011.
  2. bisaladev
  3. hindi sahity ka itihas, viragatha kal (snvath 1050 - 1375) prakaran 3, lekhak - ramachandr shukl
  4. vigraharaj chaturth
  5. lalit vigraharaj natak, somadev rachit, snskrit
  6. proshitapatika ke varnan ke lie
  7. hindi sahity ka itihas, viragatha kal (snvath 1050 - 1375) prakaran 3, lekhak - ramachandr shukl
  8. hindi
  9. nagar
  10. prasad
  11. payodhar
  12. tajiyana
  13. rajapootane ka itihas, bhoomika, prishth 19, pndit gaurishnkar hirachnd ojha.
  14. hindi sahity ka itihas, viragatha kal (snvath 1050 - 1375) adhyay 3, lekhak - ramachandr shukl
  15. hindi sahity ka itihas, viragatha kal (snvath 1050 - 1375) adhyay 3, lekhak - ramachandr shukl

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