गुप्तकालीन वाणिज्य और व्यापार  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gupt kal men vyapar evn vanijy apane utkarsh par tha. ujjain, bhadaunch, pratishshthan, vidisha, prayag, pataliputr, vaishali, tamralipi, mathura, ahichchhatr, kaushambi adi mahattvapoorn vyaparik nagar hai. in sab men ujjain sarvadhik mahattvapoorn vyaparik sthal tha kyonki desh ke har kone se marg ujjain ki or ate the. svarn mudaon ki adhikata ke karan hi snbhavatah guptakalin vyapar vikas kar saka.

svarn mudra

gupt rajaon ne hi sarvadhik svarn mudraon zari ki, inaki svarn mudraon ko abhilekhon men ‘dinar‘ kaha gaya hai. inaki svarn mudraon men svarn ki matra kushanon ki svarn mudraon ki tulana men kam thi. gupt rajaon ne gujarat ko vijit karane ke uparant chandi ke sikke chalae. yah vijay sambhavatah chandragupt dvitiy dvara shakon ke viruddh darj ki gee thi. tanbe ke sikkon ka prachalan gupt kal men kam tha. kushan kal ke viparit gupt kal men antarik vyapar men hras ke lakshan dikhate hain. hras ke karanon men guptakalin maudrik niti ki asaphalata bhi ek mahattvapoorn karan thi kyonki gupton ke pas aisi koee samany mudra nahin thi jo unake jivan ka abhinn ang ban sakati thi.

fahyan ne likha hai ki gupt kal men sadharan janata dainik jivan ke vinimay men vastuon ke adan pradan ya phir kaudiyon se kam chalati thi. antarik vyapar ki hi tarah guptakal men videshi vyapar bhi patan ki or agrasar tha kyonki tisari shatabdi ee. men bad roman samrajy nirantar hoonon ke akraman ko jhelate hue qaphi kamazor ho gaya tha. vah ab is sthiti men nahin tha ki apane videshi vyapar ko pahale jaisi sthiti men banaye rakhe, doosare rom janata ne lagabhag chhathi shatabdi ke madhy chiniyon se resham utpadan ki takanik sikh li thi. chookin resham vyapar hi bharat aur rom ke madhy mahattvapoorn vyapar ka adhar tha, isalie bharat ka videshi vyapar adhik prabhavit hua.

videsh vyapar

rom samrajy ke patan ke bad bharatiy resham ki mang videshon men kam ho gee jisake parinam svaroop 5 vin shatabdi ke madhy bunakaron ki ek shreni jo, lat pradesh men nivas karati thi, mndasaur men jakar bas gayi.

poorv men bharat ka vyapar chin se ho raha tha. in donon ke madhy madhyasth ki bhoomi sinhaladvip, shrilnka nibhata tha. chin aur bharat ke madhy hone vala vyapar sambhavatah vastu vinimay pranali par adharit tha jisaki pushti ke lie yah kahana paryapt hai ki n to chin ke sikke bharat men mile hain, aur n hi bharat ke sikke chin men. bharat-chin ko ratn, kesar, sugandhit padarth, sile-silayen sundar vastr adi niryat karata tha.

samudri vyapar

poorvi tat par sthit bndaragah tamralipti, ghntashala evn kadoora se shayad gupt shasak dakshin-poorv eshiya se vyapar karate the. pashchimi tat par sthit bhadauch (broch), kaimbe, sopara, kalyan adi bandaragahon se bhoomadhy sagar evn pashchim eshiya ke sath vyapar sampann hota tha. is samay bharat men chin se resham (chinanshuk), ithopiya se hathi dant, arab, eeran evn baiktriya se ghodon adi ka ayat hota tha. bharatiy jalayan nirbadh roop se arab sagar, hind mahasagar udyogon men se tha. reshami vastr malamal, kailikon, linan, ooni evn sooti tha. gupt kal ke antim charan men pataliputr, mathura, kumrahar, sonapur, sohagaura evn gngaghati ke kuchh nagaron ka hras hua.



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah