भारतीय मूर्तिकला  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Icon-edit.gif is lekh ka punarikshan evn sampadan hona avashyak hai. ap isamen sahayata kar sakate hain. "sujhav"
bodhisatv maitrey

bharatiy moortikala bharat ke upamahadvipon ki sabhyataon ki moortikala parnparaen, prakar aur shailiyan ka sngam hai. moortikala bharatiy upamahadvip men hamesha se kalatmak abhivyakti ka priy madhyam rahi hai. bharatiy bhavan prachur roop se moortikala se alnkrit hain aur prayah ek-doosare se alag nahin kie ja sakate.

itihas

any kalaon ke saman hi bharatiy moortikala bhi atyant prachin hai. yadyapi pashan kal men bhi manav apane pashan upakaranon ko kushalatapoorvak kat-chhantakar vishesh akar deta tha aur patthar ke tukade se phalak nikalate hetu 'dabav' takanik ya patakakar todane ki takanik ka istemal karane laga tha, parantu bharat men moortikala apane vastavik roop men hadappa sabhyata ke dauran hi astitv men aee. is sabhyata ki khudaee men anek moortiyan prapt huee hain jo lagabhag 4000 varsh poorv hi bharat men moorti nirman takanik ke vikas ka dyotak hain.

bharatiy murtikala ki parnpa sindhu ghati sabhyata se phaili. us kal men mitti ki chhoti moortiyan banaee gee. maury kal (tisari shatabdi ee.poo.) ke mahanh golakar pashan stnbhon aur utkirnit sinhon ne doosari aur pahali shatabdi ee.poo. men sthapit hindoo aur bauddh prasngon vali paripakv bharatiy akritimoolak moortikala ka marg prashast kiya.

shailiyon aur parnparaon ki vyapak shreni bharat ke vibhinn bhagon men shatabdiyon tak phali-phooli, lekin nauvin-dasavin shatabdi tak ate-ate bharatiy moortikala ek aise roop men pahunch gee, jo ab tak mamooli parivartanon ke sath bani huee hai. 10vin shatabdi se yah moortikala mukhyatah sthapatyiy alnkaran ke ek bhag ke roop men tulanatmak roop se chhoti v ausat shreni ki asnkhya akritiyon ko is prayojan ke lie banakar prayog ki jane lagi thi.

moortikala ka upayog

bharatiy moortikala ki vishay-vastu hamesha lagabhag kalpanik manav roop hote the, jo logon ko hindoo, bauddh ya jain dharm ke satyon ki shiksha dene ke kam ate the. anavritt moorti ka prayog sharir ko atma ke pratik aur devataon ke kalpit svaroopon ko darshane ke lie kiya jata tha. moortiyon men hindoo devataon ke bahut se sir v bhujaen in devataon ke vividh roopon aur shaktiyon ko darshane ke lie avashyak mane jate the.

pramukh shailiyan

bharatiy moorti kala ki pramukh shailiyan is prakar hain-

  1. sindhu ghati sabhyata ki moorti kala
  2. maury moortikala
  3. mauryottar moortikala
  4. gandhar kala ki moortiyan
  5. mathura kala ki moortiyan
  6. amaravati moortikala
  7. guptakal moortikala
  8. bakatak moortikala
  9. madhyakal moortikala
  10. chol moortikala
  11. adhunik moortikala

vastukala evn moortikala

prachin aur madhyakalin bharatiy vastukala ke bare men ek adbhut tathy yah hai ki moortikala usaka ek avibhajy ang thi. is sndarbh men sidhu ghati ki snskriti hi shayad ekamatr apavad hai, kyonki usaki imaraten upayogitavadi hain, par unamen kalatmak kaushal nahin hai. ho sakata hai, samay ke sath unaki alnkaramay sajavat nasht ho gee ho. halanki moortikala vikasit thi.

