गुप्तकालीन प्रशासन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gupt samraton ke samay men ganatntriy rajavyavastha ka hmas hua. gupt prashasan rajatntratmak vyavastha par adharit tha. devatv ka sidvant guptakalin shasakon men prachalit tha. rajapad vnshanugat siddhant par adharit tha. raja apane bade putr ko yuvaraj ghoshit karata tha. usane utkarsh ke samay men gupt samrajy uttar men himalay se lekar dakshin men vinghyaparvat tak evn poorv men bngal ki khadi se lekar pashchim men saurashtr tak phaila hua tha.

guptavnsh
shasak shasanakal
1- chandragupt 319-335ee.
2- samudragupt 335-375ee
3- ramagupt 375-375ee
4- chandragupt dvitiy 375-414ee
5- kumaragupt mahendradity 414-455ee
6- skandagupt 455-467ee
7- purugupt 467-476ee.

gupt samrat nyay, sena evn divani vibhag ka pradhan hota tha. praja apane raja ko prithvi par eeshvar ke pratinidhi men roop men svikar karati thi. 'prayag prashasti' men samudragupt ko prithvi par shasan karane vala eeshvar ka pratinidhi kaha jata hai. sath hi isaki tulana kuber, varun, indr v yamaraj se ki gee hai. gupt samrat 'param devata', 'parabhattarak', 'maharajadhiraj', 'prithvipal', 'parameshvar', 'samrat', 'ekadhikar' evn 'chakravartin', jaisi upadhiyan dharan karata tha. isase yah snket milata hai ki gupt rajaon ne apane samrajy ke bhitar chhote-chhote rajaon par shasan kiya. mauryottar kal men uddhat samantavad ab zor pakadane laga. samrajy ke adhikatar bhag samanton ke adhin hote the. ve samrat ke darabar men svayn upasthit hokar samman nivedan karate, nazarana chadhate aur vivaharth apani putri samarpit karate. isake badale unhen apane kshetr par adhikar ka sanad milata tha. guptakalin raniyon ko 'paramabhattarikakh', 'parabhattarikaragyi' evn 'mahadevi' jaisi upadhiyan di gee. samrat prashasan ke kushal snchalan hetu ek 'mntrimndal' ka gathan karata tha. isamen 'amaty', 'sachiv' evn 'mntri' hote the. gupt kalin abhilekhon se nimn mntrimandaliy sadasyon ke vishayay men janakari milati hai.

guptakalin abhilekhon se prapt kendriy adhikari gan

  1. sarvadhyaksh- rajy ke sabhi kendriy vibhag ka pramukh adhikari.
  2. pratihar evn mahapratihar - samrat se milane ki ichchha rakhane valon ko agyapatr dena inaka mukhy kary tha. pratihar antahpur ka rakshak evn mahapratihar rajamahal ke rakshakon ka mukhiya hota tha.
  3. kumaramaty- padadhikariyon ka sarvashreshth, varg, inhen uchch se uchch pad par niyukt kiya ja sakata tha.

mahadandanayak

  • samudragupt ke prayag prashasti se gyat hota hai ki harishan ek hi sath kumaramaty, sndhivigrahik evn mahadandanayak ka kary karata tha.
mahadandanayak
sadasy vibhag
1- mahasenapati sena ka sarvochch adhikar.
2- mahapilupati gajasena ka adhyaksh
3- mahashvapati ashvasena ka adhyaksh
4- mahasandhivigrahik yuddh aur shanti ka mntri
4- dand pashik pulis vibhag ka mukhy adhikari.
5- vinay sthiti sthapak dharmik mamalon ka pramukh adhikari
6- ranabhandagarik sainikon ki avashyakataon ki poorti karane vala pradhan adhikari.
7- mahabaladhikrit sainik adhikari.
8- mahadandanayak yuddh evn nyay-vibhag ka kary dekhane vala.
9- mahabhndagaradhikrit rajakiy kosh ka pradhan
10- mahaakshapatalik abhilekh vibhag ka pradhan
11- dhruvadhikaran kar vasoolane vale vibhag ka pradhan.
12- agraharik dan vibhag ka pradhan.
guptakalin prantiy prashasan
prantiy prashasak kal prant
1- govind gupt chandragupt dvitiy tirabhukti
2- ghatochkach gupt kumar gupt poorvi malava
3- parnadatt skandagupt saurashtr
4- chiradatt kumaragupt uttari bngal

