शैव मत  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(शैव धर्म se punarnirdeshit)

shaiv mat / shaiv snpraday

  • bharat ke dharmik sampradayon men shaivamat pramukh hain. vaishnav, shakt adi sampradayon ke anuyayiyon se isake manane valon ki sakhya adhik hai. shiv trimoorti men se tisare hain jinaka vishisht kary snhar karana hai shaiv vah dharmik sampraday hain jo shiv ko hi eeshvar manakar aradhana karata hai. shiv ka shabdik arth hai 'shubh', 'kalyan', 'mngal', shreyaskar' adi, yadyapi shiv ka kary snhar karana hai.
  • shaivamat ka moolaroop rigved men rudr ki kalpana men milata hai. rudr ke bhaynkar roop ki abhivyakti varsha ke poorv jhnjhavat ke roop men hoti thi. rudr ke upasakon ne anubhav kiya ki jhnjhavat ke pashchath jagat ko jivan pradan karane vala shital jal barasata hai aur usake pashchath ek gambhir shanti aur anand ka vatavaran nirmit ho jata hai. atah rudr ka hi doosara saumy roop shiv janamanas men sthir ho gaya.
  • hinduon ke devataon ki trimoorti- brahma, vishnu aur mahesh men shiv vidyaman hain aur unhen vinash ka devata bhi mana jata hai.
  • shiv ke tin nam shambhu, shnkar aur shiv prasiddh hue. inhin namon se unaki prarthana hone lagi.
  • yajurved ke shatarudriy adhyay, taittiriy aranyak aur shvetashvatar upanishad men shiv ko eeshvar mana gaya hai. unake pashupati roop ka snket sabase pahale atharvashiras upanishad men paya jata hai, jisamen pashu, pash, pashupati adi paribhashik shabdon ka prayog hua hai. isase lagata hai ki us samay se pashupat sampraday banane ki prakriya prarambh ho gayi thi.
  • ramayan-mahabharat ke samay tak shaivamat shaiv athava maheshvar nam se prasiddh ho chuka tha.
  • mahabharat men maheshvaron ke char sampraday batalaye gaye hain -
  1. shaiv
  2. pashupat
  3. kaladaman aur
  4. kapalik.
  • vaishnav achary yamunachary ne kaladaman ko hi 'kalamukh' kaha hai. inamen se antim do nam shiv ko rudr tatha bhnyakar roop men soochit karate hain, jab pratham do shiv ke saumy roop ko svikar karate hain. inake dharmik sahity ko shaivamat kaha jata hai. inamen se kuchh vaidik aur shesh avaidik hain. sampraday ke roop men pashupat mat ka snghatan bahut pahale prarambh ho gaya tha. isake snsthapak achary lakulish the. inahonne lakul (lakut) dhari shiv ki upasana ka prachar kiya, jisamen shiv ka rudr roop abhi vartaman tha. isaki pratikriya men advait darshan ke adhar par samayachari vaidik shaiv mat ka snghatan sampraday ke roop men hua. isaki pooja padhdati men shiv ke saumy roop ki pradhanata thi. kintu is advait shaiv sampraday ki bhi pratikriya huee. gyarahavin shatabdi men virashaiv athava 'lingayat sampraday' ka uday hua, jisaka darshanik adhar shaktivishisht advaitavad tha.
  • kapalikon ne bhi apana sampradayik snghatan kiya. inake sampradayik chihn inaki chhah mudrikaen thin, jo is prakar hain-
  1. knthahar
  2. abhooshan
  3. karnabhooshan
  4. choodamani
  5. bhasm aur
  6. ygyopavit.

inake achar shiv ke ghor roop ke anusar bade vibhats the, jaise kapalapatr men bhojan, shav ke bhasm ko sharir par lagana, bhasmabhakshan, yashtidharan, madirapatr rakhana, madirapatr ka asan banakar pooja ka anushthankarana adi. kalamukh sahity men kaha gaya hai ki is prakar ke acharan se laukik aur paralaukik sabhi kamanaon ki poorti hoti hai. isamen sandeh nahin ki kapalika kriyayn shudhd shaivamat se bahut door chali gayin aur inaka mel vamamargi shakton se adhik ho gaya.