sindhu ghati ki moortiyan aur moharen

halanki ise 'sindhu ghati' ya 'hadappa' snskriti kaha gaya, par yah sabhyata isase jyada door-door tak phaili huee thi aur prakat roop se bahut vikasit thi. puratatvik sakshyon ke adhar par, is snskriti ke phalane-phoolane ke mukhy kal-usake paripakv shahari charan ke, 2100 se 1750 ee.poo. ke bich kabhi hone ka anuman hai, jabaki sindhu ghati ke prakar ki kalatmak vastuen mesopotamiya men 2300 ee.poo. ke qarib tak mili hain. makanon ke nirman men samagri ki utkrishtata tatha durg, sammelan sabhagaron, anaj ke godamon karyashalaon, chhatravason, bazaron adi ki maujoodagi tatha adhunik jal nikas pranali vale bhavy nagaron ke saman vaigyanik le-aut dekhakar yah nishkarsh nikala ja sakata hai ki us kal ki snskriti kafi samriddh thi. svabhavik tha ki kala aur shilp us samaj men unnat avastha men the. is sabhyata ki kala ke bache namoonon men se sabase khoobasoorat shayad patali chhadi jaise ladaki ki laghu kansy moorti hai, jisane apane hathon men ek katora pakada hua hai. choona patthar aur lal patthar ke do khndit dhad bhi hain. jo hadappa se mile the.

in sabhi moortishilpon men se sabase surakshit hain. ek vyakti ka 7 inch ooncha sir aur kndha, jisake chehare par chhoti si dadhi aur barik kati huee moonchhe hain tatha usaka sharir ek shaaul men lipata hai jo baen kndhe ke oopar aur daee banh ke niche se hokar gayi hai, jo lagata hai ki kisi pujari ki chhavi hai. is moorti aur mohanajodado se mile any dadhi vale siron tatha sumeriya ke moortisngrah men kuchh samanata hai.

terakota ki vividh vastuen bhi hai. jinamen sabhi prakar ki chhoti-chhoti akritiyan aur alag-alag akaron aur dijainon ke seramik patr shamil hain. mitti se bani janavaron ki akritiyan khasataur par bahut lubhavani lagati hain, jinhen khilaunon ke roop men bhi istemal kiya jata hoga, kyonki vah khelane ke andaj men bani hain aur chhoti-chhoti bhi hain. anek martabanon aur katoron par aise dijain chitrit hain, jinhen amataur par prakriti se liya gaya hai aur unaka snbndh urvarata se hota hai.

sindhu kshetr men payi gayi any bahut si vastuon men sil (muhar) ki anek chaukor chhoti-chhoti ve akritiyan bhi thin jinhen kee prakar ke dijainon men abhichitrat kiya gaya tha. ye sil un logon ki ho sakati thin jinhonne inaka upayog sampatti chinhit karane athava any anubndhon ko mazabooti pradan karane ke lie kiya hoga. prijm akar ki silon ki ye akritiyan snbhavat: un anubndhon ke rikard ke lie thin. kuchh silon men bail ki anek akritiyan bani huee milin hai, jabaki kuchh any silon men any janavaron ki akritiyan thin. visheshgyon ke matanusar, silon men abhichitrit akritiyan vishv ke kuchh un mahanh uddhaharanon men hain jo tatkalin kalakaron ki mahanh kshamata ko darshati hain. isase spasht hota hai ki us samay bhi kalatmak akar dene men kalakaron ka koee javab nahin tha. yadyapi ve kisi vishesh bailon ki akritiyan nahin hain, phir bhi ve vishesh prakar ki jatiyon ka pratinidhitv karati thin. do hazar se adhik silen tatha char sau se adhik vibhinn prakar ki silon ke any akar sindhu ghati men paye gaye tathapi abhi bhi unake bare men koee pusht abhilekh aur tatsnbndhi janakari anupalabdh hai. baharahal, prachin sabhyata snbndhi hamara gyan kee pariprekshyon men abhi tak aparyapt hi hai.

mauryakalin kala

hadappa yug aur maury kal ke bich ke anek puratatvik avashesh hamare pas nahin hain. aisa snbhavat: is vajay se hua, kyonki us kal men bhavan patthar ke nahin banate the. maury shasan kal hamare sanskritik itihas ka ek mahattvapoorn yug hai.

yadyapi mauryon dvara nirmit bhavanon ke avashesh hamare bich nahin hain par maury shasan kal ki kee baton ka zikr grik itihasakar megasthanij ne apani pustak 'indika' men kiya hai. isamen mauryo ki rajadhani pataliputr shahar ke vaibhav evn usaki satta ke bare men bhi ullekh kiya gaya hai. pataliputr shahar das mil lnba aur do mil chauda tha, jo mazaboot lakadi ki divaron se ghira hua tha. usamen 500 taauvar aur 64 daravaze the. usake bhitar shahi mahal tha jo apane akar men eeran ke shahi mahal ki nakal par bana tha. chndragupt ke pautr ashok ne bauddh dharm apanaya aur kala tatha prachin sabhyata snskriti ke vikas ke lie bauddh mishanariyon ki gatividhiyon ka vistar kiya. 1400 eesavi ke as-pas jab chini bauddh yatri fahyan bharat aya, tab usane shahi mahal ko khade hue dekha tha. shahi mahal ke sath-sath divaron daravajon tatha any kalakritiyon ko dekhakar vah itana prabhavit hua ki use vishvas hi nahin hua ki unaka nirman manav kalakaron-chitrakaron ke hathon hua hoga.