prantiy prashasan

kushal prashasan ke lie vishal gupt samrajy kee pranton men bnta tha. pranton ko 'desh', 'bhukti' athava 'avani' kaha jata tha. samrat dvara jo svayn shasit hota tha usaki sabase badi prashasanik eekaee 'desh' ya 'rashtr' kahalati thi. 'joonagadh abhilekh' men saurashtr ko ek desh kaha gaya hai. chandragupt ke ek abhilekh men sukuti (madhyabharat) namak desh ka ullekh milata hai. desh ka rashtr ka prashasak 'gopta' kaha jata tha. joonagadh abhilekh se gyat hota hai ki saurashtr ke gopta parnadatt ki niyukti svayn gupt samrat ne ki thi. bhukti ke prashasan ko ‘uparik‘ v ‘uparik maharaj‘ kaha jata tha. sima pranton ke prashasak ‘goshtha‘ kahalaye the. in padon par rajakumar ya rajavnsh se sambandhit vyakti ko hi niyukt kiya jata tha. chandragupt dvitiy ka chhota putr govindagupt tin bhukti ka (adhunik darabhnga) tatha kumaragupt ka pratham putr ghatotkachagupt poorvi malava ka rajyapal tha. guptakalin abhilekhon men kuchh prantiy prashasakon ka vivaran milata hai. in shasakon ko pranton men 5 varsh ke lie niyukt kiya jata tha.

janapad shasan

bhukti ka vibhajan janapadon men kiya gaya tha. janapadon ko ‘vishay‘ kaha jata tha, jisaka pradhan adhikari ‘vishayapati‘ hota tha. vishayapati ko 'kumaramaty' bhi kaha gaya hai. kumaragupt pratham ke mndasaur abhilekh men 'lata' vishay ka ullekh milata hai. hoon shasak toraman ke samay ke eran varah abhilekh men 'erikiran' vishay ka varnan milata hai. 'antarvedi' vishay ki niyukti svayn samrat skndagupt ne ki thi.

  • vishayapati ke adhin karmachariyon men shamil the-
  1. shaukkik- kar vasoolane vala.
  2. gaulmik - sthaniy fauj athava jngalon ka adhikari.
  3. pustapal, karanik- dastavej snrakshan
  • vishayapati ka pradhan karyalay adhishthan kahalata hai.

vishayapati ke sahayog hetu ek samiti hoti thi. inake sadasyon ko ‘vishayamahattar‘ kaha jata tha, jinamen nimn varg ke log sadasy hote the-

  1. nagarashreshthi (poonjipati varg ka neta)
  2. sarthavah (vishay ke vyapariyon ka neta),
  3. pratham kulik (shilpiyon v vyavasayiyon ka mukhiya),
  4. pratham kayasth (mukhy lekhak).

‘prastapal‘ abhilekhon ko surakshit rakhane vale adhikari ko kahate the. vishay vithiyon men bnte the vidhi ki samiti men bhoosvamiyon evn sainik karyon se sambaddh vyaktiyon ko rakha gaya tha. vithi se chhoti eekaee peth thi. peth anek gram ke samoohon ko kaha jata tha. yah gram samooh ki chhoti eekaee thi. isaka ullekh snkshobh ke khoh abhilekh men milata hai jahan opani namak gram ko kananag peth ke antargat bataya gaya hai.

nagar prashasan

guptakalin prant
prant kshetr
1- saurashtr joonagadh(gujarat)
2- pashchimi malava avanti
3- poorvi malava eran
4- tirabhukti uttari bihar
5- pundravarddhan uttari bngal
6- varddhaman uttari bngal
7- magadh pashchimi bngal

nagaron ka prashasan nagar mahapalikaon dvara chalaya jata tha. ‘purapal‘ nagar ka mukhy adhikari hota tha. vah kumaramaty ke shreni ka adhikari hota tha. joonagadh lekh se gyat hota hai ki giranar nagar ka purapal chakrapalit tha. nagar ke shasan ke lie niyukti samiti ko sambhavatah ‘paur‘ kaha jata tha.

gram prashasan

‘gram‘ shasan ki sabase chhoti kaee hoti thi. ‘gram sabha‘ dvara isaka prashasan snchalit hota tha. gram sabha ka mukhiya ‘gramik‘ kahalata tha evn sadasyon ko ‘mahattar‘ kaha jata tha jo gram ke pratishthit evn kulin vyaktiyon ka pratinidhitv karate the. kuchh guptakalin abhilekhon men gram sabha ko ‘gram janapad‘ evn ‘pnchamndali‘ kaha gaya hai.