  • pahale shaivamat ke mukhyatah do hi sampraday the-
  1. pashupat aur
  2. agamik.
  • phir inhin se kee upasampraday hue, jinaki soochi nimnankit hai -
  • pashupat shaiv mat
  1. pashupat,
  2. laghulish pashupat,
  3. kapalik,
  4. nath sampraday,
  5. gorakh panth,
  6. rngeshvar.
  • agamik shaiv mat
  1. shaiv sidhdant,
  2. tamil shaiv
  3. kashmir shaiv,
  4. vir shaiv.
  • pashupat sampraday ka adharagranth maheshvar dvara rachit 'pashupatasutr' hai. isake oopar kaundinyarachit 'pncharthibhashy' hai. isake anusar padarthon ki snkhya panch hai-
  1. kary
  2. karan
  3. yog
  4. vidhi aur
  5. duahkhanth.
  • jiv (jivatma) aur jad (jagat) ko kary kaha jata hai. paramatma (shiv) inaka karan hai, jisako pati kaha jata hai. jiv pashu aur jad pash kahalata hai. manasik kriyaon ke dvara pashu aur pati ke snyog ko yog kahate hain. jis marg se pati ki prapti hoti hai use vidhi ki sngya di gayi hai. poojavidhi men nimnankit kriyaen avashyak hai-
  1. hnsana
  2. gana
  3. nachana
  4. hunkarana aur
  5. namaskar.
  • snsar men dukhon se atyantik nivritti hi duahkhant athava moksh hai.
  • agamik shaivon ke shaiv sidhdant ke granth snskrit aur tamil donon men hain. inake pati, pashu aur pash in tin mool tatvon ka gambhir vivechan paya jata hai. inake anusar jiv pashu hai jo agy aur anu hain. jiv pashu char prakar ke pashon se badhd hain. yatha –mal, karm, maya aur rodh shakti. sadhana ke dvara jab pashu par pati ka shaktipat (anugrah) hota hai tab vah pash se mukt ho jata hai. isi ko moksh kahate hain.
  • kashmir shaiv mat darshanik drishti se advaitavadi hai. advait vedant aur kashmir shaiv mat men sampradayik antar itana hai ki advaitavad ka brahm nishkriy hai kintu kashmir shaivamat ka brahm (parameshvar) kartritvasampann hai. advaitavad men gyan ki pradhanata hai, usake sath bhakti ka samanjasy poora nahin baithata; kashmir shaivamat men gyan aur bhakti ka sundar samavany hai. advaitavad vedant men jagat brahm ka vivart (bhram) hai. kashmir shaivamat men jagat brahm ka svatantry athava abhas hai. kashmir shaiv ki do pramukh shakhaain hain–
  1. spand shastr aur
  2. pratyabhigya shastr. pahali shakha ke mukhy granth ‘shiv drishti’ (somanand krit), ‘eeshvarapratyabhigyakarika’ (utpalachary krit), eeshvaraprtyabhigyakarikavimarshini’ aur (abhinavagupt rachit) ‘tantralok’ hain. donon shakhaon men koee tattvik bhed nahin hai; keval marg ka bhed hai. spand shastr men eeshvaradvayki anubhooti ka marg eeshvaradarshan aur usake dvara malanivaran hai. pratyabhigyashastr men eeshvar ke roop men apani pratyabhigya (punaranubhooti) hi vah marg hai. in donon shakhaon ke darshan ko ‘trikadarshan’ athava eeshvaradvayavad’ kaha jata hai.
  • shaivamat ke pradhanataya char sampraday mane jate hain-
  1. pashupat
  2. shaivasiddhant
  3. kashmir shaivamat
  4. vir shaivamat

pahale ka kendr gujarat aur rajapootana, doosare ka tamil pradesh, tisare ka kashmir aur chauthe ka karnatak hai.

  • vir shaiv mat ke snsthapak mahatma vasav the. is sampraday ke mukhy granth brahm sootr par ‘shrikarabhashy’ aur ‘sidhdant-shikhamani’ hain. inake anusar antim tattv advait nahin, apitu vishishtadvait hai. yah sampraday manata hai ki param tattv shiv poorn svatantryarup hai. sthul chidachichchhakti vishisht jiv aur sookshm chidachichchhakti vishisht shiv ka advait hai. vir shaiv mat ko lingayat bhi kahate hain, kyonki isake anuyayi barabar shivaling gale men dharan karate hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh


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