ashok stnbh

ashok ne apane shasan kal men stnbhon ka nirman bade paimane par karaya tha. in stnbhon ko usane bauddh dharm, snskriti evn sabhyata ke prachar prasar ke sath any mahattvapoorn karyon evn ghatanakramon ke pratik ke roop men lagavaya tha. ashok ke shasanakal ke dauran lagaye gaye shvet-bhoore patthar usake poore rajy men dekhe ja sakate the. ashok dvara lagaye gaye un stnbhon men anek stnbhon men bauddh dharm ki ibaraten bhi likhi huee thin. stnbhon ke madhyam se usane bauddh dharm ka prachar prasar kiya.

ashok ke shasan kal men lage stnbh takariban 40 phit oonche hote the. un stnbho men kalakritiyan bhi abhichitrit thin. unamen pushpadal, ghnti-jaisi akritiyon ke sath sath janavar bhi chitrit hote the. stnbh ke charon or janavaron ki akritiyan dikhayi deti thin. jinamen sinh bail athava hathi mukhyat: hote the.

ramapurava se mile vrishabhastnbh[1] men vrishabh ko kuchh is tarah se dikhaya gaya hai- jis tarah ke chitr sindhu ghati ki khudaee se prapt purani silon par chitrit the. mana jata hai ki ve prachin pnrapara ki ve ek kadi ke roop men hain. saranath, jahan buddh ne apana pahala vyakhyan diya, vahan sinh stnbh lage the. us stnbh men bail, ghoda, sinh aur hathi kramavar ankit the, unake bich men chakr tha. jo vahan ka pratik tha. aisa lagata hai ki vah stnbh dharm ka vahan tha. yah stnbh mool roop se vishal patthar ka hai jisamen pahiye hain aur us stnbh ke oopar sinhon ki akritiyan ankit hai. us stnbh men ankit akritiyan prachin kal ka adbhut namoona hain aur usamen chitritr kalakritiyan is khoobasoorati se dhili gayin ki jinaki prasiddhi aj bhi vidyaman hai. isi ke sath ve bharat ki prachin mahanh kalatmak upalabdhiyon ki bhi parichayak hain.

bauddh stoop

ashok ke shasan kal ke pahale bhi bharat men stoop jaisi chizen gyat thin. moolaroop se vaidik aryon ne inton aur sadharan mitti se unaka nirman kiya tha. mauryakal ke pahale is tarah ke stoopon ke udaharan nahin milate hain. ashok ke shasanakal men buddh ke sharir ko dhyan men rakhakar smriti chinhon ka nirman kiya gaya aur yahi stoop pooja ke sadhan bane. bauddh kala aur dharm men stoop ko bhagavan buddh ke smriti chinh ke roop men svikar kiya gaya. stoop andar se kachchi eeton se tatha bahari khol pakki eeton se banaye gaye aur phir unamen halka plastar chadhaya gaya. stoop ko oopar se lakadi athava patthar ki chhatari se susajjit kiya gaya aur pradakshina ke lie charon or lakadi ka marg bhi banaya gaya.

manaviy akritiyan

mauryakal ki manaviy akritiyon ka pradarshan karane vali anek patthar ki kalakritiyan bhi payi gayi hain. unamen ek hai- chauri mahila ki snrakshit pratimoorti jo patana sngrahalay men rakhi huee hai. yah moorti didaragnj ke nivasiyon ko mili thi. usamen prayog ki gayi palish aur rakh-rakhav ki takanik nisndeh roop se maury kal ki hai.

is moorti ke sharir ke nichale hisse men vastr hain. isake atirikt us mahila ne kanon, bahon aur gale men badi matra men abhooshan pahane hue hain. is pratimoorti ko bharatiy kala jagath ke vikas ki ek mahattvapoorn kadi ke roop men dekha jata hai. isi ke sath, chipake nichale vastr, vastrahin dhad evn prachoor abhooshan am ho gaye.