  • gupt kalin prashasanik eekaee arohi kram men is prakar the -

desh ya rashtrabhukti <- vishay <- bithi <- peth <- gram.

nyayaprashasan

samrat samrajy ka sarvochch nyayadhish hota tha. isake atirikt mukhy nyayadhish evn any nyayadhish hote the. is kal men anek vidhi-grnth snkalit kie ge. pahali bar divani aur faujadari qanoon bhali-bhanti paribhashit aur prithakkrit hue. chori aur vyabhichar faujadari qanoon men ae aur sampatti sambandhi vivad divani qanoon men. vyapariyon evn vyavasayiyon ki shreni hoti thi. ye shreniyan shreni dharm ke adhar par apane vivadon ka nipatara karati thi. ‘poog‘ nagar men nivas karane vali vibhinn jatiyon ki samiti hoti thi. ‘kul‘ saman parivaron ke sadasyon ki samiti hoti thi. samitiyan rajy dvara manyata prapt thin. ye samitiyan apasi vivad men nirnay deti thi. guptakalin abhilekhon men nyayadhishon ka ullekh 'mahadandanayak', 'dandanayak' evn 'sarvadandanayak' ke roop men milata hai.

sainik sngathan

mntrimandaliy sadasy
sadasy vibhag
1- harishen yah samudragupt ka sandhivigrahik evn mahadandanayak tha.
2- shav (virasen) chandragupt dvitiy ka sandhivigrahik
3- shikharasvami chandragupt dvitiy ka mntri evn kumaramaty
4- prithvishen kumaragupt ka mntri evn kumaramaty

raja ke pas sthayi sena thi. sena ke char pramukh ang the-

  1. padati,
  2. ratharohi,
  3. ashvarohi
  4. gajasena.

sarvachch senadhikari 'mahabaladhikrit' kahalata tha. hathiyon ki sena ke pradhan ko 'mahapilupati' kahate the. ghudasavaron ki sena ke pradhan ko 'bhatashshvapati' kahate the. padati samanon ki avastha karane vale adhikari ko 'ranabhandagarika' kahate the. padati sena ki tukadi ko 'chamooy' kaha jata tha. gajasena ke nayak ko 'katuk' tatha ashvarohi sena ke pramukh ko 'atashvapati' kaha jata tha. prayag prashasti ke guptakal ke kuchh astr-shastron ke nam milate hai jaise- parashu, shar, shnku, tomar, mindipal, narach adi.

gupt kal men prashasan ki ek mukhy visheshata yah thi ki is samay vetanon ki adayagi naqad men n dekar samanyatah bhoomi anudan ke roop men ki jati thi. do tarah ka bhoomi anudan prachalan men tha. ‘agrahar‘ sirf brahmanon ko prapt hone vala anudan hota tha. isake antargat ane vali bhoomi kar mukt hoti thi. is bhoomi par grahita ke vnshanugat adhikar ke bad bhi raja yadi grahita ke vyavahar se sntushth nahin hai to vah is bhoomi ko vapas le sakata tha. doosare prakar ka bhoomi anudan vah hota tha jise raja apane adhikariyon ko unaki seva ke badale upahar ke roop men deta tha. 5vin shati tak bhoomidan ki pravritti men kafi parivartan hue aur ab bhoodan praptakarta ko bhoomi par rajasv prapt karane ke adhikar ke sath-sath us bhookhand par prashasan ka bhi adhikar mil gaya. kalantar men in donon adhikaron se surakshit varg hi 'samant' kahalaya . satavahan kal se bhoomidan ki pratha shuroo huee. sarvadhik bhoomi anudan guptakal men diya gaya . gramin bhoomi svami ko 'gramika', 'kutumbika' aur 'nastar' kaha jata tha. chhote kisanon ko 'krishivala', 'krishak' aur 'kisan' kaha jata tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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