एपीक्यूरस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

epikyooras (ee.poo. 342-1 se ee.poo. 271-70)–prasiddh yoonani darshanik. isake mata pita ethens ke nivasi the par isake janm ke samay ve samosh‌ namak dvip men rahate the. epikyooras ke pita ka nam neokles aur mata ka nam kharaestrata tha. darshanashastr ke prem ka ankur to usake hriday men 12-14 varsh ki avastha men hi utpann ho gaya tha, atev vah apani shiksha poori karane ke lie 18ven varsh men ethens aya aur ek varsh aphalatoon ki akadami men raha. yahan se lautakar kolofan nagar ko gaya jahan usake parivar ke log ja base the. is nagar ke samip teaus nagar men usane nausifanes se snbhavataya demakritus ke siddhanton ki shiksha grahan ki. lagabhag 32 varsh ki avastha men usane pahale mitilene nagar men aur kuchh samay uparant lanph‌sakus namak nagar men apana vidyalay sthapit kiya. isake panch varsh uparant vah apane vidyalay ko ethens nagari men le gaya. yahan par usane ek udyan men apana vidyalay sthapit kiya. yon to us samay ethens men anek prasiddh vidyalay the tathapi epikyooras ne hi sabase pratham striyon tatha dason ko bhi apane shishy ke roop men svikar kiya. usake shishyon men anek varanganaen bhi thin aur unamen se, snbhavataya, liyontiyan namak varangana ke sath usaki ghanishthata guru shishy ke snbndh ki apeksha adhik gahari thi. vah lagabhag 36 varsh se adhik ethens nagari men raha. vidyalay aur shishyamndali men epikyooras devatuly pooja jata tha aur usake janmadin par vishesh utsav manaya jata tha. yadyapi usake alochakon ne usako vilasita men phnsa hua kaha hai, tathapi vastavikata yah hai ki usaka tatha usake shishyon ka jivan sidhasada, shant aur saral tha. mrityu ke samay usako pathari rog ho gaya tha jisake karan usaki sharirik pida ki koee sima nahin thi; tathapi antim din jo patr usane apane mitr ko likha usamen usane shanti aur sukh ki hi bhavana ko abhivyakt kiya.

diogenes laertiyus ne darshanikon ke jivan namak pustak men epikyooras ki jivani grnthant men sabase adhik vistar ke sath likhi hai aur usane batalaya hai ki epikyooras ne 300 grnthon ki rachana ki thi. parntu durbhagyavash nimnalikhit thodi si rachanaon ke atirikt any sab kuchh aj anupalabdh hai. jo kritiyan bach rahi hain ve hain–(1) herodotus ko likha hua ek lnba patr jo ajakal usake mat ko janane ka mukhy sadhan hain; (2) rituvigyan ke snbndh men pithaukles ko likha hua patr; (3) achar darshan ke snbndh men menokedas ko likha hua patr; (4) laertiyus ki jivani ke ant men die hue achar snbndhi 40 sootr, aur (5) 1888 men votke dvara vatikan (pop ki nagari) men pae ge 80 sootr. anupalabdh grnthon men epikyooras ki sarvashreshth rachana prakriti (pairifisios) bhi hai jo 37 pustakon athava adhyayon men thi.

epikyooras ka darshanik siddhant svaduvad ya preyavad kahalata hai. vah keval indripratyaksh ko hi praman manata hai. jo vivechan, snmati athava vibhavana pratyakshavirodhini ho vah bhrant hoti hai tatha jo pratyaksh se mel khati ho vahi nirbhrant hai. bhautik jagath‌ ke snbndh men epikyooras ko demikritus ka paramanu vad many hai. vastuen apane bahy dharatal se apane sookshm binbon ko nirntar shighr gati se nikshipt karati rahati hain. inhin binbon dvara hamari indriyon ka vishayon se snpark hua karata hai. yah binbanikshep vastuon ke ghatak anuon ki gati ke karan hua karata hai. paramanu aur unaki gati ke lie shoony sthan, ye do param tatv hain. epikyooras ke mat men paramanuon ki gati men svachhndata rahati hai. samagr vishv, charachar srishti, yahan tak ki atma bhi, anuon ke snghat matr hain. devata manushyon ki apeksha sookshmatar paramanuon se nirmit hain. ve jagaton ke madhyavarti antaral men nishchitatamay paripoorn jivan bitate hain.

manav jivan ke lie epikyooras ka lakshy prem ki prapti tha. parntu usaki prem ki paribhasha thi du:kh aur pida ka abhav aur sthirabuddhita evn sharir aur man ki shant tatha svasth sthiti. at: vah snsar se virakti ka upadesh karata tha; samajik aur rajanitik jivan men ulajhana bhi usaki drishti men uchit nahin tha. vaivahik jivan bhi usako abhisht nahin tha. vah manushy ko sab prakar ki bhitiyon se–yahan tak ki mrityu ke bhay se bhi–mukt karana chahata hai. devataon aur prachin parnparaon ke bndhanon ko bhi tyagane ka upadesh epikyooras diya karata tha. atev parnparapriy anek bhakton ne usaki ninda ki hai. par vastavikata yah hai ki usaki shiksha ka sar shuddh, saral, nishchint aur sukhapoorn jivan ki upalabdhi hai.[1]


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sn.grn.–diyogenes laertiyus : darshanikon ke jivan ki antim (dasham) pustak; tsailar, stoiks : epikyooriyans aind skeph‌tiks; stes : kritil histri aauv grik filasafi; liyaun robin : grik thath.

snbndhit lekh

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