shung-satavahan yug

mauryon ke bad uttar bharat men (184 eesa poorv) mukhyat: satta men shung rahe. satavahanon ke pas dakshin pashchim kshetr tha. in donon ke shasanakal men kala rachanatmak gatividhi ke charan men pahunchi, jisane bauddh dharm ke sahare aur usako mukhy strot banate hue ghareloo kalatmak andolan ka ek sath pratinidhitv kiya. is yug ko prarnbhik kala ke roop men kala ke itihas ka daura kaha jata hai. shung-satavahan yug ki kala ka prabhav uttar bharat ke bodhagaya, sanchi aur bharahut men bauddh ashramon ke pravesh dvar aur reling men spasht roop se dekhane ko milata hai, jinhen stoop kaha jata hai, to pashchimi bharat men pitalakhora, kondane aur bhaja men patthar nirmit gupha-ashramon ke chinh spasht parilakshit hain. bharatiy kala kshetr men kala ka jo prarnbhik daur hai vah kala ke vikas ka rachanatmak yug hai, jisaki niv is tarah se rakhi gayi ki vah bharatiy vastu aur shilp ke uchch bauddhik aur shahari star ke vikas men sahayog kar sake. phir bhi kala ke vikas ka yah prarnbhik daur saudaryapoorn andolan ka yug raha jo kushan ke shasan kal men kala ke vikas ke mahanatam yug men pravisht hua.

kushan kal

kushan samrajy men nirmit moortiyan moortikala ka adbhut udaharan hai. samrajyavad ka kushan yug, itihas ka ek mahanatam andolan raha hai, yah uttar poorvi bharat tatha pashchimi pakistan, (vartaman afaganistan) tak phaila tha. eesavin ki pahali shatabdi se tisari shatabdi ke bich kushan ek rajanitik satta ke roop men vikasit hue aur unhonne is dauran apane rajy men kala ka bahumukhi vikas kiya. bharatiy kala jagath ka paripakv yug yahin se prarnbh hota hai.

gandhar moortikala shaili

gandhar moortikala ki sabase utkrisht moorti vah hai- jisamen buddh ko ek yogi ke roop men baithe hue dikhaya gaya tha. ek snnyasi ke vastr pahane unaka mastak is tarah se dikhayi de raha hai. jaise usamen adhyatmik shakti bikhar rahi ho, badi-badi ankhe, lalat par tisara netr aur sir par ubhar. ye tinon snket yah dikhate hain ki vah sab sun rahe hain, sab dekh rahe hain aur sab kuchh samajh rahe hain.

buddh ke tin roop

yadyapi buddh ke ye tinon roop videshi kala dvara bhi prabhavit hain. baharahal shuddh roop se bharatiy pratit hoti yah moorti yah darshati hai ki kala ghareloo aur videshi tatvon ka milajula roop hai. gandhar kshetr ki kala ke jo mahattvapoorn tatv hain aur unaki jo shakti hai- vah uttar pashchimi bharat ki bauddh kala men dekhi ja sakati hai aur yah prachin devataon ka pratinidhitv evn unake roop dikhati hain. isi tarah ka prabhav khudaee se nikale pattharon men bhi dekha ja sakata hai, yah patthar chahe apani kalatmak shaili ya apane daiviy roop ko dikhate hon lekin unaka roman vastukala se samrajyavadi samay se hi gahara snbndh raha hai, moorti ki sthiti, sharir ka akar aur usaka vastu dhancha spashtat: roman maaudal par hi adharit hai.

mathura shaili

eesa kal ki pratham tin shatabdiyan mathura shaili moortikala ka svarnik kal hain. mahayan bauddh dharm ke naye adarshon ne tatkalin moorti shilpakaron ko prerit kiya tha. bharatiy puratatvashastriyon ke anusar, buddh moortiyon ka nirman is shaili ke kalakaron ka mahanh yogadan hai. in moortiyon men prayukt patthar saphed-lal tha, jo shatabdiyon tak apani utkrisht kalatmak gunavatta ke roop men vidyaman raha. yah shaili jainon grikon evn romanon ki shailiyon se bhi prabhavit thi. jain shaili dvara prabhavit ek stoop ki reling men chitrit ek akarshak mahila ki akritiya jo atyadhik abhooshanon se yikt hai, prachin bharatiy kala ki yadagar aur ullekhaniy kalakriti sannyas aur dharmaparayanata ke sandarbh men math ki ki in moortiyon men kahin bhi ashlilata aur kamottenna ki bhavabhngima nahin dikhayi deti hai.

bharatiy kala ke itihas, mathura ki kushan kala men isalie atynt mahattvapoorn hai, kyonki usane pratikavad aur moorti shilpavad ko apanaya aur bad men use svikar kar liya. udaharan ke lie, pahali bar mathura men devi-devataon ki moortiyon ki rachana ki gayi. buddh moortiyon ka prabhav charon or phaila aur chin ke kala kenndron tak pahuncha. is shaili ki kuchh ullekhaniy kalakritiyon men vema kadaphij aur kanishk ki moortiyan, mahilaon ke chitr sahit anek reling stnbh, baithe hue kuber evn dhyanarat bauddh pratimaen pramukh hain.

guptakalin moortikala

bharatiy kala ke itihas men gupt kal ko isalie mahanh yug kaha jata hai- kyonki kalakritiyon ki snpoornata aur paripakvata jaisi chizen isase pahale kabhi nahin rahin. is yug ki kalakritiyon moortishilp, shaili evn snpoornata, sundarata evn sntulan jaise any kala tatvon se susajjit huee.

gupt dharm se brahman the aur unaki bhakti vishesh roop se vishnu men thi, kintu unhonne bauddh dharm aur jain dharm ke lie bhi udarata dikhayi. pauranik hindoo dharm men tin devata hain vishnu, shiv evn shakti. shiv ke prati unamen vishesh anurag tha yani shiv agrani devata the. yadyapi dakshin aur poorv men shaivavad ka vikas hua tatha dakshin-pashchim malabar ke kuchh bhagon men evn poorvi bharat men shaktivad ka vikas hua krishn par adharit vaishnavavad tha jo mukhyat: bharat ke uttari evn madhyam bhag men kendrit raha. in sabhi dharmik devataon ki pooja sab jagah hoti rahi aur unake mandir evn unaki moortiyan sab jagah pratishthapit huee.

gupt kala adhyatmik gunon se yukt hai aur usaki drishti bhi jivan ki gahan sachchaee ko darshati hai. yadyapi guptakal ka prarnbhik daur hindoo kala par zor deta hai, jabaki bad ka yug bauddh kala ka shikhar yug hai, jo sabhi prachin kalaon aur unaki manobhavana v gunavatta ka dyotak hai. hindoo kala ne chndragupt dvitiy ke shasanakal ke dauran vidisha anchal men hi unnati ki.

moortiyan

gupt moorti kala ki saphalata prarnbhik madhyakal ki pratikatmak chhavi evn kushan yug ki kalapoorn chhavi ke madhy nirmit ek sntulan par adharit hain.

hindoo, bauddh evn jain kalakritiyan madhy bharat sahit desh ke anek bhagon men payin. ye moortikala men advitiy hain. besanagar se gnga ki moorti, gvaliyar se udati huee apasraon ki moorti, sondani se mili hava men laharate gndharv yugal ki moorti, khoh se prapt ekamukh ling aur bhumara se any kee prakar ki mili moortiyan usi sundarata, parikalpana aur sntulan ko pradarshit karati hain. jaisa ki saranath men dekha jata hai.

bhagavan harihar[2] ki manavakar pratima madhy pradesh men mili hai. anuman hai yah panchavi eesvi ke poorvaddh ki rachana hai. vishnu ka athavan avatar kahe ge krishn ki pratimaen bhi 5 vin sadi ee. ke arnbhik kal se mil rahi hain. varanasi se prapt ek moorti men unhen krishn govardhanadhari ke roop men ankit kiya gaya hai. jisamen unhen baen hath ke sahare govardhan parvat uthae dikhaya gaya hai. jisake niche vrindavanavasi jal pralay se bachane ke lie ekatrit hue the. vah bhayavah jalavrishti indr ne bheji thi, jo vrindavan vasiyon ki apane prati upeksha se krodhit ho uthe the.

buddh ki pratimaen

guptakalin moortishilp men buddh dharm ka shanti adarsh atynt bhavyata se buddh ki moortiyon men abhivyakt hua hai. unake chahare ki bhav mudra aur muskan us param samarasata ki anubhooti ko darshati hai, jise us mahagyani ne prapt kiya tha. in moortiyon ke shilp ki har rekha men saundary aur bhav ka paramparagat svaroop darshaya gaya hai. kayik sthiti, hast mudraen aur any sabhi lakshan pravriti-pratikon ke roop men upasthit hainmastak andakar bhaunhe kaman jaisi, palaken kamal ki pnkhudiyan, adhar amraphal ki tarah, kndhon ki golaee hastishund jaisi, kati sinh ki aur ungaliyan phoolon jaisi.

sanchi ke vishal stoop ke pravesh dvaron par panchavi sadi men rakhi gayi buddh ki char pratimaen us komalata, lality aur prashanti ko darshati hain, jo samriddh aur paripakv guptakalin shilp vidha ki visheshataen hain. buddh ki kaya ki rooparekhaon men darshit lalityapoorn anukoolan moortishilp ke us vikas kram ko vyakt karata hai, jise prarnbhik guptakalin koniy svaroop ka agala charan kaha ja sakata hai. buddh ki pratimaen mathura men bhi mili hain, jo bauddh dharm ka susampann kendr raha tha. inamen ek sabase prachin pratima 5vin sadi ee. ki hai, jo poorvavarti pratimaon ke bhari ayatan apanane ke bavajood kushanakalin adiroopon se drishtiyon se bhinn hai. shakyamuni ki utkirn uttishth mudra men pratima poornat: bhikshu ke paridhan men hain, jisaki tahen samanantar chhallon men darshit hain. buddh ke sir ki pichhe prabhamndal bhi banaya gaya hai. is kal men bauddh moortishilp ka ek any sakriy kendr saranath tha, jahan buddh ki khadi aur baithi pratimaen banaee gee. saranath ke khndaharon men mili buddh ki apekshakrit adhik ubhar vali moorti ko guptakalin moortikala ka sarvasundar aur bhavy pratiman kaha ja sakata hai. halke rng ke bulee patthar se bani is pratima men buddh ko baithakar apana pratham upadesh dete hue darshaya gaya hai. pratima ki pithika ke niche ghutanon ke bal jhuke hue do bhikshuk ko nyayachakr ki pooja karate dikhaya gaya hai. is nyay chakr ko buddhi ka pratik manate hain. saranath ki is buddh pratima men utkrishtata se chitrit prabhamndal isaki visheshata hai.

yadyapi bhittichitr ajnta ki sarvadhik mahattvapoorn kalakritiyan hain, par guha mandir ka sthapaty shilp aur pravesh dvaron par naqqashi bhi asadharan hai. in mndir men jo shailiyan moolaroop se chinaee aur kashth kala ropon men vikasit huee, unhen samakalin chattanon se tarash gaya tha. ye kritiyan asnkhy aur vividh shaili ki hain aur inhen bina kisi ekikrit niyojan ke pravesh agrabhagon par ankit kiya gaya hai.

pal moortikala shaili

  • pal shaili ki visheshata isaki moortiyon men parilakshit antim parishkar hai.
  • bihar aur bngal ke pal aur sen shasakon ke samay men[3] bauddh aur hindoo donon ne hi sundar moortiyan banaee.
  • is moortiyon ke lie kale baisalt pattharon ka prayog kiya gaya hai.
  • moortiyan atisajjit aur achchhi paaulish ki huee hain- mano ve patthar ki n hokar dhatu ki bani hon.

hoyasal moortikala shaili

hoyasal shaili (1050-1300ee) ka vikas karnatak ke dakshin kshetr men hua. aisa kaha ja sakata hai ki hoyasal kala arnbh aihol, badami aur pattadakal ke prarnbhik chaluky kalin mndiron men hua, lekin maisoor kshetr men vikasit hone ke pashchath hi isaka vishisht svaroop pradarshit hua, jise hoyasal shaili ke nam se jana gaya. apani prasiddhi ke charamakal men is shaili ki ek pramukh visheshata sthapaty ki yojana aur samany vyavasthapan se judi hai.

hoyasal mndir

vastavik vastuyojana ke hisab se hoyasal mndir keshav mandir aur halebid ke mandir somanathapur aur any doosaron se bhinn hain. stambh vale kaksh sahit antargrih ke sthan par isamen bicho bich sthit stnbh vale kaksh ke charon taraph bane anek mndir hain, jo tare ki shakl men bane hain.

kee mndiron men dohari snrachana payi jati hai. isake pramukh ang dohain aur niyojan men pray: tin char aur yahan tak ki panch bhi hain. har garbhagrih ke oopar bane shikhar ko jaise-jaise oopar badhaya gaya hai, usamen adi rekhaon aur sajja se nayapan laya gaya hain, jo shikhar ko kee staron men bantate hain aur yah dhare-dhire kam ghere vala hota jata hai. vastut: hoyasal mndir ki ek vishishtata snpoorn bhavan ki sapeksh laghuta hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. jo ab nayi dilli ke rashtriy sngrahalay men hai
  2. adha shiv aur adha vishnu
  3. 8se 12vin sadi

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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